Please scroll past this blurb if you’ve been here before or have read these already, I just want to keep these initial four bits of work at the top of the feed until I write the first part of section two.

All my latest posts are below this fixed section, so just scroll down for my latest work please. Thanks. M


The reason I say this is – If you see all of the subjects covered in the first fifty “chapters” making up the initial four works I have put together below, I hope by doing so that you should be able to see that I both cover the subjects discussed quite thoroughly, and that I also don’t make links without there being hundreds of pages of easily checkable, publicly available fact to back whatever I say (all conveniently provided by my good self to you en route). I ‘m told I sound too serious at times, – believe me I am serious as hell about these subjects, but, I also hope you can read for yourself that I also have a rather unique, though acquired, very dry sense of humour.

To conclude –

– Two types of facts in this world – those that you can just go look up, and those that you can just go and make up. – I provided ALL the facts necessary to conclusively prove the case being made. You be the judge.

BOOK 1. – Sex, Drugs, Rock and Kontrol. Martin P. Keerns. (2013)

BOOK 2. – Dumbed down word controlled monkey’s… Martin P. Keerns. (2013)

BOOK 3. – The Needle and the Damage Done. Martin P. Keerns. (2013)

BOOK 4. – A Random Collection of Conspiracy Facts for One to Theorise On. Martin P. Keerns. (2013)

Greetings my fellow truth seeker. My name is Martin Keerns, I have passionately researched, compiled, and edited the following series of books for you with much love, care, and dedication over the last 5 years. – Thousands of hours of demanding work went into what you are about to read.

I take great pleasure in finally being able to present to you this the first section of my work: – Hopefully this will have been for your benefit first of all, but perhaps also just a little bit for your pleasure. (As you will discover if you read this, I have quite a wicked and very dry sense of humour).

These first four books when taken together make up just one small part of a meganormously extensive four part series of work that I’ve dubbed the “Grand Unified Theory Series”.

This initial section has been titled “Notice of Intent” (This is for a number of reasons that will become abundantly clear to anyone who does bother to read it all the way through).

This section deals with a whole range of issues, ALL concerning one thing in particular – CONTROL.

Part One – “Sex, Drugs, Rock and Kontrol” The first book looks at social control, being enforced through mind control, largely for the purpose of population control. I also lay out hundreds of pages of very hard hitting no-punches-pulled information, (including some quite rare or “hard to come by” articles) on a subject that REALLY rips my knitting more than anything else. – Organised paedophilia.

Part Two – “Dumbed down word controlled monkey’s who think that keeping up with the Jones’s and not being the stupidest guy or gal in the room is ALL that really matters” concentrates on the multi-faceted and ubiquitous methods of mind control that are routinely being used on entire populations by our wanabee owners to train, manipulate, condition, and herd, (yet at the same time alienate us from each other) every single day of our lives from the womb to the cold dark tomb.

Part Three – “The Needle and the Damage Done” this third part of the section quite literally bulges to the point of bursting trying to contain all of the crucial facts detailing all the different “weapons” that are being utilised by the small group of rich, influential psycho’s (who we allow to be in charge) who collectively are doing EVERYTHING they can to limit our numbers using population control.

Part Four – To end the first section we have “A Random Collection of Conspiracy Facts for One to Theorise On” which demonstrates the truly endemic nature of all this control that I have been highlighting in the previous three works. There are subjects that could have been included in the earlier parts but that ultimately didn’t make it solely because I tried to maintain “themes” in the earlier books. – But that has absolutely no bearing on their quality, (in fact my first chapter on the moon landings, in my own honest, humble, and modest opinion, nails this subject better than any other individual has done on their own before me). The second half of the book also seriously examines, in great detail, money, banking, and world finance in general for some 500 odd pages.

I saw which way the wind was blowing before I ever started this project, and I’ve known right from day one that it wouldn’t be too long a period of time before our would be owners would find ways to limit our access to the treasure trove of information that is “the net”. Blocking sites, disappearing sites (articles and books), subscription only access to newspaper archives – these have all proven my hunch to be right. That is why all of my books contain hundreds of these articles in their entirety. They also contain loads of diagrams, charts, graphs, pictures, and the original documents that I cite.

This was always intended to be a comprehensive reference work from its inception (which is why the books are each on average something like 900 pages long). This isn’t a quick concise opinion or two:

This is truly a “Grand Unified Theory”

Enjoy, and please do make an effort to share. Much Love to you all. Your good friend Martin Keerns. Covers by Bunny. X

Update Jan 4th 2016 – I’m now beginning the first part of the second section of work. I’ll keep any interested parties out there posted. M





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Almost two decades have now passed by since that unforgettably horrific and vile tragedy that took place in a school gymnasium in a quiet little Scottish village that most of the rest of the world (and even a fair part of Scotland) had never heard of until the 13th of March 1996. Regrettably on that infamous day the name of that, up until then, remote rather unknown little Scottish town was indelibly seared onto the soul of much of humanity forever… (Just by the sheer inconceivability of the unbelievably evil and heinous acts committed there that fateful morning). So much so, that to most, even the name alone to this day stirs something visceral and primal inside almost ALL those people who remember it…


Twenty years on, and to me, perhaps the biggest remaining tragedy of ALL concerning that day is still causing some people out there extreme discomfort, despair, pain, and misery. – Yet this is a misery, pain and despair that has never really mentioned by anyone. It is that uniquely unremitting pain of injustice. And that of the conspiracy (of silence, and/or ignorance) to avoid the facts in order to selfishly get on with our own lives.

For if the true facts ALREADY OUT THERE are considered, only someone CHOOSING not to face the stark realities of the case could EVER allow this matter to just rest, – that would be utterly impossible to do.

Sandra Uttley’s “treatment” is the prime example, this fine selfless and extremely brave lady has paid a terrible price for merely exposing the ENTIRITY OF THE TRUE facts of the case, (ALL facts that those in power preferred you not to see) FACTS THAT HAD NOTHING WHATSOEVER TO DO WITH THE CHILDREN IN THAT SCHOOL.





If the families or surviving victims don’t want REAL justice, then no matter what proof, facts, or data is put before you by Sandra, me, or anyone else, and no matter how damning that evidence clearly is… the conspiracy of silence prevails, end of story.

In point of fact, I know and can attest for an absolute concrete fact that the brave and still defiant Sandra (private lol) is still paying a price for her truly brilliant investigative work today, and most assuredly as well for her stance against police incompetence. (But, that I think clearly all stemmed from her original research which was honestly attempting to be doing nothing more than bring the FULL facts of the Dunblane case into the public eye – SO THAT YOU – YES YOU THE PERSON READING THIS – COULD HAVE (PERHAPS) HAVE MADE A GENUINELY INFORMED OPINION ON THIS MATTER).

As they say though, “No good deed goes unpunished”, and at times this lady sure has been punished just for putting her own time, and life aside, solely in order to be fighting for some justice for YOU at the end of the day. – Sandra has benefited IN NO WAY WHATSOEVER for presenting her findings, or for the countless hours of diligent work that went into preparing them beforehand, or the checking and re-checking, or the tenacious freedom of information battle of wits that she dug in and fought, and kept fighting, and ultimately prevailed at, on key points, ALL just in order to have the truth brought out, and nothing more.

Sandra has asked for nothing in return for this great favour that she done, justice, Scotland, and us ALL.

If I was to open up about my thoughts on this for a second, I’d have to be truly candid and admit I’m in a little pain over the injustice of this whole matter too, not only just solely for the victims who were obviously the ones who bear the brunt of all our sympathy, or indeed just for their devastated families, but also for the good hearted honest and dedicated to true social justice campaigners, or to be more apt, “The ones who actually fought in the trenches” like Sandra Uttley.

She has never asked for so much as a single thankyou for what she put herself through, she seeks no following, and had no “reward” in mind for doing her work, apart from maybe peace of mind when she’d finally finished compiling it.

The lady is ONLY concerned with justice, she shuns praise, and even told me to take her off the pedestal she imagined I had her on, – simply for respecting the sheer selflessness of her endeavours and labour.

The REAL good people don’t want thanked, or recognition I’ve noticed

They just want results, and most of all, they merely want justice.

Far from being thanked for her dedication to bringing the truth to bear on the story – she was basically ignored or vilified by the mainstream media, which TO THIS DAY STILL avoids her facts and findings like vampires swerve garlic and sunshine I might add.

Facts they still dare not print and haven’t all these years, just why is that?









The reason for a large part of my discomfort is my that my mind and conscience just won’t allow me to take what can only be described as the “easy path” and just swerve this subject. The reason for that is both simple and at the same time, very disturbing all at once. – For me….


The biggest tragedy about that day was, in truth, the VAST mountain of facts, statements, testimonies, and other forms of hard evidence, that were NOT brought to light at Lord Cullen’s enquiry, about the chain of the events that took place that day, or about the suspected perpetrator, and especially with regards to his background and his past with the police and other figures.

– Facts that I will remind you, only did make it into the public domain because of the countless hours of hard work and the sheer tenacity of Sandra more than anyone else, (although I know many others chipped in) that showed without any shadow of a doubt that the official story and the official enquiry were nothing but a shoddy tapestry of mistruths, error, and even downright lies.







The death of a child, and I mean anyone’s child, under ANY circumstances, is, I’d imagine quite probably THE worst thing that any parent could ever have to endure or experience in their lifetime, I personally have no children myself, yet that thought, even to me, a man who has no children of his own, that one particularly harrowing thought, when seriously considered and pondered upon, can and does hit upon a particularly sensitive nerve deep down inside any human being that nothing else I can imagine quite can. – So I’d like to state this before I begin…

My heart genuinely goes out to ALL of those people who were personally affected by the heartless and mind numbing slaughter that took place on that uniquely sad and terrible day – I can only hope that those individuals more than anyone else don’t despise or get angry just because I’m bringing this matter back up again, as I’ve said I hope I’m not pre-judged for only speaking about what the facts alone point too (and often make abundantly clear) or for doing what is at the end of the day, just the right thing by stating to you the whole truth, as I see it, that and that the facts I will furnish you with will bear witness too and make very clear, directly to you straight from my heart using only my best judgement and conscience. In truth there is quite a big part of me that is saying even as I type “I don’t want to do this”, – because no matter what they say, most people DO in fact punish the messenger, but at the same time I already know that I have no choice, I can’t just turn away from this matter now just because of fear of rocking the proverbial boat, or because of whose particular cages will be getting rattled by my words, In truth, it would haunt my conscience, mind, and my heart forever – if I was to be a coward unto myself first of all, (never mind to ALL the victims, past and present) by taking that easier path that I have just mentioned to you a bit earlier, I’d be taking that path I think, if I just stand mute on the matter – given the known facts* uncovered and put in the public domain since that day. I cannot do that. I’m Sorry.

*(Or unknown to you, as the case may well be (for a fair portion of you I would suspect), – but YOU can be the sole judge of that for yourself after reading this).

I know full well that most of the people who tragically lost one of their most cherished gifts that anyone can receive in this existence on that particular day will have done what everyone has to do eventually after a huge loss of that magnitude. – In their own way, (no doubt after a very, very, long period of grief and emptiness), I would imagine that they all have tried their hardest to just get on with their lives in as best a way as they can. – Not because they had ever “moved on” from this, because we all know (I imagine) that this is not the sort of thing that any parent would ever be able to truly move on from or ever be able to forget. But what else could these people do? They couldn’t just give up, no matter how much their world had been torn to shreds, and turned upside down, and inside out. Afterwards – They just had to get on with life. – To each and every single one of those people – I wholeheartedly extend my deepest, sorrow, sympathy, and truly honest regret – not only for your personal loss on that day, and not only for the many many untold sorrows that your unfathomable loss has undoubtedly caused each and every single one of you from that day up until this one…

I must also express my deepest regret for these very words that I’m typing right now, AND THIS IS DESPITE THE FACT THAT they are true, CHECKABLE and honest (as are ALL of the available facts mentioned herein), as far as my intellect, reasoning, heart, and most importantly my conscience, can fathom.


– I’m  to you in advance merely because of what I will be presenting, I’m very sorry, but I’m afraid that I’m going to be opening up an old wound that I know will still be a very raw one for many.  And, as I’ve just said, unfortunately this “wound” that I will be opening up, is one that in all likelihood, has never “healed” in any real way for many if not all of those affected by the misery of that day (A day that I personally believe was poured onto the conscience of the world as a whole). – I thought about that fact, and about the feelings of those who still suffer now because of that day long and hard before I began putting this piece together, I’m from Scotland myself, so I know exactly how most people in this country will feel about this topic being brought up again. – I may as well be frank from the outset, this piece, like most of my other work, will probably be making me no new friends, – I may even lose a few more. I know that I will not benefit from this in any way shape or form, in truth I already know from my past experiences what the so called thanks coming my way for writing this is.

As far as I can see it, Sandra Uttley is one of those unique and unsung heroines who I honestly believe is owed a great debt by all of the citizens of this world, I don’t care if you choose to acknowledge that fact or not, for me, my own heart and conscience are the soul arbitrators on such matters, and they require me to pay off a little of MY part of this collective debt (that I said, I personally feel we ALL owe to this truly remarkable lady). I hope to pay off my part of that debt by putting together and presenting this collection of evidence (that is already in the public domain) but in a new manner that might help anyone choosing to read this to not only attempt anew to help to get justice for those who were gunned down that day, but also to try and see if by presenting these undeniable facts, (that I will stress one more time, are merely a collection of facts that were ALL taken from the public record)

– Hopefully in the process of doing so I’d also like to try to get a little bit at least of that much deserved justice and indeed vindication, that I for one think the incomparable friend to all humanity Sandra Uttley deserves.

I will not be presenting these facts to you in any sort of real chronological order, or even by some ghoulish order of their sheer barbarity, or for that matter in order of their perceived “shock value”.

The facts are already out there, and as utterly shocking and revelatory as just those facts were, either by, trickery, apathy, ignorance, or malfeasance, (or maybe a combo of all four? – a little from column’s A, B, C and D – In my personal opinion that’s what I suspect) most of the British public have “chosen” or been directed to ignore the harsh brutal AND OFFICIAL NARRATIVE DECIMATING truths already revealed by Sandra and many others, so for that reason I think there’s absolutely no point in me just trying to tug at your emotions by hammering the same old points home.

 – instead I will be putting under the Keernsoscope, and then before you, some facts or incidents about the affair that I feel may have not received the full attention or indeed due diligence that they perhaps warranted, I also feel in my gut that they may perhaps be some salient points or weakspots for both looking into in more detail (if anyone, outside of those who can change the whole story merely by being honest, ever truly wants to get to the bottom of this riddle) and also because logically these issues should permanently grip any curious mind enough for it to be genuinely troubled permanently by the quite absurd and blatant lies that the facts alone conclusively prove we were ALL told before, during, and after the “official” enquiry. If I can’t solve this, I can at least try in my own meagre way to do my little bit to make sure that it remains unignorable.

A large part of the reason for this obfuscation of facts was that, what can only be termed a D-Notice on not reporting or investigating the crime, was sent out to ALL media before the inquiry.

Here Sandra tells you all about it in her own words.

“A lot of people ask how a conspiracy on the scale I allege could have been covered up, when so many people had to have been involved. Let me explain. Immediately after the massacre happened, there was inevitably a lot of media coverage and a lot of probing questions were asked.

Then a curb was put on media reporting by the Crown Office and Lord Cullen. It was said this would prejudice the evidence of witnesses called to the Dunblane Inquiry.  In an article in the Scotsman (5 April 1996) Ian Bell explained:

Scotland’s most senior law officer threatened editors with proceedings for contempt if they continued to investigate the circumstances of the Dunblane massacre.

As though to sharpen the point, the Crown Office said the remarks of Lord Mackay of Drumadoon, the Lord Advocate, were themselves “not for publication or broadcast”.

The curb on reporting is not to be reported”.

– A curb on reporting and even reporting the curb on the curb is just a D Notice by another title, (whichever way you choose to dice it). – Here is the D Notice definition from Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia: A DA-Notice (Defence Advisory Notice)—called a Defence Notice (D-Notice) until 1993—is an official request to news editors not to publish or broadcast items on specified subjects for reasons of national security. The system is still in use in the United Kingdom.


These are points that I feel cannot be explained away easily (if at all) like some other matters have been on Dunblane, and mainly for that reason they will be the main focus of my attention during this article. You can read Sandra’s own work by either buying her book “Dunblane Unburied” or if you cannot afford to do so, you can go to one of her facebook groups where you can support her in her ongoing fight, or, very generously she posted a link on a page in order for those who can’t afford to buy a copy to still read an abridged version of Sandra’s book, for free.

The first matter I would like us to focus our attention on is a boat of all things, my own personal feeling is that the whole affair concerning this “cabin cruiser”, how it came into the unemployed Mr Hamilton’s possession? Where had it come from before that? What links are there with this investigation and all the goings on up in Loch Lomond, which is just across the Clyde mere miles from my home? I think by concentrating on this specific topic first of all could be the best way to not only easily show Hamilton most definitely did have hefty connections, ongoing relationships, and dealings with, many police officials from the late 1970’s on. – (Oddly all airbrushed out of the official narrative, in file 13, room 101, the memory hole). – Those relationships were not mere casual or indeed passing ones either – they were often long standing, and numerous, and his pals came from the ranks spanning from the mere footsoldier constable to the very chief constable himself.

A boat was apparently given to this loner, with no police connections, (some say by high ranking police connections), this boat later blew up and sunk with Hamilton aboard – Yet more police officials who knew Hamilton for years helped salvage the boat for their best buddy, (but never really knew him come the enquiry), and who were quite oddly also never really mentioned in the standard version of events concerning this archetypal lone nutter known paedophile, kiddie worker, – yet at the same time social hand grenade who was just waiting to go off.

We were even told that it was these coppers (Mill and Ogg) who went and salvaged this boat using a specialist diving team, for free, as a favour, for their very close yet somehow non-friend Hamilton, and all at the expense of the public purse I believe. – HMMM. NO FAVOURITISM OR CLOSE FRIENDLINESS BEING SHOWN THERE AT ALL.

Who insured that boat? Was a claim made? Why was a boat blowing up either not in local papers, or investigated by the police? Salvage law says you keep what you recover, so in reality Hamilton was “gifted” this boat twice, as technically it belonged to the police team who salvaged it. How very very lucky for Thomas eh?

Police officers (Mill’s officers, and Mill) also regularly visited these sailing and camping retreats on and around Loch Lomond for no real reason other than to see their best-pal/the unknown-pariah (for what reasons we can only speculate). That they often felt the need to visit this guy, that at the same time supposedly had no friends, that none of them really knew, even though they had quite steady ongoing relationships, phonecalls, chats, and meetings with him is documented fact that has already been in the public domain for many years. IF YOU CARED.

There have also been some accusations alleging that the boat was somehow “gifted” to Hamilton. That is a point that has not had the attention it merits, there would have to be some sort of transference of title at least, was the boat already there, or was it transported there?, insurance, registration with harbour master, health and safety, these would have left breadcrumbs for the curious…Maybe that Sun journalist pretending to care with Sandra recently as we approached the 20th anniversary can research that stuff?





There are also those who say the boat was confiscated from someone under the Proceeds of Crime Act, or some other asset seizure operation, and that then, for whatever reason, this cabin cruiser “magically” ended up in the hands of a skint unemployed loner with lots of police friends (who later lied about their very cosy boat  yard, summercamp and salvaging, type relationship with Hamilton that most of you probably never knew anything about up until just now). (Or the ones who did know about it haven’t bothered asking questions that they should be about it.) – If it was confiscated, that could only have been done under the Drug Trafficking offence Act of 1986, or The Drug Trafficking Act 1994 (c. 37) which is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It largely replaced the Drug Trafficking Offences Act 1986. – Where the defendant is convicted of a drug trafficking offence and the prosecutor applies to the Crown Court for a confiscation order the court must determine whether the defendant has benefited from drug trafficking.

If at any time the defendant has received any payment or other reward in connection with drug trafficking carried out by him or another he will be deemed to have benefited from drug trafficking and the court must make a confiscation order. The Drug Trafficking Act 1994 came into force on 3 February 1995.

(1995 hmm. A bit late for Thomas’s boat, so that only leaves confiscation under the 1986 Act. Unfortunately, it was revised as it was very difficult to prove connection between assets and criminal profits, hence the further amendments since then. – That means it is highly unlikely that anyone could have confiscated this boat legally, unless a judge, or a high police official acting under law, but for that there would need to be a papertrail Starting with the convicted drug dealer firstly, then the confiscation order, and then just how the devil a police department would decide to auction it to unemployed Thomas of all people in the first place (if that theory held any weight).

These next extracts are taken from the information gleamed by Sandra and others on both the boat and one police officer who was not only most connected to Loch Lomond for varying reasons, but who was also quite conveniently was also the exact same police officer most associated with both Hamilton (for decades) and this boat too. And who Hamilton turned to, to speak on his behalf to other cops!

“In his evidence at the Inquiry (Day 8, Friday 7 June 1996), (ex?) (Chief Inspector) Michael Mill states that he first knew of Thomas Hamilton around 1980-81, when he was stationed at Stirling. Asked in what connection he knew him, he replies, “He had a Do It Yourself shop in Cowane Street, Stirling”. Mill says he was a customer”.

“However, in one of the (original) “hidden documents” (that Sandra accessed and revealed after getting it via a Freedom of Information request or a 100 lol) (Chapter L, Vol 1) it states that “during the mid 1970s, Hamilton met and formed relations of sorts with members of the police diving team, police witnesses Anthony Bushnell and Michael Mill”. This was in the summer of 1976”. – Quote ends.

This team apparently trained at Loch Lomond, and it was there that they seemed to have an ongoing and odd relationship with Hamilton, the magic boat, and also his summer camps that lasted on right up until the 1980’s.

It was during this time period that this boat that the police-loving-sociopath, paedophile, loner-socialite procured from out of thin air, (Remember – out of absolutely nowhere, according to the official narrative(s)).

-Thomas “somehow” had the luck, or magical talent, (or connections?) to make an ENTIRE BOAT appear from nowhere just like that David Copperfield would.


I firmly believe that the whole boat episode is a vital nexus point both for very notable parties, and notable events, that perhaps hold a vital key to getting at those who are closer to the puppet masters really behind this enigma.

Sandra continues – “Other retired officers are asked the date when they left the force. Michael Mill is not asked this question. At the time of the investigation into the massacre, post 13 March 1996, he is described as a “serving police officer” in the hidden documents. By June 1996, he is a “former police officer”… I wrote to Central Scotland Police to ask the date Mill retired and my letter was passed on to Stirling Council’s legal department. Principal solicitor Peter Farquhar wrote, “I can advise you that under the terms of the Data Protection Act 1998, you are not entitled to information which you request in relation to ex Chief Inspector Mill”.

At the Inquiry Mill is asked, “Did you know something of his ownership and use of boats on Loch Lomond?” – Yes I did. “How was it you came to know about that?” – “I was a member of Central Scotland Police Force Underwater Unit and we trained up at Loch Lomond on training exercises on a weekly basis”.

Michael Mill was not prepared to admit at the Inquiry that this is how he first came into contact with Hamilton, 5 years earlier than he states.


When asked about Hamilton’s boats, Mill provides a very detailed reply: “I was first aware he had one, a speed boat, it was a small boat and it was called Lady Sheila and he then purchased* another boat which was a large cabin cruiser and that was called Tropical Winter”. (*Just how did a skint loner purchase it?)

Mill was also aware that Hamilton had summer camps in the area. He is asked “When were you first aware of this?” – Probably about 1980, 1981; as I say we visited Loch Lomond on a weekly basis, we knew of the person at the boatyard and they knew Hamilton as well. Above, he says his first contact with Hamilton was in 1980, 1981 – as a customer, not through his police work.

– His earlier answer would suggest that Hamilton was already well known to him by 1980.

Mill is then asked about the 1988 police investigation into one of Hamilton’s camps. By 1988, Mill was sub-divisional officer at Dunblane Police Office.

He is asked, “Is it a fair summary of the position that Hamilton on a number of occasions tried to plead with you to say something, I suppose in his favour, in the course of this investigation?” – I don’t know if he was pleading with me….

“Did he visit you regularly?” – Mill – Yes, he did. “Was he pleading his case?” Mill – Yes he was.

Did you get the impression he hoped it would filter through from you into other police officers’ ears?” Mill – Yes.


Here’s proof Hamilton was abusing boys at EXACT same time as this chummy relationship was occurring with certain police up at the loch.

 Hamilton, The Boat & Sex

I was child sex victim of monster Hamilton; Boy’s ordeal on boat trip

Daily Record (Glasgow, Scotland)

Pervert killer Thomas Hamilton subjected a 12-year-old boy to a terrifying sex attack during a boat trip. …His young victim – who is now grown up – told of his ordeal in a written statement to the Dunblane Inquiry. ….The youngster was picked to go on a trip to Loch Lomond trip with seven other boys in the early 80s.

The man said sick Hamilton terrified the boys by throwing them off his cabin cruiser into the freezing loch. He said: “Hamilton was tying ropes around us one at a time and threw us off the boat and then pulled us back in.”

The little boy was so frightened that he hid in the cabin and refused to take part. But that night, Hamilton summoned him to the cabin where he slept. He was holding a telescopic pointer for maps in his hand when the little boy went in dressed only in his underpants.

He said: “He began to touch me between the legs and private parts. I was very scared and started to cry. “He told me to stop crying or I would be hit by the pointer.” The beast stripped off his own shorts after he forced the terrified youngster to lie face down on the bed. The man said: “At one point I was crying and he banged the pointer at the side of my face. It didn’t touch me but it hit the pillow.” Hamilton then told the lad to stand up and face the wall. The boy was allowed to go after his horror ordeal.

He phoned his mum the next day and begged her to take him home but she lived too far away and he had to wait to leave with the rest.

He said Hamilton’s boat – Tropical Linda – blew up a week after he went home.

So the police helped a paedophile, (reports had been made to other police under Mill so to suggest he was unaware of his proclivity is silly) yet they helped salvage that boat,


According to The Guardian in 2003, “there have been allegations that the lengthy closure order was placed on the report after it linked Hamilton to figures in the Scottish establishment, including two senior politicians and a lawyer.” – NO OFFENCE BUT WHAT ABOUT THE PROVEN CLEAR LINKS TO THE POLICE TOO? AND ESPECIALLY WITH REGARDS TO THE AFORE MENTIONED EX CHIEF INSPECTOR MILL. NO ALLEGATION – THAT’S A PROVABLE DIAMOND HARD FACT.

Now, from the Daily Telegraph: – Sandra herself states – “It is also blatantly obvious that Central Scotland Police, who were chosen to investigate the background to the murders, should never have been involved in a so-called independent inquiry. They were implicated in the events under scrutiny and continually provided Hamilton with renewals of his gun licence despite long-term and repeated warnings that this should not happen. It was known that Hamilton had friends in the police force, including one highly placed officer. (Mill)

– Sandra continued “I believe that Hamilton was a major provider of pornographic photographs and videos to a ring of men prominent in Central Scotland, including police officers who protected him from numerous allegations of physical abuse at boys’ camps and clubs he ran”. – quote ends.

From further on in Sandra’s work – “Central Scotland Police carried out the investigation for the Inquiry and thus, even if the Crown Office was not involved in the cover-up, Central Scotland Police was given carte blanche to withhold any witness statements they didn’t wish to be seen, for whatever reason.

This material was passed to the Crown who then summarised it and passed it on to the above named representatives, who in turn passed it on to their clients (or at least they passed on some of it).

These documents were not released to the press, and nor did Lord Cullen read any of this preparatory material.

There were a total of 1,655 witness statements taken, from a total of 1,240 witnesses.

Only 171 witnesses gave evidence at the Inquiry.

Thus the evidence of 1,069 witnesses was never heard.

Lord Cullen wrote his report on the basis of the oral testimony of just 171 witnesses. The fact that some of these witnesses, police witnesses included, lied on oath, was therefore not known to him (or was it?)

All the evidence prepared for the Inquiry was then locked away for an astonishing 100 years, until the Crown Office released some of the documents in October 2005. It was almost impossible to ascertain WHAT had been released, and what withheld.

It was only through making a total of (over a 100 I believe) requests for information to Central Scotland Police under the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002, that I started to discover just how much material had still been held back by the Crown”. Quote ends.

Sandra also makes the following points raised from examining the papers the inquiry didn’t want us to see, but that Sandra tenaciously wrestled from their clutches…

The injured teachers and some of the less critically injured children who survived the initial shooting spree were hiding in a storeroom inside the gym. Here’s what they said

Eileen Harrild testified that someone ELSE entered the gym BEFORE the gunman stopped shooting.

Mary Blake thought the gunman might have surrendered.







And here’s some quotes from William Scott’s letter to all politicians on the matter

The decision to impose the closure order was taken at a meeting on 13th January 1997. At that meeting was the Clerk to the Inquiry and representatives of the Scottish Records Office, the Police and the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service. Lord Cullen informed me by letter that those who attended that meeting did not have the authority, individually or collectively, to impose a closure order.

The Police were represented at that meeting on 13th January 1997 by Detective Chief Superintendent Ogg of Central Scotland Police. At the time, as widely reported in the press, many considered it wrong that Central Scotland Police undertook the investigation of the massacre when it was conceivable that their incompetence or mis-judged favouritism was ultimately influential in permitting the Tragedy to occur.

This may just be coincidence but it has been alleged that Mr. Ogg was in some way involved with the salvage of a cabin cruiser owned by Thomas Hamilton.

It certainly seems wrong that a senior member of the Police Force which was severely criticised a few months earlier should have been in a position to close for 100 years documents that that might damage the careers or reputations of some of his colleagues.

….At the time of the shooting there was an off-duty police officer in the school. He did not give evidence nor was his statement presented to the Inquiry. When I queried this the Lord Advocate stated that his presence was not required as a student teacher saw Hamilton shoot himself. The student teacher was not called to give evidence either although parts of his statement were read out at the Inquiry. Nowhere in the evidence given to the Inquiry did the student teacher state that he saw Hamilton shoot himself.

You may be wondering why I have brought up the subject of how Hamilton died since the majority no doubt consider the way of his going of little consequence. I bring it to your attention because it raises the very serious question as to the truth of what was put before the Inquiry and ultimately the findings of Lord Cullen.

It was intended that the statement made by the off-duty police officer be hidden for 100 years but was released under the terms of the Freedom of Information Act.

He recounts in great detail his movements after arriving at the school and the people he met on his way to the gymnasium so his description of the situation in the gym should not have been ignored. Was there a reason for this?

The off-duty officer (FIRST ON THE SCENE) said that Hamilton had one holster, that there were two pistols, and that he was wearing a black boiler suit.

The scene of crime officer (WHO GOT THERE MUCH LATER) giving evidence to the Inquiry said that Hamilton had FOUR holsters, that there were two pistols and two revolvers, and that he was wearing black corduroy trousers.

Was one lying or were they both telling the truth?

There seems no reason why either of them should lie so how could they both be telling the truth? – They could both be telling the truth (BUT ONLY) if the body had been tampered with.

…. I wrote to the student teacher who according to the Lord Advocate saw Hamilton shoot himself. – He did not reply to me.

And from The Murder of Thomas Hamilton by Andrew S. MacGregor

It is stated within the Tayside Police report on the Dunblane Primary School report No. FSL 1010/96 that the gunman was equipped with 25 extended box type magazines capable of holding 20 rounds each.

That is 500 rounds of ammunition for the Browning pistol that was used to murder the pupils and teacher, and wound many others inside the gymnasium.

Of these magazines, 4 were found to be empty, and another three were partially empty. The actual pistol used in these murders when found by the police was devoid of any magazine, but still had a round in the firing chamber. In other words, the gunman had removed the magazine prior to using all the ammunition within the magazine. At this stage, we have a gunman whose apparent intent is to murder as many school children as he can. At the end of his shooting within the gymnasium he is still in possession of 13 fully loaded magazines, and three partially loaded magazines. There is nothing to stop the gunman from now going from classroom to classroom killing more children, if that was his intent.








He’d have a very hard time being mobile under all that weight too, and he’d have been dropping magazines left right and centre, – seeing as would need both hands to hold the gun.

…According to information that came to light after the Cullen Inquiry,

Thomas Hamilton died from two bullet wounds fired into the roof of his mouth, one bullet exiting above the left ear, and another through the top of his head.

Constable Grant McCutcheon, the off-duty policeman who was the first policeman to enter the school gymnasium gave us some vital clues to the Dunblane massacre. McCutcheon stated: “I also saw, at the same time as all this, that the gunman was gurgling and breathing heavily.”

What this means is that Constable Grant McCutcheon had entered the gymnasium before Hamilton’s body had completed its death sequences, or in other words within under a minute of Thomas Hamilton being murdered.

McCutcheon also saw the school janitor John Currie at the body of Thomas Hamilton, and saw Currie moved one of the TWO pistols that were near the body.

Then there was the student teacher, David Scott who in his witness statement said that he saw Thomas Hamilton put a handgun up near his mouth.

I believe we now have sufficient evidence to question just exactly what involvement in the murder of Thomas Hamilton that the witnesses John Currie and David Scott played.

I further believe that these two witnesses would also be able to name the gunman who murdered the 16 children and one teacher and wound three teachers and another twelve children. End of article.

I would like to add the following – if someone had just been firing a gun or two (or four) off, when he fired the TWO shots he apparently needed to kill himself, JUST HOW DID THE JANITOR AND ASSISTANT TEACHER KNOW HAMILTON WAS DEAD?


















If you were ever so detached from anything resembling reality that you will naively propagate disseminate, or preach the toxic ear custard (stating with authority and sureness) that things are as they should be, it’s just the way it is, everything that happens is for a reason etc. – Let’s just pause to think about just a few rather insignificant matters that you consider to be “normal” within the spunkbubble you reside in. These are just some rudimentary facts demonstrating the cowardice and self centeredness of having the gall or ineptitude to state things are “as they should be”.

20,000 people died totally unnecessarily from starvation just today.

There are 778,706,156 Undernourished people in the world yet at the exact same time there are 1,620,745,212 Overweight people in the world. – (Data taken from So, twice as many over eaters compared to starving.

We in the West threw out between 30% and 50% of the food that we bought, NOT JUST TODAY – this and EVERY other day of the year. Which would be enough to feed the world’s starving many times over on its own shockingly and selfishly enough.

We could easily feed every person on Earth with what we have, no one needs to go hungry in this day and age.

If you think that’s how it should be, do the world a favour and fuck off to a deprived village in Africa for a month or two will you – let’s see if you notice the absurdity of your hollow, vacuous, shallow, selfish, pretend zen but merely trite words while there.

So, we could feed the whole world with what we already have, but 20000 (mostly kids) dying today from starvation is to some clowns “how it should be” – if you honestly tell others that this abhorrent fact is just the way it is – yet professed faux empathy with any of your brothers and sisters over it. – YOU ARE UNDOUBTEDLY A HYPOCRITICAL CUNT, LIVING IN FAIRY LAND, WHO NO MATTER WHAT YOU SAY, ARE UTTERLY FULL OF SHIT.   

One million people in the UK required a foodbank to feed them and their kids last year.

“Trussell Trust foodbanks gave out over one million three day emergency food supplies to UK people in crisis in just 2014/15.”

And this is just slightly unfortunate at worst, (only to those buttholes believing that everything is as it is, for a reason). – A million starving people in the UK who were desperate enough to require charity handouts to survive, JUST THIS YEAR ALONE!

As it should be? Nothing major? Just starving kids on your streets, in your town after all.

So, in a nut shell 20000 people (mostly kids) died today TOTALLY UNNECESSARILY from Starvation yet some obtuse spunk puppets out there are honestly trying to tell me that they believe, and worse still, would try and have YOU believe – that all of is horror is as it should be in the universe. Frankly, for YOU OR ANYONE ELSE to think so is indicative that you in fact reside in a totally different universe to everyone else living around you, especially the unnecessarily starving, homeless, abused, raped, robbed, or manipulated. 

And while we’re on those matters…..

Then there’s the SS – try love+lighting, or rising above, those vindictive vermin with your faux fluff love…. Or is their ever increasing child-snatching (often to order) also “just the way things are meant to be?”

I Wonder if you’ll be saying that or “rising above” the nasty SS when the child catcher from chitty chitty bang bang is shouting “lollipops” outside of YOUR door you selfish fucks.

Daily Mail 11 April 2012: “10,000 children taken into care: Numbers have doubled in the past four years”. ….”The children’s court advisory service dealt with 10,199 cases between April 2011 and March 2012 – a near-doubling of the numbers in just four years”.

And from The Guardian 20 Oct 2014

Analysis of data from Cafcass, the Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service, by Dr Karen Broadhurst at the University of Manchester found that

22,790 babies and children were removed from 7,143 women between 2007 and 2013 in England:

  • an average of over three children for each mother. -Hmm almost like farming.

And from The Guardian 18th Dec 2015 “The research analysed family court records, and found that there has been a huge rise in the number of newborn babies taken into care in England in recent years. In 2008, 802 babies were taken into care. In 2013, it was 2,018. Between 2007 and 2014, a total of 13,248 babies were taken into care”.

So, 13000 babies snatched from their mothers IN THE DELIVERY ROOM is as it should be?

If you’re comfortable with that, then IMHO you are nothing but a self centered, narcissistic, utterly unrealistic, sociopath.

No matter what love you may pretend to have for others, it certainly seems abundantly clear that when it gets down to the real nitty gritty (or that most hated of words – facts), you certainly appear to be VERY selective with aspects of your so called unconditional “love” for all.

Then there’s the homeless – Data from BBC article 24 September 2015 “Nearly 100,000 children in England are living in temporary accommodation after being made homeless, new figures show ”.

“At the end of June, 66,980 (just in England) individuals or families were registered as having no home of their own – an increase of 12% from the same date last year”.  “In Scotland, 34,605 households applied for homelessness assistance in 2014-15”(What I don’t get Scotland only has 10% of England’s population yet makes half as many claims as 55 million did – wtf? things are roughly 400% worse up here by my guesstimation). “In Wales, a total of 1,350 households were threatened with homelessness (just) between April and June”. “A total of 18,862 households informed Northern Ireland authorities they were homeless in 2013-14”. So that’s over 120 thousand households in total in the UK. – (How many people within each household?)

So that figure falls well short of the true reality of the numbers here.  And there is also this next fact to consider too…

But, that in fact doesn’t even tell half of the story…. Research by the charity Crisis indicates that about 62% of single homeless people are hidden and may not show up in official figures.

Then there’s nearly 10000 homeless veterans too. We look after our vets we do.

And here from the Independent with something to bear in mind when you say it’s as it should be. – “More than a million homes currently lie empty in Britain – Jonathan Owen Thursday 29 May 2014”















Ignoring a problem element of your society, choosing to be being apathetic towards them, stepping outside of their prevailing ideology, shifting your paradigm, so called “rising above them”, “love and lighting” them to oblivion, even live and let live, let them do their thing, we’ll do ours, or, IMHO as it used to be known in old money – plain old fashioned being in fear of them ALL HAVE ONE THING IN COMMON…




– EVER. –


Basic outline for a couple of workable, realistic, achievable community based schemes that could – if we chose them to be – utilised effectively by people just like you or I to start rebuilding our atomised society from the bottom up starting now.


Basic outline for a couple of workable, realistic, achievable community based schemes that could – if we chose them to be – utilised effectively, by people just like you or I, to start rebuilding our atomised society from the bottom up starting now.

In the early months of 2014 I had put together a proposal to the local community funding group, some regional development fund affair as I remember who dealt with the financing of such a community benefiting endeavor, although in large part my proposal was not a new idea by any means, it was the co-ordinated structure of my overall far reaching plan, and also it’s long range goals, that not only made me expend the effort and some time in formulating the idea in the first place, but when it was presented to those who would potentially be giving me the nod for funding to help get this off the ground, it for whatever reason also TRULY captured the imagination of all these people associated with giving grants out to help such initiatives. They thought this would be brilliant for the community. They even asked me to go round other centres in the area to explain this plan to other interested parties and groups, – all before I’d really even done a thing. The only problem that I encountered was one that sort of sums up much of our collective contemporary calamity in a very succinct manner. – I just couldn’t get the other 5/6 other local bodies necessary to make a quorum that was a qualifying criteria for any funding. – I certainly didn’t want to get people on board that weren’t as dedicated to the overall goal as I, and because of this I felt that this made the scheme un-workable at that time. But this idea is feasible, realistic, and most of all constructive, so I am posting it here just in the off chance it may inspire others to act instead of just idly waffling.

I am merely going to present that plan here to demonstrate in clear workable terms how if built locally, regionally, then nationally this creation or collective entity could be a fantastically efficient scheme for some REAL community based action.

This seed once planted would grow like a weed into something genuinely mutually beneficial to all members and whatever community adopted the practices mentioned within, simply because it would be a project that would be bearing instant fruit.

I also proposed some other ancillary “bolt on” projects that helped to create the more holistic approach to the true goal I was aiming for when I put it together too. But I won’t over complicate things unnecessarily by sidetracking the thread with those, I’ll just stick to laying out this simple two part plan for now.

I truly believe that if enough sincere individuals joined in on this scheme then it would go a long way towards stitching back together the many scattered fragments of “society” that were shredded over the last few generations, and in that process help to re-instill that feeling of community spirit that is a prerequisite of an environment were we can ALL feel safe, contribute to, benefit from, and most importantly – feel part of again.

– Instead of this atomised, fragmented, disjointed ideology that presently exists were we are strangers even to our neighbours – “Get to your safe wee prison after being on day release (AKA a “job”) to go pay for it, GET INSIDE QUICK! – lock the doors because they’re all potential terrorists/nutters/serial killers or paedophiles outside the safety of your own home” This unfortunately is the social disease that infects and pollutes far too many members of our society’s minds at the present point in time. (Not realising that while you are sitting there “relaxing” in the safety of your home that THIS IS WHERE you are being programmed by the programs (Duh it’s in the word FFS) on TV and in Movies, and on the News, and in the Newspapers too, to believe without any shadow of a doubt that those monsters, sociopaths, terrorists and loonies are actually real!!!!!).



But it went further – I also proposed a local committee be formed in every single housing scheme that could combine as a collective entity to petition their local councils to hand over any unused land nearby to the community OF THAT RESPECTIVE AREA, this vacant useless land could be be used to farm food like allotments, but this being more of a community farm type scenario, my idea being we could all locally have the choice to participate in a nearby project that grew vegetables and fruit, and it’d be real stuff too, not homogenised euro standard, pesticide saturated, or perhaps genetically tinkered with Franken-food.

– Think about if you put a few hours each in a week with weeding, tending, and harvesting, you would automatically qualify for a share of the profits realised i.e. food. –

So not only do people get to meet within their locality again in a way that I believe just doesn’t happen anywhere else in our present society. This was, and is, one of those bedrock foundations we need to lay back in place if we are ever getting our communities back, – people just don’t know (and therefore care for) their neighbours anymore, this might help to change that a little. This I believe is the first and most necessary step we must take if we have any thoughts of remaining a communal animal. – Look around you there are more of us living beside each other than ever before yet we know less of the people in our neighborhood than a generation before, no-one really looks out for other people’s kids anymore either, partly out of fear of being labled a paedo, partly because  a lot of kids today have mouths dirtier than an incontinent baby’s potty. But to get back onto this community farming idea…. 

Also any surplus can be distributed to needy and vulnerable members of your community which only again helps to create a community spirit, and provides a palpable a sense of making the change happen ourselves, it also engenders this behaviour in others within that community, and it helps to glue back together the shattered construct one bit at a time that the rancid cretin Thatcher et al purposefully tried to dismantle in my youth.

– Our willingness to work together, when necessary, as a functioning vigilant Society.

Now the time bank idea followed examples that are proven to work that I had studied before coming up with my take on it, but mine had a different ethos than most others. Firstly everyone who joins must agree to thorough background checking first and agree also that ANY ABUSE of either the system or a participant will have their name put up on ALL the other community boards throughout the country working together on this idea. (And this linking with your other schemes, then towns and even counties could eventually propel this grass roots idea into becoming regional or UK wide).

Trust is they keystone to this idea taking off. So security must be provided upfront, and agreeing to the previous conditions that if you mess with this scheme you will be named and shamed and dealt with by the authorities too.

Now a time bank is a basic principle – everybody’s skills in life are given an equal value, from singing lessons, going for errands, just giving someone assistance, or company, or mowing some one’s lawn, construction, building trades, ironing, babysitting, to piano lessons, plumbing, to physics lessons. – Whatever you can do becomes a commodity.


My plan was for the small community groups to ask for people if they’d be interested first to build these things from the community/scheme level up, then link with nearby communities etc etc until this becomes national but all managed town by town. In essence this will cost next to nothing, the grants from the regional development fund should get a roof over your head, while the rest of this would basically be done online. It could develop into such avenues as artists selling works of there’s in exchange for labour, or a genuine hub within each region in close contact, node fashion with all surrounding nodes. – In this fashion a potentially UK wide network could easily be constructed in quite a short period of time and it would be both staffed and managed locally by local people like YOU.


And all contribute an hour or so gratis EVERY NOW AND THEN AS A SORT OF FEE FOR ADMINISTRATION, to the timebank itself too now and again, this is for another facet of the building a community ethos that I envisaged within this new way of doing business to a small degree, no tax, no government interference, and as I mentioned you have to build up credit before you can make a withdrawal. People helping other people nearby that have skills to trade but perhaps no cash – simple you mow Mr A’s lawn, he in turn then teaches someone else’s child arithmetic, while she paints a picture that someone else buys with five/ten hours of community projects – It’s a system that gives everyone a fair chance to contribute.

The hours “donated” towards the timebank would be also used up every financial year to keep this qualifying for not for profit status (which extends the funding).

But it is the reason for building these hours up at all that becomes the part of this I think, in fact know, will make this a noticeable endeavour and one people throughout the entire community will warm too.

– I propose the bank builds up so many hours credit “owed” to it, The committee decide on best use of materials and resources, and these man hours are used to call on whoever is qualified and capable within this normally one on one reciprocation of labour exchange, to be called upon to pay their debt to the timebank in one larger noticeable community project each year, restoration, or a large project for an individual that is in dire straights, there are plenty of noble and life changing causes we could ALL as a community throw our collective weight behind.

 The instantly seen results for the any work put in I believe cannot be anything but a force for good.

The funding advisor at my interview went further, he suggested that if we could enough bodies involved with trades, skills, community projects etc. that it would be feasible for the group to tender a bid for taking the community service kids under the wings of the group to work their hours of community service off constructively, interact with some “been there seen it all here’s the truth of things son types” to give them real advice and maybe a real usable skill, and maybe even a modicum of self respect in the process. Society can help get some of these young back on a path of optimism instead of increasing their pessimism and alienation.

I went into many other facets like community websites (templates for timebanks software wise already exist, so that side of things isn’t the issue) that acted firstly as time banks but also perhaps being utilised for such diverse yet constructive notions as –  selling or promoting art or music, a showcasing hub for local talent, an information hub, and maybe a swap shop type ebay thingy for bits and bobs, and maybe also – even just a place for concerned voices to meet from your locality in one place, even if only online, to teach the kids, “the truths and rights”.

If this could grow from towns to regions to the country involved in this we would have a cashless way of still getting stuff done, a community builder, a food provider, and most of all, some REAL hope.

This is just a brief synopsis on my plan, and I’m sure those smarter than I will be able to improve upon these few basic ideas I presented with MUCH BETTER ONES to start taking our society back.


– Or, just ignore my ridiculously absurd notion of some solutions, keep meme-ing away, and keep waiting on “THE ONE” or some brown creature from uranus, to ride on in and “save” you… I just hope that you’re very very patient if you are stupidly waiting…..

I think it’s IT IS ENTIRELY LOGICAL TO STATE AS 100% UNDENIABLE IRREFUTABLE FACT – THAT IT IS US that are the ONLY ones who can ever “save” US (FROM US).


Just a thought….Is your child up in their room right now learning how to be a sociopath or serial killer?


Think twice before you complain about your kid not doing the washing up…Because if your kid is just like any other, then your child is probably in their bedroom right now training to be a ruthless assassin on their Playstation or Xbox.

I mentioned at the beginning of the first part of section one how we have been conditioned as a society to accept violence through films and video games.

Look at our kids today as a result of this, it´s a playstation nation on a self imposed plantation. Our children are X-box zombie´s who shoot people through telescopic lenses on TV screens for 10 years, and then you wonder why they don´t talk to you, or seem social.

These games “handily” test their aptitude for the military too, do you know it was a very small percentage of soldiers who done most of the efficient killing during the first and second World Wars? With the introduction of virtual-reality type software programmes, paid for by the military, this figure has risen enormously (I think it used to be 15% of men who were able to kill while 85% couldn´t really do it, nowadays it´s reversed, 90% kill without thinking and 10% have a problem with it) (you also might want to look into who funded the software companies who designed the games your kids play as well if you were smart) – it´s all about conditioning. How many of you are aware of the fact that many of your kids are looking at a TV screen peering through the cross hairs of a sniper´s rifle, shooting, killing and generally training to be an assassin right now? (Might make you think twice if you´re about to stick your head in their room door and demand to know if your kid has cleaned their room yet!)

“Trained to Kill”

By Lt. Col. Dave Grossman Christianity Today, August 10, 1998

Are we training our children to kill? I am from Jonesboro, Arkansas. I travel the world training medical, law enforcement, and U.S. military personnel about the realities of warfare. I try to make those who carry deadly force keenly aware of the magnitude of killing. Too many law enforcement and military personnel act like “cowboys,” never stopping to think about who they are and what they are called to do. I hope I am able to give them a reality check.

So here I am, a world traveller and an expert in the field of “killology,” and the largest school massacre in American history happens in my hometown of Jonesboro, Arkansas. That was the March 24, 1999, schoolyard shooting deaths of four girls and a teacher. Ten others were injured, and two boys, ages 11 and 13, are in jail, charged with murder.

My son goes to one of the middle schools in town, so my aunt in Florida called us that day and asked, “Was that Joe’s school?” And we said, “We haven’t heard about it.” My aunt in Florida knew about the shootings before we did!

We turned on the television and discovered the shootings took place down the road from us but, thank goodness, not at Joe’s school. I’m sure almost all parents in Jonesboro that night hugged their children and said, “Thank God it wasn’t you,” as they tucked them into bed. But there was also a lot of guilt because some parents in Jonesboro couldn’t say that.

I spent the first three days after the tragedy at Westside Middle School, where the shootings took place, working with the counsellors, teachers, students, and parents. None of us had ever done anything like this before. I train people how to react to trauma in the military; but how do you do it with kids after a massacre in their school?

I was the lead trainer for the counsellors and clergy the night after the shootings, and the following day we debriefed the teachers in groups. Then the counsellors and clergy, working with the teachers, debriefed the students, allowing them to work through everything that had happened. Only people who share a trauma can give each other the understanding, acceptance, and forgiveness needed to understand what happened, and then they can begin the long process of trying to understand why it happened.

Virus of Violence

To understand the why behind Jonesboro and Springfield and Pearl and Paducah, and all the other outbreaks of this “virus of violence,” we need to understand first the magnitude of the problem. The per capita murder rate doubled in this country between 1957 when the FBI started keeping track of the data–and 1992. A fuller picture of the problem, however, is indicated by the rate people are attempting to kill one another–the aggravated assault rate. That rate in America has gone from around 60 per 100,000 in 1957 to over 440 per 100,000 by the middle of this decade. As bad as this is, it would be much worse were it not for two major factors.

First is the increase in the imprisonment rate of violent offenders. The prison population in America nearly quadrupled between 1975 and 1992. According to criminologist John J. DiIulio, “dozens of credible empirical analyses . . . leave no doubt that the increased use of prisons averted millions of serious crimes.” If it were not for our tremendous imprisonment rate (the highest of any industrialized nation), the aggravated assault rate and the murder rate would undoubtedly be even higher.

Children don’t naturally kill; they learn it from violence in the home and most pervasively, from violence as entertainment in television, movies, and interactive video games.

The second factor keeping the murder rate from being any worse is medical technology. According to the US Army Medical Service Corps, a wound that would have killed nine out of ten soldiers in World War II, nine out of ten could have survived in Vietnam. Thus, by a very conservative estimate, if we had 1940-level medical technology today, the murder rate would be ten times higher than it is. The magnitude of the problem has been held down by the development of sophisticated lifesaving skills and techniques, such as helicopter medivacs, 911 operators, paramedics, CPR, trauma centres, and medicines.

However, the crime rate is still at a phenomenally high level, and this is true worldwide. In Canada, according to their Centre for Justice, per capita assaults increased almost fivefold between 1964 and 1993, attempted murder increased nearly sevenfold, and murders doubled. Similar trends can be seen in other countries in the per capita violent crime rates reported to Interpol between 1977 and 1993. In Australia and New Zealand, the assault rate increased approximately fourfold, and the murder rate nearly doubled in both nations. The assault rate tripled in Sweden, and approximately doubled in Belgium, Denmark, England-Wales, France, Hungary, Netherlands, and Scotland, while all these nations had an associated (but smaller) increase in murder.

This virus of violence is occurring worldwide. The explanation for it has to be some new factor that is occurring in all of these countries. There are many factors involved, and none should be discounted: for example, the prevalence of guns in our society. But violence is rising in many nations with draconian gun laws. And though we should never downplay child abuse, poverty, or racism, there is only one new variable present in each of these countries, bearing the exact same fruit: media violence presented as entertainment for children.

Killing is Unnatural

Before retiring from the military, I spent almost a quarter of a century as an army infantry officer and a psychologist, learning and studying how to enable people to kill. Believe me, we are very good at it. But it does not come naturally; you have to be taught to kill. And just as the army is conditioning people to kill, we are indiscriminately doing the same thing to our children, but without the safeguards.

After the Jonesboro killings, the head of the American Academy of Paediatrics Task Force on Juvenile Violence came to town and said that children don’t naturally kill. It is a learned skill. And they learn it from abuse and violence in the home and, most pervasively, from violence as entertainment in television, the movies, and interactive video games.

Killing requires training because there is a built-in aversion to killing one’s own kind. I can best illustrate this from drawing on my own work in studying killing in the military.

We all know that you can’t have an argument or a discussion with a frightened or angry human being. Vasoconstriction, the narrowing of the blood vessels, has literally closed down the forebrain–that great gob of gray matter that makes you a human being and distinguishes you from a dog. When those neurons close down, the midbrain takes over and your thought processes and reflexes are indistinguishable from your dog’s. If you’ve worked with animals, you have some understanding in the realm of midbrain responses.

Within the midbrain there is a powerful, God-given resistance to killing your own kind. Every species, with a few exceptions, has a hardwired resistance to killing its own kind in territorial and mating battles. When animals with antlers and horns fight one another, they head butt in a harmless fashion. But when they fight any other species, they go to the side to gut and gore. Piranhas will turn their fangs on anything, but they fight one another with flicks of the tail. Rattlesnakes will bite anything, but they wrestle one another. Almost every species has this hardwired resistance to killing its own kind.

When we human beings are overwhelmed with anger and fear, we slam head-on into that midbrain resistance that generally prevents us from killing. Only sociopaths–who by definition don’t have that resistance–lack this innate violence immune system.

Throughout human history, when humans fight each other, there is a lot of posturing. Adversaries make loud noises and puff themselves up, trying to daunt the enemy. There is a lot of fleeing and submission. Ancient battles were nothing more than great shoving matches. It was not until one side turned and ran that most of the killing happened, and most of that was stabbing people in the back. All of the ancient military historians report that the vast majority of killing happened in pursuit when one side was fleeing.

In more modern times, the average firing rate was incredibly low in Civil War battles. Paddy Griffith demonstrates that the killing potential of the average Civil War regiment was anywhere from five hundred to a thousand men per minute. The actual killing rate was only one or two men per minute per regiment (The Battle Tactics of the American Civil War). At the Battle of Gettysburg, of the 27,000 muskets picked up from the dead and dying after the battle, 90 percent were loaded. This is an anomaly, because it took 95 percent of their time to load muskets and only 5 percent to fire. But even more amazingly, of the thousands of loaded muskets, over half had multiple loads in the barrel–one with 23 loads in the barrel. In reality, the average man would load his musket and bring it to his shoulder, but he could not bring himself to kill. He would be brave, he would stand shoulder to shoulder, he would do what he was trained to do; but at the moment of truth, he could not bring himself to pull the trigger. So, he lowered the weapon and loaded it again. Of those who did fire, only a tiny percentage fired to hit. The vast majority fired over the enemy’s head.

During World War II, US Army Brig. Gen. S. L. A. Marshall had a team of researchers study what soldiers did in battle. For the first time in history, they asked individual soldiers what they did in battle. They discovered that only 15 to 20 percent of the individual riflemen could bring themselves to fire at an exposed enemy soldier.

That is the reality of the battlefield. Only a small percentage of soldiers are able and willing to participate. Men are willing to die, they are willing to sacrifice themselves for their nation; but they are not willing to kill. It is a phenomenal insight into human nature; but when the military became aware of that, they systematically went about the process of trying to fix this “problem.” From the military perspective, a 15 percent firing rate among riflemen is like a 15 percent literacy rate among librarians. And fix it the military did. By the Korean War, around 55 percent of the soldiers were willing to fire to kill. And by Vietnam, the rate rose to over 90 percent.

The Methods in this Madness: Desensitization

How the military increases the killing rate of soldiers in combat is instructive, because our culture today is doing the same thing to our children. The training methods militaries use are brutalization, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and role modelling. I will explain these in the military context and show how these same factors are contributing to the phenomenal increase of violence in our culture.

Brutalization and desensitization are what happen at boot camp. From the moment you step off the bus you are physically and verbally abused: countless pushups, endless hours at attention or running with heavy loads, while carefully trained professionals take turns screaming at you. Your head is shaved, you are herded together naked and dressed alike, losing all individuality. This brutalization is designed to break down your existing mores and norms and to accept a new set of values that embrace destruction, violence, and death as a way of life. In the end, you are desensitized to violence and accept it as a normal and essential survival skill in your brutal new world.

Something very similar to this desensitization toward violence is happening to our children through violence in the media–but instead of 18-year-olds, it begins at the age of 18 months when a child is first able to discern what is happening on television. At that age, a child can watch something happening on television and mimic that action. But it isn’t until children are six or seven years old that the part of the brain kicks in that lets them understand where information comes from. Even though young children have some understanding of what it means to pretend, they are developmentally unable to distinguish clearly between fantasy and reality.

When young children see somebody shot, stabbed, raped, brutalized, degraded, or murdered on TV, to them it is as though it were actually happening. To have a child of three, four, or five watch a “splatter” movie, learning to relate to a character for the first 90 minutes and then in the last 30 minutes watch helplessly as that new friend is hunted and brutally murdered is the moral and psychological equivalent of introducing your child to a friend, letting her play with that friend, and then butchering that friend in front of your child’s eyes. And this happens to our children hundreds upon hundreds of times.

Sure, they are told: “Hey, it’s all for fun. Look, this isn’t real, it’s just TV.” And they nod their little heads and say, “okay.” But they can’t tell the difference. Can you remember a point in your life or in your children’s lives when dreams, reality, and television were all jumbled together? That’s what it is like to be at that level of psychological development. That’s what the media is doing to them.

The Journal of the American Medical Association published the definitive epidemiological study on the impact of TV violence. The research demonstrated what happened in numerous nations after television made its appearance as compared to nations and regions without TV. The two nations or regions being compared are demographically and ethnically identical; only one variable is different: the presence of television. In every nation, region, or city with television, there is an immediate explosion of violence on the playground, and within 15 years there is a doubling of the murder rate. Why 15 years? That is how long it takes for the brutalization of a three-to five-year-old to reach the “prime crime age.” That is how long it takes for you to reap what you have sown when you brutalize and desensitize a three-year-old.

Today the data linking violence in the media to violence in society are superior to those linking cancer and tobacco. Hundreds of sound scientific studies demonstrate the social impact of brutalization by the media. The Journal of the American Medical Association concluded that “the introduction of television in the 1950’s caused a subsequent doubling of the homicide rate, i.e., long-term childhood exposure to television is a causal factor behind approximately one half of the homicides committed in the United States, or approximately 10,000 homicides annually.” The article went on to say that “. . . if, hypothetically, television technology had never been developed, there would today be 10,000 fewer homicides each year in the United States, 70,000 fewer rapes, and 700,000 fewer injurious assaults” (June 10, 1992).

Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning is like the famous case of Pavlov’s dogs you learned about in Psychology 101: The dogs learned to associate the ringing of the bell with food, and, once conditioned, the dogs could not hear the bell without salivating.

The Japanese were masters at using classical conditioning with their soldiers. Early in World War II, Chinese prisoners were placed in a ditch on their knees with their hands bound behind them. And one by one, a select few Japanese soldiers would go into the ditch and bayonet “their” prisoner to death. This is a horrific way to kill another human being. Up on the bank, countless other young soldiers would cheer them on in their violence. Comparatively few soldiers actually killed in these situations, but by making the others watch and cheer, the Japanese were able to use these kinds of atrocities to classically condition a very large audience to associate pleasure with human death and suffering. Immediately afterwards, the soldiers who had been spectators were treated to sake, the best meal they had had in months, and to so-called comfort girls. The result? They learned to associate committing violent acts with pleasure.

The Japanese found these kinds of techniques to be extraordinarily effective at quickly enabling very large numbers of soldiers to commit atrocities in the years to come. Operant conditioning (which we will look at shortly) teaches you to kill, but classical conditioning is a subtle but powerful mechanism that teaches you to like it.

This technique is so morally reprehensible that there are very few examples of it in modern US military training; but there are some clear-cut examples of it being done by the media to our children. What is happening to our children is the reverse of the aversion therapy portrayed in the movie A Clockwork Orange. In A Clockwork Orange, a brutal sociopath, a mass murderer, is strapped to a chair and forced to watch violent movies while he is injected with a drug that nauseates him. So he sits and gags and retches as he watches the movies. After hundreds of repetitions of this, he associates violence with nausea, and it limits his ability to be violent.

Every time a child plays an interactive video game, he is learning the exact same conditioned reflex skills as a soldier or police officer in training.

We are doing the exact opposite: Our children watch vivid pictures of human suffering and death, learning to associate it with their favourite soft drink and candy bar, or their girlfriend’s perfume.

After the Jonesboro shootings, one of the high-school teachers told me how her students reacted when she told them about the shootings at the middle school. “They laughed,” she told me with dismay. A similar reaction happens all the time in movie theatres when there is bloody violence. The young people laugh and cheer and keep right on eating popcorn and drinking pop. We have raised a generation of barbarians who have learned to associate violence with pleasure, like the Romans cheering and snacking as the Christians were slaughtered in the Coliseum.

The result is a phenomenon that functions much like AIDS, which I call AVIDS–Acquired Violence Immune Deficiency Syndrome. AIDS has never killed anybody. It destroys your immune system, and then other diseases that shouldn’t kill you become fatal. Television violence by itself does not kill you. It destroys your violence immune system and conditions you to derive pleasure from violence. And once you are at close range with another human being, and it’s time for you to pull that trigger, Acquired Violence Immune Deficiency Syndrome can destroy your midbrain resistance.

Operant Conditioning

The third method the military uses is operant conditioning, a very powerful procedure of stimulus-response, stimulus-response. A benign example is the use of flight simulators to train pilots. An airline pilot in training sits in front of a flight simulator for endless hours; when a particular warning light goes on, he is taught to react in a certain way. When another warning light goes on, a different reaction is required. Stimulus-response, stimulus-response, stimulus-response. One day the pilot is actually flying a jumbo jet; the plane is going down, and 300 people are screaming behind him. He is wetting his seat cushion, and he is scared out of his wits; but he does the right thing. Why? Because he has been conditioned to respond reflexively to this particular crisis.

When people are frightened or angry, they will do what they have been conditioned to do. In fire drills, children learn to file out of the school in orderly fashion. One day there is a real fire, and they are frightened out of their wits; but they do exactly what they have been conditioned to do, and it saves their lives.

The military and law enforcement community have made killing a conditioned response. This has substantially raised the firing rate on the modern battlefield. Whereas infantry training in World War II used bull’s-eye targets, now soldiers learn to fire at realistic, man-shaped silhouettes that pop into their field of view. That is the stimulus. The trainees have only a split second to engage the target. The conditioned response is to shoot the target, and then it drops. Stimulus-response, stimulus-response, stimulus-response–soldiers or police officers experience hundreds of repetitions. Later, when soldiers are on the battlefield or a police officer is walking a beat and somebody pops up with a gun, they will shoot reflexively and shoot to kill. We know that 75 to 80 percent of the shooting on the modern battlefield is the result of this kind of stimulus-response training.

Now, if you’re a little troubled by that, how much more should we be troubled by the fact that every time a child plays an interactive point-and-shoot video game, he is learning the exact same conditioned reflex and motor skills.

I was an expert witness in a murder case in South Carolina offering mitigation for a kid who was facing the death penalty. I tried to explain to the jury that interactive video games had conditioned him to shoot a gun to kill. He had spent hundreds of dollars on video games learning to point and shoot, point and shoot. One day he and his buddy decided it would be fun to rob the local convenience store. They walked in, and he pointed a snub-nosed .38 pistol at the clerk’s head. The clerk turned to look at him, and the defendant shot reflexively from about six feet. The bullet hit the clerk right between the eyes–which is a pretty remarkable shot with that weapon at that range–and killed this father of two. Afterward, we asked the boy what happened and why he did it. It clearly was not part of the plan to kill the guy–it was being videotaped from six different directions. He said, “I don’t know. It was a mistake. It wasn’t supposed to happen.”

In the military and law-enforcement worlds, the right option is often not to shoot. But you never, never put your quarter in that video machine with the intention of not shooting. There is always some stimulus that sets you off. And when he was excited, and his heart rate went up, and vasoconstriction closed his forebrain down, this young man did exactly what he was conditioned to do: he reflexively pulled the trigger, shooting accurately just like all those times he played video games.

This process is extraordinarily powerful and frightening. The result is ever more homemade pseudo-sociopaths who kill reflexively and show no remorse. Our children are learning to kill and learning to like it; and then we have the audacity to say, “Oh my goodness, what’s wrong?”

One of the boys allegedly involved in the Jonesboro shootings (and they are just boys) had a fair amount of experience shooting real guns. The other one was a nonshooter and, to the best of our knowledge, had almost no experience shooting. Between them, those two boys fired 27 shots from a range of over 100 yards, and they hit 15 people. That’s pretty remarkable shooting. We run into these situations often–kids who have never picked up a gun in their lives pick up a real gun and are incredibly accurate. Why?

Video Games

Role models In the military, you are immediately confronted with a role model: your drill sergeant. He personifies violence and aggression. Along with military heroes, these violent role models have always been used to influence young, impressionable minds.

Today the media are providing our children with role models. This can be seen not just in the lawless sociopaths in movies and TV shows, but it can also be seen in the media-inspired, copycat aspects of the Jonesboro murders. This is the part of these juvenile crimes that the TV networks would much rather not talk about.

Research in the 1970s demonstrated the existence of “cluster suicides” in which the local TV reporting of teen suicides directly caused numerous copycat suicides of impressionable teenagers. Somewhere in every population there are potentially suicidal kids who will say to themselves, “Well, I’ll show all those people who have been mean to me. I know how to get my picture on TV, too.” Because of this research, television stations today generally do not cover suicides. But when the pictures of teenage killers appear on TV, the effect is the same: Somewhere there is a potentially violent little boy who says to himself, “Well, I’ll show all those people who have been mean to me. I know how to get my picture on TV too.”

Thus we get copycat, cluster murders that work their way across America like a virus spread by the six o’clock news. No matter what someone has done, if you put his picture on TV, you have made him a celebrity, and someone, somewhere, will emulate him.

The lineage of the Jonesboro shootings began at Pearl, Mississippi, fewer than six months before. In Pearl, a 16-year-old boy was accused of killing his mother and then going to his school and shooting nine students, two of whom died, including his ex-girlfriend. Two months later, this virus spread to Paducah, Kentucky, where a 14-year-old boy was arrested for killing three students and wounding five others.

A very important step in the spread of this copycat crime virus occurred in Stamps, Arkansas, 15 days after Pearl and just a little over 90 days before Jonesboro. In Stamps, a 14-year-old boy, who was angry at his schoolmates, hid in the woods and fired at children as they came out of school. Sound familiar? Only two children were injured in this crime, so most of the world didn’t hear about it; but it got great regional coverage on TV, and two little boys in Jonesboro, Arkansas, probably did hear about it.

And then there was Springfield, Oregon, and so many others. Is this a reasonable price to pay for the TV networks’ “right” to turn juvenile defendants into celebrities and role models by playing up their pictures on TV?

Our society needs to be informed about these crimes, but when the images of the young killers are broadcast on television, they become role models. The average preschooler in America watches 27 hours of television a week. The average child gets more one-on-one communication from TV than from all her parents and teachers combined. The ultimate achievement for our children is to get their picture on TV. The solution is simple, and it comes straight out of the suicidology literature: The media have every right and responsibility to tell the story, but they have no right to glorify the killers by presenting their images on TV.

Reality Check: Sixty percent of men on TV are involved in violence; 11 percent are killers. Unlike actual rates, in the media the majority of homicide victims are women. (Gerbner 1994) In a Canadian town in which TV was first introduced in 1973, a 160 percent increase in aggression, hitting, shoving, and biting was documented in first- and second-grade students after exposure, with no change in behaviour in children in two control communities. (Centerwall 1992) Fifteen years after the introduction of TV, homicides, rapes and assaults doubled in the United States. (American Medical Association) Twenty percent of suburban high schoolers endorse shooting someone “who has stolen something from you.” (Toch and Silver 1993) In the United States, approximately two million teenagers carry knives, guns, clubs or razors. As many as 135,000 take them to school. (America by the Numbers) Americans spend over $100 million on toy guns every year. What Counts: The Complete Harper’s Index © 1991)

Unlearning Violence

What is the road home from the dark and lonely place to which we have travelled? One route infringes on civil liberties. The city of New York has made remarkable progress in recent years in bringing down crime rates, but they may have done so at the expense of some civil liberties. People who are fearful say that is a price they are willing to pay.

Another route would be to “just turn it off”; if you don’t like what is on television, use the “off” button. Yet, if all the parents of the 15 shooting victims in Jonesboro had protected their children from TV violence, it wouldn’t have done a bit of good. Because somewhere there were two little boys whose parents didn’t “just turn it off.”

On the night of the Jonesboro shootings, clergy and counsellors were working in small groups in the hospital waiting room, comforting the groups of relatives and friends of the victims. Then they noticed one woman sitting alone silently.

A counsellor went over to the woman and discovered that she was the mother of one of the girls who had been killed. She had no friends, no husband, no family with her as she sat in the hospital, stunned by her loss. “I just came to find out how to get my little girl’s body back,” she said. But the body had been taken to Little Rock, 100 miles away, for an autopsy. Her very next concern was, “I just don’t know how I’m going to pay for the funeral. I don’t know how I can afford it.” That little girl was truly all she had in all the world. Come to Jonesboro, friend, and tell this mother she should “just turn it off.”

Ten Nonviolent Video Games

The following list of nonviolent video games has been developed by The Games Project (1999). These games are ranked high for their social and play value and technical merit.

  • Bust a Move
  • Tetris
  • Theme Park
  • Absolute Pinball
  • Myst
  • SimCity
  • The Incredible Machine
  • Front Page Sports: Golf
  • Earthworm Jim

Fighting back

We need to make progress in the fight against child abuse, racism, and poverty, and in rebuilding our families. No one is denying that the breakdown of the family is a factor. But nations without our divorce rates are also having increases in violence. Besides, research demonstrates that one major source of harm associated with single-parent families occurs when the TV becomes both the nanny and the second parent. Work is needed in all these areas, but there is a new front–taking on the producers and purveyors of media violence. Simply put, we ought to work toward legislation that outlaws violent video games for children. There is no constitutional right for a child to play an interactive video game that teaches him weapons-handling skills or that simulates destruction of God’s creatures.

The day may also be coming when we are able to seat juries in America who are willing to sock it to the networks in the only place they really understand–their wallets. After the Jonesboro shootings, Time magazine said: “As for media violence, the debate there is fast approaching the same point that discussions about the health impact of tobacco reached some time ago–it’s over. Few researchers bother any longer to dispute that bloodshed on TV and in the movies has an effect on kids who witness it” (April 6, 1998).

Most of all, the American people need to learn the lesson of Jonesboro: Violence is not a game; it’s not fun, it’s not something that we do for entertainment. Violence kills.

Every parent in America desperately needs to be warned of the impact of TV and other violent media on children, just as we would warn them of some widespread carcinogen. The problem is that the TV networks, which use the public airwaves we have licensed to them, are our key means of public education in America. And they are stonewalling.

In the days after the Jonesboro shootings, I was interviewed on Canadian national TV, the British Broadcasting Company, and many US and international radio shows and newspapers. But the American television networks simply would not touch this aspect of the story. Never in my experience as a historian and a psychologist have I seen any institution in America so clearly responsible for so very many deaths, and so clearly abusing their publicly licensed authority and power to cover up their guilt.

Time after time, idealistic young network producers contacted me from one of the networks, fascinated by the irony that an expert in the field of violence and aggression was living in Jonesboro and was at the school almost from the beginning. But unlike all the other media, these network news stories always died a sudden, silent death when the network’s powers-that-be said, “Yeah, we need this story like we need a hole in the head.”

Many times since the shooting I have been asked, “Why weren’t you on TV talking about the stuff in your book?” And every time my answer had to be, “The TV networks are burying this story. They know they are guilty, and they want to delay the retribution as long as they can.”

As an author and expert on killing, I believe I have spoken on the subject at every Rotary, Kiwanis, and Lions Club in a 50-mile radius of Jonesboro. So when the plague of satellite dishes descended upon us like huge locusts, many people here were aware of the scientific data linking TV violence and violent crime.

The networks will stick their lenses anywhere and courageously expose anything. Like flies on open wounds, they find nothing too private or shameful for their probing lenses–except themselves, and their share of guilt in the terrible, tragic crime that happened here

A CBS executive told me his plan. He knows all about the link between media and violence. His own in-house people have advised him to protect his child from the poison his industry is bringing to America’s children. He is not going to expose his child to TV until she’s old enough to learn how to read. And then he will select very carefully what she sees. He and his wife plan to send her to a daycare centre that has no television, and he plans to show her only age-appropriate videos.

That should be the bare minimum with children: Show them only age-appropriate videos, and think hard about what is age appropriate. The most benign product you are going to get from the networks are 22-minute sitcoms or cartoons providing instant solutions for all of life’s problems, interlaced with commercials telling you what a slug you are if you don’t ingest the right sugary substances and don’t wear the right shoes.

The worst product your child is going to get from the networks is represented by one TV commentator who told me, “Well, we only have one really violent show on our network, and that is NYPD Blue. I’ll admit that that is bad, but it is only one night a week.”

I wondered at the time how she would feel if someone said, “Well, I only beat my wife in front of the kids one night a week.” The effect is the same.

“You’re not supposed to know who I am!” said NYPD Blue star Kim Delaney, in response to young children who recognized her from her role on that show. According to USA Weekend, she was shocked that underage viewers watch her show, which is rated TV-14 for gruesome crimes, raw language, and explicit sex scenes. But they do watch, don’t they?

Education about media and violence does make a difference. I was on a radio call-in show in San Antonio, Texas. A woman called and said, “I would never have had the courage to do this two years ago. But let me tell you what happened. You tell me if I was right.

“My 13-year-old boy spent the night with a neighbour boy. After that night, he started having nightmares. I got him to admit what the nightmares were about. While he was at the neighbour’s house, they watched splatter movies all night: people cutting people up with chainsaws and stuff like that.

“Every parent in America desperately needs to be warned of the impact of TV and other violent media on children. But the TV networks–our key means of public education in America–are stonewalling.”

“I called the neighbours and told them, ‘Listen: you are sick people. I wouldn’t feel any different about you if you had given my son pornography or alcohol. And I’m not going to have anything further to do with you or your son–and neither is anybody else in this neighbourhood, if I have anything to do with it–until you stop what you’re doing.’ ”

That’s powerful. That’s censure, not censorship. We ought to have the moral courage to censure people who think that violence is legitimate entertainment.

One of the most effective ways for Christians to be salt and light is by simply confronting the culture of violence as entertainment. A friend of mine, a retired army officer who teaches at a nearby middle school, uses the movie Gettysburg to teach his students about the Civil War. A scene in that movie very dramatically depicts the tragedy of Pickett’s Charge. As the Confederate troops charge into the Union lines, the cannons fire into their masses at point-blank range, and there is nothing but a red mist that comes up from the smoke and flames. He told me that when he first showed this heart-wrenching, tragic scene to his students, they laughed.

He began to confront this behaviour ahead of time by saying: “In the past, students have laughed at this scene, and I want to tell you that this is completely unacceptable behaviour. This movie depicts a tragedy in American history, a tragedy that happened to our ancestors, and I will not tolerate any laughing.” From then on, when he played that scene to his students, over the years, he says there was no laughter. Instead, many of them wept.

What the media teach is unnatural, and if confronted in love and assurance, the house they have built on the sand will crumble. But our house is built on the rock. If we don’t actively present our values, then the media will most assuredly inflict theirs on our children, and the children, like those in that class watching Gettysburg, simply won’t know any better.

There are many other things that the Christian community can do to help change our culture. Youth activities can provide alternatives to television, and churches can lead the way in providing alternative locations for latchkey children. Fellowship groups can provide guidance and support to young parents as they strive to raise their children without the destructive influences of the media. Mentoring programs can pair mature, educated adults with young parents, helping them through the preschool ages without using the TV as a babysitter. And most of all, the churches can provide the clarion call of decency and love and peace as an alternative to death and destruction–not just for the sake of the church, but for the transformation of our culture.

Violent Video Games — A Surprise or Two

By Denise Breton and Christopher Largent

This is the second of Dave Grossman’s comments on video game violence, which may surprise many parents:



I am Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, U.S. Army, (Retired). My expertise in the area of human aggression and violence includes service as a West Point psychology professor, a professor of military science, the author of a Pulitzer nominated book and numerous peer reviewed encyclopaedia entries on this topic.

It is my professional opinion, and it is the opinion of major experts in this area (such as the American Medical Association (AMA), the American Psychiatric Association (APA), the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the American Academy of Mental Health, and the Surgeon General), based on extensive research, that violent video games are harmful to children.

Legislation to rate these games, and enforcement of the ratings in order to keep the violent games out of the hands of children, is essential to the safety and security of the population of New York.

The games that permit a child to hold and aim a gun, and fire it at humans, are particularly harmful, since these devices teach shooting skills. They are firearms training devices at best, and murder simulators at worst.

Media Violence Overview

The AMA, the APA, NIMH, the American Academy of Paediatrics, the Surgeon General, and the United Nations (UNESCO) have all made definitive statements about the relationship between childhood exposure to visual violent images and later manifestation of real world aggression and violent criminal acts.

The impact of visual, violent imagery on children has been identified as the key variable responsible for an explosion of violent crime around the world. The per capita aggravated assault rate in the U.S. increased almost sevenfold between the mid-1950s and the middle of this decade. In Canada per capita assaults increased almost fivefold between 1964 and 1993. Between 1977 and 1993, the per capita assault rate increased nearly fivefold in Norway and Greece. In Australia and New Zealand the per capita assault rate increased approximately fourfold, tripled in Sweden, and approximately doubled in: Belgium, Denmark, England-Wales, France, Hungary, Netherlands, and Scotland. The common denominator in all these nations is the influence of media violence on children.

The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) has definitively concluded that “long-term childhood exposure to TV is a causal factor behind approximately one-half of the homicides committed in the U.S., or approximately 10,000 homicides committed annually,” and that “if, hypothetically, TV technology had never been developed, there would today be 10,000 fewer homicides each year in the U.S.” (June 10th, 1992 issue of JAMA)

Every one of these major authorities agrees that all the data on media violence immediately transfers to violent video games. To argue otherwise is like arguing that the data on cigarettes does not apply to cigars.

In the realm of violent video games, in addition to the data on the impact of visual, violet images on children, there is now approximately 50 years worth of research indicating the value of simulators in “programming” or “conditioning” a set of responses in individuals. Everything from fire drills to airline pilots’ use of flight simulators are based upon the research in simulations. Such research has led to the military making extensive use of such simulation to enable soldiers to pull the trigger and to shoot accurately in combat.

Case Study

The classic case of the influence of video games can be found in the Paducah, Kentucky, school shooting. I served as a consultant in this case, and my understanding of the facts, based upon official records, is that Michael Carneal, a 14-year old boy who had never fired a handgun before, stole a pistol, fired a few practice shots the night before and came into his school the next morning with the gun. In this case 8 shots were apparently fired, for 8 hits–4 of them head shots, one neck, and 3 upper torso. This is simply astounding, unprecedented marksmanship, especially when it comes from a child who apparently had never fired a real pistol in his life (prior to stealing the gun) and had only fired a .22 calibre rifle once at a summer camp.

I am an Army Ranger, “expert” qualified on all major U.S. small arms and many NATO weapons, an instructor for: the American Society of Law Enforcement Trainers (ASLET); the International Association Society of Law Enforcement Firearms Instructors (IALEFI); the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms Emergency Response Teams; the California Highway Patrol Academy; and numerous other state patrol academies. I have fired many tens of thousands of rounds of ammunition, and even with all of this I sincerely doubt that I could have fired as accurately under these circumstances.

Indeed, I have never heard of anything remotely like this in its degree of deadly accuracy under these circumstances. One state police study in an assessment of the accuracy of their officers across several years found that the average officer, in the average engagement, at the average distance of 23 feet, hit with 13% of the rounds fired. In the Amadu Dialo shooting in New York City, four members of an elite NYPD unit fired 41 rounds at an unarmed African immigrant, at point-blank range, and hit 19 times. That is the norm, even in the best of conditions, among trained, professional law enforcement officers. In the recent Jewish daycare centre shootings in Los Angeles, the shooter is reported to have fired 70 shots, and wounded 5 individuals. This is what should be expected from an untrained shooter.

I trained a battalion of Green Berets, the Texas Rangers, the California Highway Patrol, the Australian Federal Police, and numerous other elite military and law enforcement organizations, and when I told them of Michael Carneal’s achievement, they were simply amazed. Nowhere in the annals of military or law enforcement or criminal history can any of us find an equivalent achievement, and this from a 14-year old boy with no previous experience in firing a handgun.

Michael Carneal had never fired an actual pistol before, but he had fired thousands of bullets in the video game “murder simulators.” His superhuman accuracy, combined with the fact that he “stood still,” firing two-handed, not wavering far to the left or far to the right in his shooting “field,” and firing only one shot at each target, are all behaviours that are completely unnatural to either trained or “native” shooters, behaviours that could only have been learned in a video game.

It is not natural to fire one shot at every target. The normal, near universal response of anyone with a semiautomatic weapon, in combat or while hunting, is to fire at a target until it drops, and then to move on to another target. But, if you are very, very good at video games, you will only fire one shot at every target, not even waiting for that target to drop before moving on to another target, because you “know” (from countless thousands of previous repetitions of the action) that you have hit and you “know” that the target will fall when it is hit with no need to waste time shooting it further. (Some games do not use the one-shot-one-kill model, but many, if not most, do.) As a player in the video game your goal is simply to rack up the highest “score” as quickly as possible. And many of the video games (such as “House of the Dead,” “Goldeneye,” or “Turok”) give bonus effects for head shots.

This is reinforced by Michael Carneal’s “blank and passive” facial expression, and his report that it was all “like a dream” which are common reactions of someone who is in the “flow state” associated with completing an operantly conditioned response under a stressful situation: like children in a fire drill, or an expert typist finding the next key. These kind of video games provide the “motor reflexes” responsible for over 75% of the firing on the modern battlefield. In addition, they provide violent suggestions and reinforcement for violent behaviour.

(The application of this to the military is outlined in my book, On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society. This book was nominated for the Pulitzer prize for nonfiction in 1995, has been translated into Japanese and Italian, and is currently being used as a standard text in numerous universities and academies, to include West Point, and the California Highway Patrol Academy.)

I have reviewed these conclusions with other experts in the field of law enforcement marksmanship training. Based upon my communications with them, the heads of the three major national and international law enforcement training organizations (IALEFI, ASLET and PPCT) have all concurred with these conclusions, and they have told me that they would be willing to serve (pro bono) as expert witnesses in a lawsuit against the manufacturers of these games. Certainly, if the information I received is correct, no firearms expert can deny the extraordinary marksmanship achievement in the Michael Carneal case (and many others like it), and that the influence of video games is the only possible explanation for that aspect of this tragedy.

The Case Against Video Games

Based upon research outlined in my book, On Killing, President Clinton stated in his national radio address on April 24, 1999, following the Littleton shootings that: “A former Lieutenant Colonel and psychologist, Professor David Grossman, has said that these games teach young people to kill with all the precision of a military training program, but none of the character training that goes along with it. For children who get the right training at home and who have the ability to distinguish between real and unreal consequences, they’re still games. But for children who are especially vulnerable to the lure of violence, they can be far more.”

The President’s conclusions are completely correct. The U.S. Army has taken the basic Super Nintendo, replaced the plastic pistol with a plastic M-16, modified the targets that appear on the screen, and this device (known as the Multipurpose Arcade Combat Simulator (MACS)) is used extensively for military marksmanship training. Similarly, the U.S. Marine Corps has licensed the basic “first person shooter” game “Doom,” and is using it to train their combat fire teams in tactics and to rehearse (or “script”) combat actions of killing. (Some claim that the Marines only use it to develop teamwork, but if that was the desire they could use flag football; the Marines’ goal is to develop teamwork in killing.

The video game industry cannot market these devices to the military to train individuals whose job it is to kill, and then claim that they have no expectation that such devices would be potentially harmful when marketed to children.

The video game industry blatantly markets their products as killing devices:

-One advertisement, in a “gaming” magazine, for a joystick that gives feedback (thus you feel the recoil of a gun when you pull the trigger), says: “Psychiatrists say it is important to feel something when you kill.”

-An ad for one video game says: “Kill your friends guilt free.”

-Another ad for a home video game shooting system says: “More fun than shooting your neighbour’s cat.”

-Recent ads for “Quake II” (a follow-on to “Doom” by the same manufacturer) says: “We took what was killer, and made it mass murder.”

-An ad for the same game has a picture of a corpse with a toe tag, saying: “He practiced on a PC.” (Personal computer.)

-An ad for a Sony Playstation controller that gives feedback shows an old man and his wife, saying: “George Anderson, 64. Responsible for thousands of deaths and ruthless beatings, is about to discover how it feels.”

-An ad for one Playstation game says: “Destroying your enemies is not enough … you must devour their souls.”

-An ad for a networking kit says: “Gratuitous violence is 200 times faster with a D-Link Network.”

Thus, the industry’s own ads acknowledge that their products are “killer … mass murder … ruthless beatings … [and] gratuitous beatings.”

The industry’s own rating systems indicate that many of their games are inappropriate for children. Yet the industry has spent enormous sums of money fighting legislative initiatives designed to regulate the availability of their products to children.

Imagine if the gun, tobacco, alcohol, or even the fireworks industry had rated and acknowledged their products as harmful to children, but then refused to accept regulation of the sale of their products to children. Furthermore, imagine if these industries had intentionally and irresponsibly marketed their products with advertisements clearly oriented toward children. If this were the situation, then these industries would arguably find themselves subject to even greater litigation and liability than is currently the case.

In a recent case, the book, Hit Man was used as a manual to commit a multiple murder. The family of the victims of this murder sued the publisher and author of this book. Based on my reading of the decision in that case (which was upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court), this case could be brought to trial because the book, Hit Man: taught criminal behaviour, exhorted the reader to engage in criminal behaviour, and then taught the reader to develop a blatant disregard for human life.

It is interesting to me to apply these same criteria to the video games:

-The violent video games teach criminal behaviour: i.e., shooting human beings, to include motor skills, aiming skills, target selection, and trigger control.

-The video games and their advertisements exhort the reader to engage in criminal behaviour while teaching blatant disregard for human life: being rewarded for harming and killing humans, and: “Kill your friends … More fun than shooting your neighbour’s cat … Destroying your enemies is not enough … you must devour their souls.”

The video game industry knows that their products are not for children, and they openly support and expect enforcement of the ratings on their products. In a current issue of PC Gamer Magazine (the industry’s leading magazine), the game “Kingpin” is discussed. (This is a hyperviolent game in which the player leads a life of crime, killing, pimping and selling drugs, working up to a position of leadership.)

There are certain people who believe “Kingpin” crosses the line of good taste and shouldn’t be in the hands of children or young teens. Those people would be absolutely right! If you see the game in the store, you’ll notice a big yellow sticker across the front of the box stating the game was designed for mature audiences, and that you’ll need an ID to prove you’re old enough to buy it. (PC Gamer, Oct 99, “The Killing Box,” pg 213.)

In other words, it is the responsibility of stores and society to enforce the industry’s rating system. And they are right.

In that same magazine there is a review of a new, hyperviolent game called Soldier of Fortune, in which the magazine says that:

Don’t expect to be able to buy this one without a picture ID … It is inevitable that, given the recent controversy regarding violence in games, Soldier of Fortune will attract its share of flack … Raven is hoping to head at least some of the criticism off with … warnings on the packaging. ‘Raven’s plan from day one was to make a game for mature audiences that would carry a mature ESBR rating,’ says [the manufacturer]. ‘When the rating has been established … how can they criticize the game? If people don’t take advantage of the tools we are providing, they’re the ones opening themselves up to criticism.’ (PC Gamer, Oct 99, pg 27.)

In other words, again, according to the industry, they are counting on us to enforce the ratings, if we do not enforce their ratings, we are to blame. And they are right.

But the industry will oppose this legislation. They will claim that their rating and labelling system is enough to protect kids from the products that they themselves admit should not be in the hands of children, and they will oppose enforcement of their warning labels. This is simply offensive to the intelligence of the legislators and people of the great state of New York. Again, what would happen if the gun or tobacco or alcohol industry had tried to use that logic?

I strongly support this legislation, and I sincerely believe that if it is not passed we will pay a tragic price in lives, just as surely as if we had failed to keep guns or alcohol or tobacco out of the hands of kids.

Respectfully submitted, Dave Grossman Lt. Col., U.S. Army (Ret.) Director, Killology Research Group Note: Dave Grossman’s new book, Stop Teaching Our Kids to Kill has just come out in the autumn of 1999.

Are video games just propaganda and training tools for the military?

It’s a shadowy and lucrative relationship. But just how close are video-game developers with various military outfits? And how does it affect the games we play?

The Guardian 18 Mar. 2012

It’s Monday night, the kids are in bed, and I am trying to kill Osama bin Laden. I stalk through his Abbottabad compound and I aim my rifle at the first person I see, only to discover he’s my brother in arms, aka “OverdoseRocks”. So I walk downstairs into a prayer room, at which point my gun accidentally goes off. Then the mission is over. We were victorious.

Next, I join US servicemen during the 2007 surge in Iraq. For about three minutes I kick about a palm-lined boulevard, strafing apartment buildings. I am ambushed. In my dying moments, I am presented with an advert for a game in which I can embody a cheetah and kill an antelope, but I have had enough bloodshed for one evening.

I have been on the Kuma Games site, an online entertainment developer and, according to reports on Iranian television, an international distributor of military propaganda. Kuma produces a range of games, from second world war air-battle shoot-’em-ups for the History Channel, through to the carnivore-themed I Predator, a tie-in for the cable station Animal Planet. Yet it’s the company’s Kuma\War series of topical military games, as well as a more discreet line of Arabic-language first-person shooter games, that have piqued media attention. During a televised confession on Iranian TV, alleged US agent and former marine Amir Mirzai Hekmati said he had worked for Kuma, and it was a CIA front company.

Though his words cannot be regarded as the unvarnished truth, publicly available government documents indicate that Hekmati had been a Kuma employee, while Kuma’s CEO, Keith Halper, admits to taking on military work. If his words are true, Kuma\War are only one of a number of bloody titles produced under varying degrees of military aegis.

In 2001 Syria’s Afkar Media published Under Ash, in which players take on the role of Palestinians fighting off an Israeli assault; they followed this in 2005 with Under Siege, and in 2008 non-violent children’s game Road Block Buster, in which players take on the role of “‘Maan’ the boy with a thousand way[s] to get over any barrier or road block implanted by Israeli Defence forces”. In 2003, developers linked to Hezbollah entered the market with a Special Force series, a set of PC war games set in Lebanon.

In 2007, Iran’s Association of Islamic Unions of Students released Special Operation 85: Hostage Rescue; a first-person-shooter game wherein players aim to free two Iranian nuclear scientists kidnapped by the US. The game was published in response to Kuma’s Assault on Iran, which was based around a US assault on an Iranian nuclear facility.

There are also more formal offerings from the world’s leading powers. America’s Army, a free online simulator, was published by the US military in 2002 to aid recruitment. The British army launched their online game Start Thinking Soldier in 2009, to drive interest among 16- to 24-year-olds. Then in May last year, China’s People’s Liberation Army unveiled Glorious Revolution, a Call of Duty-style game for both military and domestic markets.

This is all in addition to numerous game-like training tools, from language apps through to tank-driving tutorials, which are used to educate recruits around the globe.

For decades the military has been using video-game technology,” says Nina Huntemann, associate professor of communication and journalism at Suffolk University in Boston and a computer games specialist. “Every branch of the US armed forces and many, many police departments are using retooled video games to train their personnel.”

Like much of early computing, nascent digital gaming benefited from military spending. The prototype for the first home video games console, the 1972 Magnavox Odyssey, was developed by Sanders Associates, a US defence contractor. Meanwhile, pre-digital electronic flight simulators, for use in both military and civilian training, date back to at least the second world war.

Later, the games industry began to repay its debts. Many insiders note how instruments in British Challenger 2 tanks, introduced in 1994, look uncannily like the PlayStation’s controllers, one of the most popular consoles of that year. Indeed, warfare’s use of digital war games soared towards the end of the 20th century.

By the late 1990s,” says Nick Turse, an American journalist, historian and author of The Complex: How the Military Invades Our Everyday Lives, “the [US] army was pouring tens of millions of dollars into a centre at the University of Southern California – the Institute of Creative Technologies – specifically to build partnerships with the gaming industry and Hollywood.”

It’s a toxic relationship in Turse’s opinion, since gaming leads to a reliance on remote-controlled warfare, and this in turn makes combat more palatable.

“Last year,” says Turse, “the US conducted combat missions in Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Pakistan, Somalia and Yemen. There are a great many factors that led to this astonishing number of simultaneous wars, but the increasing use of drones, and thus a lower number of US military casualties that result, no doubt contributed to it.”

Many closer to the action take a different view. Justin Crump served in the British army for seven years and has been a reservist since the early 90s; he saw active duty in the Balkans, Iraq and Afghanistan. Prior to enlisting, Crump was also a keen gamer.

“I learned my tactics playing games in the 80s,” he says. “In the recruitment interview I said I’d been flying simulators for a few years.”

While Crump recognises the military’s involvement in early games development, he believes the computer industry has outpaced military simulators.

“With 30-year procurement programmes, you’ll be spec’ing simulators in the 80s and 90s,” he says. Imagine ordering Space Invaders to be played in the Xbox era, and you realise why the British military has had to improve some of its simulated training to keep the attention of new recruits.

Crump laughs when recalling the mechanical tank trainers he used in the early 90s, as well as the Laserdisc system used for training on the Challenger 2 tank, back in 1998. “We asked: ‘Why aren’t these things on CDs or a flash drive?'”

For a taste of how war games and armies might work best, try Steel Beasts. Developed by eSim, an American firm with ex-US and European army personnel, Steel Beasts is perhaps the world’s most successful tank-training simulator. “We wanted to develop a computer game that would be both entertaining and educational,” says Nils Hinrichsen, eSim’s marketing director, “which at the same time would offer a bit of ‘trigger time’, but with accurate procedures and ballistics.”

Hinrichsen admits that Steel Beasts won’t exactly top gamers’ Christmas present lists. Yet it runs on PCs, allows users to edit their maps and layout, and has playback facilities, so players can learn from their mistakes. eSim charges armies a fee for customising the game to suit their vehicles so that it can be used for training. These adaptations are then included in subsequent versions of the game – which means they are available to other armies.

Until now most militaries have bought bespoke simulators tied to particular weaponry, “and woe betide the army that changes specifications in mid-stream,” says Hinrichsen. Instead, Steel Beasts can be fitted to suit any new armoured vehicle. Since its introduction in 2000, the game has been used by the US military and the armies of Australia, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the Canadian air force.

From a certain point of view, any link between the games system in your child’s bedroom and automated killing on the battlefield is grossly distasteful. Yet, if you accept the need for standing armies, and believe in the efficiencies of information technology, then it’s hard to view Steel Beasts as anything other than a canny application of processing power.

It’s quite different from Kuma\War games, which Huntemann calls “‘soft propaganda’, in the same way that Top Gun or John Wayne war films are soft propaganda”. She also questions whether glitzy online games really drive gamers towards the frontline. “When you look why people enlist,” she says, “it is overwhelmingly tied to history of military service in the family, socio-economic status and the current state of the economy.”

Crump agrees. “I find some of the modern first-person shooters ridiculous,” he says. “If people joining are expecting that sort of thing they are going to be disappointed.”

He questions whether those drawn to blameless gore even aspire to a life of service. Recalling a trip to a paint-balling range with some army friends, he says: “There were some other really tooled-up guys there, and they didn’t know we were military.” Crump put it to the opposing side that, if they enjoyed firing guns, they should enlist. “They said: ‘No, too dangerous, wouldn’t want to,'” he recalls, quite surprised by their response. Yet he wasn’t so startled by the outcome.

How did those weapons-loving gamers do against him at paintball?

“They lost.”

Violent video games make teenagers more aggressive, study finds

Teenagers who play violent video games over a number of years become more aggressive towards other people as a result, a new study has found.

08 Oct 2012 the Telegraph

The research findings were said to be the first indication of a clear link between a sustained period of playing violent games and subsequent increases in hostile behaviour.

Girls who played them during their school years were found to be affected just as much as boys.

The research team at Brock University in Canada said their results were “concerning” and argued that violent games could “reinforce the notion that aggression is an effective and appropriate way to deal with conflict and anger.”

Evidence suggests that long-term players of violent games may become more likely to react aggressively to unintentional provocations such as someone accidentally bumping into them, they added.

The study, published in the journal Developmental Psychology, involved 1,492 adolescents at eight high schools in Ontario, 51 per cent of whom were female and 49 per cent male.

Surveys were carried out annually across four school years with the participants aged 14 or 15 at the start of the study and 17 or 18 at its conclusion.

The teenagers were asked a series of questions such as how often they pushed or shoved people and whether they frequently kicked or punched people who made them angry.

Psychologists used their answers to give each individual a score for their aggression level at each point in time.

Analysis showed that teenagers who played violent video games over a number of years saw steeper rises in their aggression scores during the study.

Others who regularly played non-violent games did not show any evidence of increased aggression.

The trend remained even after the researchers took into account other factors that could be linked to aggression such as gender, parental divorce and marijuana use.

Lead researcher Professor Teena Willoughby said: “The current study is the first to demonstrate a relation between sustained violent video game play and the progression of aggressive behaviour.

“It is clear that there is a long-term association between violent video games and aggression.

“This is an important and concerning finding, particularly in light of the hours that youth spend playing these games.”

Playing violent video games for just 20 minutes a day can encourage aggressive behaviour

  • University students were asked to play a violent video game or a driving game over three days
  • They were then set a couple of tests to see how they reacted to the outside world
  • Those who played shoot-em-ups like Call of Duty were more likely to assume the world was hostile and react aggressively

By Daily Mail Reporter PUBLISHED: 16:55 GMT, 11 December 2012

Playing a violent video game for just an hour over a three-day period is enough to increase aggressive behaviour, according to a new study.

However, playing a non-violent video game, such as a racing game, has no effect on aggression when played for 20 minutes a day for three consecutive days.

Although previous studies have revealed a single violent gaming session can increase short-term aggression, this is the first to show longer-term effects.

Lead author Professor Brad Bushman, of Ohio State University, USA, compares the effect to smoking: ‘It’s important to know the long-term causal effects of violent video games, because so many young people regularly play these games.

‘Playing video games could be compared to smoking cigarettes. A single cigarette won’t cause lung cancer, but smoking over weeks or months or years greatly increases the risk.

‘In the same way, repeated exposure to violent video games may have a cumulative effect on aggression.’

A total of 70 French university students were told they would be taking part in a three-day study on the effects of brightness of video games on visual perception.

They were then told to play either a violent or non-violent game for 20 minutes everyday for three consecutive days by the researchers from the University Pierre Mendhs-France and the University of Hohenheim, Germany.

The violent video games in the study for the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology were Condemned 2, Call of Duty 4 and The Club, while those in the non-violent group played S3K Superbike, Dirt2 and Pure.

After playing each game, the students were given the beginning of a story, and then asked to list 20 things the main character will do or say as the story unfolds to measure their hostile expectations.

In one story, a driver crashes into the back of the protagonist’s car – causing significant damage – and the researchers counted how many times the students listed violent or aggressive actions and words that might occur.

People who have a steady diet of playing these violent games may come to see the world as a hostile place, say scientists

The students then participated in a competitive reaction time task, which is used to measure aggression, with each participant told they would compete against an unseen opponent in a computer game where the object was to be the first to respond to a visual cue on the screen.

The loser received a blast of unpleasant noise through headphones – such as nails on a chalk board or sirens – and the winner decided how loud and long the blast would be.

In reality, there was no opponent and the participants were told they won about half the trials.

Results showed that after each day, those who played the violent games had an increase in their hostile expectations – meaning they were more likely to think the characters would react with aggression or violence.

Prof Bushman said: ‘People who have a steady diet of playing these violent games may come to see the world as a hostile and violent place.

‘These results suggest there could be a cumulative effect. Hostile expectations are probably not the only reason that players of violent games are more aggressive, but our study suggests it is certainly one important factor.

‘After playing a violent video game, we found that people expect others to behave aggressively.

‘That expectation may make them more defensive and more likely to respond with aggression themselves, as we saw in this study and in other studies we have conducted.’

He said it is ‘impossible’ to know how much aggression could increase for those who play video games for months or years, as most people do.

‘We would know more if we could test players for longer periods of time, but that isn’t practical or ethical.

‘I would expect that the increase in aggression would accumulate for more than three days. It may eventually level off.

‘However, there is no theoretical reason to think that aggression would decrease over time, as long as players are still playing the violent games.’

if you don´t believe what you have just read is true then read this:

Computer games fan ‘planned school massacre’

 Charles Bremner and Marie Tourres in Paris From The Times

November 19, 2009

A 13-year-old computer games enthusiast is facing charges of attempted murder after police said that they had thwarted a plan to shoot dead his teachers for giving him poor marks.

The boy, named only as Bastien, was arrested in Beauvais, 60 miles (96km) north of Paris, on Tuesday morning, hours after leaving his home in the nearby village of Allonne armed with his father’s shotgun and cartridges.

His parents were said to have been suspicious about his behaviour, including his unusually early 7am departure to Saint Esprit college, his Catholic private secondary school. They called police after finding a note on his blog saying: “This is my last muzik and certainly the last because Tuesday, November 17, 2009, will be the last day of my life. Sorry to leave you”

Prosecutors believe that France narrowly escaped a school massacre of the type suffered so often in the US and, recently, in Germany and Finland. Police rushed to the 2,000-pupil school and sealed it off after searching it and failing to find Bastien. Pupils were told to sit on the floor away from doors and windows in case he was hiding in the building. Bastien’s father, a manager at an electrical company, later found him in a nearby internet café.

The boy told police that he had turned away from the school after seeing them blocking the gate. He had thrown the gun and ammunition into a field.

“He left his home with a loaded shotgun and 25 cartridges,” said Raymond Yeddou, a senior state official in Beauvais. “He went in the direction of the school where, according to his statement, he intended to kill all his teachers.”

James Juan, the local prosecutor, said that the boy had “wanted to attack his teachers because they found fault with him even though he had done nothing wrong”. Friends said that Bastien — usually near the top of his class at the highly competitive school — was upset that his teachers had recently given him middling marks.

The school denied that it had put any special pressure on him. Dominique Moutin, the headmaster, said: “I never had any problem with this pupil. I never had any idea that he could have such negative and dangerous ideas. But you never know.”

The incident again raised the question of the influence of violent online games. A boy who described himself as Bastien’s best friend said: “He always wanted to go into the army. He loved battles. He was passionate about history, warriors. He played video games up to one or two in the morning. I didn’t think that he would be capable of something like this. I don’t think he wanted to harm anyone.”

Bastien was said by friends to have been devoted to World of Warcraft, the hugely popular online game in which the player takes the role of a fantasy warrior from the Middle Ages. Christian Sadowski, the Mayor of Allonne, said that he knew the family well and that the boy was a fan of computer games. “Many young people end up finding it difficult to tell the difference between dream and reality,” he told The Times.

Bastien is likely to be charged in court today with attempted murder. Police said that he was in good health and did not appear depressed. He would face a maximum 20-year prison term if found guilty.

Connecticut town to burn violent video games in wake of Sandy Hook tragedy

January 2, 2013. (Reuters/Carlo Allegri)

A Connecticut community is urging people to turn in violent video games to be destroyed. The move was prompted by the December 14 mass shooting at nearby Sandy Hook Elementary School, during which 20 children and six educators were killed.

A collection drive will take place on January 12 in the town of Southington, Connecticut, a 30-minute drive from the scene of the massacre in Newtown.

Violent video games, CDs, and DVDs will be placed in a dumpster and later burned by town employees.

The event was organized by Southington SOS, a coalition of local groups.

“As people arrive in their cars to turn in their games of violence, they will be offered a gift certificate donated by a member of the Greater Southington Chamber of Commerce as a token of appreciation for their action of responsible citizenship,” the group said in a statement.

In a press release, Southington SOS said its actions should not be “construed as statement declaring that violent videogames were the cause of the shocking violence in Newtown on December 14,” but that violent video games and films desensitize children to “acts of violence.”

However, experts have said there is absolutely no link between violent video games and violent behaviour.

A study by Texas A&M University found that exposure to violent games “had neither short-term nor long-term predictive influences on either positive or negative outcomes.”

“There is no good evidence that video games or other media contributes, even in a small way, to mass homicides or any other violence among youth,” report author Christopher J. Ferguson wrote in Time magazine.

Other nearby communities have expressed sympathy for the grieving community. Danbury, the large town nearest to Newtown, cancelled a gun show scheduled to take place this weekend after organizers received a number of complaints. The show was permanently cancelled rather than postponed, the Guardian reported.

Students of Sandy Hook elementary returned to class for the first time on Thursday, at a former middle school in the nearby town of Monroe.

Teams of workers, including many volunteers, renovated the school, even raising the bathroom floors so that smaller elementary students can reach the toilets.

Workers tried their best to replicate Sandy Hook elementary, painting classroom walls the same colours and hanging the same pictures. Backpacks and other belongings left behind after the shooting were also taken to the new school to help the children feel at home.

Sandy Hook elementary is being treated as a crime scene, and it remains unclear whether it will ever reopen.

Grand Theft Auto 4: The Ballad Of Gay Tony video game review

The Ballad Of Gay Tony features sharp writing, larger than life characters, and the kind of gaming experience that will remind players why they were drawn to GTA in the first place.

By Nick Cowen the Telegraph

Published: 11:39AM GMT 02 Nov 2009

When Rockstar Games released The Lost And Damned on Xbox Live, they effectively set the bar for any DLC which followed it. The sheer size of the new content was impressive enough in itself, but the way it all came together so smoothly in one slick package was simply mind-boggling. In the months since, the only expansions comparable to The Lost And Damned, are the DLC packs for Bethesda’s mighty open-world monster, Fallout 3. The Ballad Of Gay Tony, the latest DLC for Grand Theft Auto 4, has an unbelievably tough act to follow, so it’s to its developer’s credit that it not only lives up to the standards set by its predecessor, it also manages to bring down the curtain on GTA 4 in no small amount of style.

Like The Lost And Damned, the narrative of The Ballad Of Gay Tony exists at the periphery of Niko Bellic’s story in GTA 4, and once again, it occasionally overlaps with it. However, the new DLC’s story feels more like a bookend to the themes of the main game’s plot than its predecessor; whereas GTA 4 documented Niko Bellic’s rise up Liberty City’s social food chain, The Ballad Of Gay Tony follows the efforts of nightclub managers Luis Lopez and ‘Gay’ Tony Prince as they try grimly to hang onto their positions at the top of it. The Ballad Of Gay Tony starts with Prince admitting to Lopez that the financial backing for their nightclubs came from Liberty City’s underworld, and now the pair of them are in debt to some extremely dangerous people. Lopez soon finds himself lent out as muscle to a series of shady criminals – as well as a couple of certifiably insane dilettantes – as a means of paying off his and Tony’s debt. At the same time Lopez tries to prevent Prince from doing himself in with a cocktail of pills, booze, drugs and hysterical fits.

Despite the grim set-up, The Ballad Of Gay Tony is an altogether more upbeat affair than The Lost And Damned. The location is far more glamorous as most of the DLC’s action forsakes Liberty City’s dour ghettos and docile suburbs for the glitzy island of Algonquin (or Manhattan to you). The dour palette of the Lost And Damned has been ejected, and even the pause menu takes on a Day-Glo font. The characters in the new content, with one or two exceptions, come across more like spoiled buffoons than genuinely nefarious criminals. Lopez seems fairly easy-going for a self-confessed ‘murdering maniac’, while Prince for his part is a highly strung, tantrum throwing drama queen without the sense God gave goats. The best new character is the story’s incredibly spoiled billionaire, Yusuf; wonderfully voiced by British-Iranian comedian Omid Djalili, Yusuf is easily the most likeable person in the game due to his shameless behaviour and bullet-proof self-belief. (An exchange with Luis during which Yusuf describes himself as a ‘flying cobra’ is laugh-out-loud hilarious.) The story’s overall tone is far more optimistic than either that GTA 4 or The Lost And Damned DLC; while Lopez and Prince are constantly under the hammer, there’s never a doubt in the player’s mind that everything will turn out all right for this particular odd couple. The new additions to the game’s radio stations are a mix of high-energy disco and cheesy pop classics from the 1980s; you haven’t lived until you’ve shot down Liberty City police helicopters in a gold-painted chopper while listening to ‘Breakout’ by Swing Out Sister.

The new missions on offer in The Ballad Of Gay Tony have been ramped up to ridiculously entertaining levels. The new DLC will take players around ten to twelve hours to complete, but chances are they’ll be having so much fun, the time will flash by. This is largely down to the outlandish activities they’ll find themselves taking part in which include stealing a subway car with an air-crane, escaping from a skyscraper by parachuting onto a flatbed truck and taking part in a race which involves skydiving, boat-racing and speeding down Algonquin’s main roads in a nitro-boosted sports car. Ultimately, the story’s main missions hearken back to the cartoonish, over the top and (it has to be said) highly enjoyable style of gameplay that made the GTA series a smash hit in the first place.

The missions are complimented by the new weapons on offer; top among these is the auto-shotgun loaded with explosive rounds – fire this baby at an approaching vehicle and it leaves the target looking like it was punched by a grizzly bear. Lopez also has access to a new selection of machine guns, including a light P90 assault rifle, an augmented machine gun and Tech 9. There are also several missions involving sticky bombs, which can be placed on stationary targets or hurled onto moving targets from the window of a speeding vehicle. The sticky bombs cause a satisfying amount of damage – especially when heaped in a cluster – but can be fiddly to use at times, as they don’t always land on the target they’re aimed at; we gave up using them in one mission involving a fleeing jet, and used a missile launcher instead. The DLC also offers a couple of new vehicles, including the aforementioned gold-painted attack helicopter, and a police tank complete with a rotating turret gun; both are all you need to unleash hell on your fellow Liberty City commuters.

Apart from the new weapons and missions, players have quite a few more activities to occupy Luis’ time with; given that his main job is nightclub management, Lopez will occasionally get a call to check in at one of his and Tony’s clubs to help run the show. This can involve watching the floor for trouble, solving the odd crisis for preferred clients and tossing unruly patrons out into the street. Luis can also cut up a rug with the best of them, and the dancing mini-game is loads of fun to play. After the first story mission involving parachutes, a series of base-jumping platforms open up around Algonquin and players can earn extra points by parachuting down to highlighted landing zones. They can also use helicopters to fly them to a jump zone, and parachute down through a series of markers. The base-jumping mechanics will be familiar to anyone who played Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, and overall the experience is fun and easy to master. Aside from club management and base jumping, Lopez can also venture into his old neighbourhood to dabble in a spot of bare-knuckled cage fighting, or help out some of his drug-dealing homeboys in the odd turf war. The DLC also comes with a multiplayer in which players can engage in street racing or a variety of deathmatches.

Perhaps the only downside to the new DLC is that it’s (reportedly) the last new content which will be released for GTA 4. While the game is starting to show its age visually a year after its release, it has to be said that we’ve become rather attached to the Liberty City’s collection of affable sociopaths. It also raises questions about where Rockstar can take the GTA franchise next; with Red Dead Redemption and Max Payne 3 on the horizon, there’s been no indication from Rockstar as to when a new GTA title is set to appear on a console that isn’t a hand-held. It might not be beyond the realms of possibility that they may be about to draw a line under the franchise altogether. If that’s the case, then the series couldn’t want for a better swansong than The Ballad Of Gay Tony; this DLC may not push GTA in completely new directions, but at its best it features sharp writing, larger than life characters, and the kind of gaming experience that will remind players why they were drawn to GTA in the first place.

Screen violence ‘desensitises teenage brains’

Violent films and video games really do numb the brains of teenagers, with repeated viewings making them less sensitive to aggression, according to a new study.

By Stephen Adams, Medical Correspondent the Telegraph Published: 7:30AM BST 19 Oct 2010

The researchers used brain scans to show how they become less emotionally responsive to violence the more they see.

They say it is among the first hard physiological evidence for the theory that on-screen violence leads to real-world aggression.

For years campaigners have argued that watching violent films and playing games like Grand Theft Auto, Mortal Kombat and Modern Warfare makes youngsters more prone to violence. In the Grand Theft Auto series, players become characters who win points for carjacking, killing prostitutes and running over pedestrians.

Summarising his findings, Dr Jordan Grafman, of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda, US, said: “Exposure to the most violent videos inhibits emotional reactions to similar aggressive videos over time and implies that normal adolescents will feel fewer emotions over time as they are exposed to similar videos.”

He added: “Continued exposure to violent videos will make an adolescent less sensitive to violence, more accepting of violence, and more likely to commit aggressive acts since the emotional component associated with aggression is reduced and normally acts as a brake on aggressive behaviour.”

For the study, Dr Grafman and his team recruited 22 boys aged 14 to 17.

They were asked to watch a series of 60 four-second video clips, arranged randomly in three lots of 20 clips.

The degree of violence and aggression in each scene was low, mild or moderate. There were no extreme scenes.

The boys were asked to rate the aggression of each scene compared to the last by pressing one of two response buttons.

As they watched, their brain activity were monitored using MRI scans.

Electrodes were also attached to their fingers to measure small second-by-second changes in sweat levels – known as skin conductance responses (SCRs) – another indicator of emotional state.

Dr Grafman said: “We found that as the boys were exposed to more violent videos over time, their activation in brain regions concerned with emotional reactivity decreased and that was reflected in the data from the functional MRI and in the skin conductance responses.”

In particular, the area of the brain known as the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), which is thought to be involved in emotions and emotional responses, became increasingly desensitised over time.

This was most marked after watching the most aggressive clips.

Dr Grafman noted: “No prior study has examined this from the complete perspective we had that included behaviour, brain activation, and SCRs in adolescent brains.”

The study has been published online in the Oxford Journal Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience.

But Prof Mark Griffiths, a psychologist at the International Gaming Research Unit at Nottingham Trent University, said such studies could not prove a causal link between watching violent images and committing real-life violence.

He said: “I don’t think anybody would deny that people do become desensitised to violence. But the real issue is whether that in and of itself causes negative consequences.”

People were not simply slaves to the biological processes of their bodies and brains, he said. How they behaved also depended on a host of psychological and social factors, such as how much violence they experienced as children.

UN official: drone attacks ordered away from battlefield may lead to ‘PlayStation’ mentality

A United Nations investigator has called for a halt to CIA-directed drone strikes on suspected Islamic militants, warning that killings ordered far from the battlefield could lead to a “PlayStation” mentality.

Published: 11:05AM BST 03 Jun 2010 The Telegraph

Philip Alston, UN special rapporteur on extrajudicial executions, said missile strikes could be justified only when it was impossible to capture insurgents alive.

He said drone attacks should only be authorised if they were carried out by regular US armed forces operating with proper oversight and respect for the rules of war.

The CIA’s use of unmanned Predator or Reaper drones in Afghanistan and Pakistan against al Qaeda and Taliban suspects had led to the death of “many hundreds,” including innocent civilians, he said in a 29-page report.

“Intelligence agencies, which by definition are determined to remain unaccountable except to their own paymasters, have no place in running programmes that kill people in other countries,” Mr Alston said.

The world does not know when and where the CIA is authorised to kill; its criteria for choosing targets; whether they are lawful killings; and how it follows up when civilians are illegally killed, said Mr Alston, an independent expert who will present his report to the UN Human Rights Council on Thursday.

The CIA disputed the investigator’s conclusion.

“Without discussing or confirming any specific action or program, this agency’s operations unfold within a framework of law and close government oversight. The accountability’s real, and it would be wrong for anyone to suggest otherwise,” said a CIA spokesman.

Under President Barrack Obama, the CIA has stepped up its drone strikes in the tribal zone of Pakistan bordering Afghanistan, targeting not only high-level al Qaeda and Taliban targets but largely unknown foot soldiers as well.

Following a directive first issued by former President George W. Bush and continued by Obama, the CIA has widened the “target set” for drone strikes in Pakistan.

Al Qaeda’s third-in-command, Sheikh Sa’id al-Masri, is believed to have been killed in May in a U.S. missile strike in Pakistan.

The United States is believed to control the fleet of drones from CIA headquarters in Virginia, coordinating with civilian pilots near hidden airfields in Afghanistan and Pakistan who fly the drones remotely.

“Because operators are based thousands of miles away from the battlefield, and undertake operations entirely through computer screens and remote audio-feed, there is a risk of developing a ‘PlayStation’ mentality to killing,” he said.

Under international law, targeted killings are permitted in armed conflicts when used against fighters or civilians who engage directly in combat-like activities, Mr Alston said. “But they are increasingly being used far from any battle zone.”

The United States is among 40 countries with drone technology.

Britain, China, France, India, Iran, Israel, Russia and Turkey are named as having or seeking the capacity to fire missiles from their drones.

But countries should use graduated force and where possible capture suspects rather than kill them, he said.

“Thus, rather than using drone strikes, US forces should, wherever and whenever possible, conduct arrests or use less-than-lethal force to restrain.”

Now it’s time to look at our education system. You read in the first chapter how this was the key to having an obedient and compliant populace, now we will spend a few chapter’s looking at exactly how much time and effort has been expended by our rich masters to control what goes into our children’s heads.

I knew Pink Floyd were right…


Incidentally if you thought I was exaggerating when I said they’re turning your kids into serial killers?

Read this if you doubt me…

Serial killer assignment withdrawn from curriculum

By Mandy Squires Geelong Advertiser  December 03, 2012 6:16PM

  • School asks students to complete a serial killer assignment
  • Tasks include create a serial killer board game

“Hello everyone, welcome to your serial killer assignment.

You are to complete 10, yes 10, of the activities listed below in the next two weeks

You will have all the class time we have to complete it.

Remember to ask questions and plan out things, these tasks need to be detailed and not a five-minute hit and giggle.

As you can see each activity has been assigned points from 1-5. For you to pass this assignment your 10 activities must add up to a minimum 30 points.

Take some time to figure out your activities and then begin.

Good luck!”

Your task choices:

1. Draw a cartoon panel about how your serial killer murdered someone.

2. Produce a detailed artwork about your chosen serial killer. (3)

3. Choose two serial killers, compare them and decide which of them is worse and why. 

4. Write a poem about a serial killer. 

5. Write a newspaper article about a serial killer who hasn’t been caught yet. Describe what they are doing, why people should be scared, what they should look out for etc etc. Make it look like a real newspaper article (at least 200 words). (4)

6. Write an interview with a serial killer as if you were a journalist a make up their answers. (3)

7. Do an A-Z chart of serial killers. (2)

8. Construct a serial killer survey and record the results. (2)

9. Categorise 10 different serial killers into their different motivations (hedonistic, visionary, mission orientated, power/control) and why you have chosen that. (4)

10. Do a similarities and differences table between a spree killer and a serial killer. have at least 10 examples of each. (3)

11. Invent a psychological test which you could give to someone which would accurately assess if someone was a potential serial killer. (5)

12. Hypothesize what would have happened to Jeffrey Dahmer if he went to a psychologist when he started hurting animals? (3)

13. Construct a list of 15 questions you would like to ask a serial killer. (2)

14. Make a children’s book which teaches them about serial killers. Make sure you are aware of the audience it will be written for. (5)

15. Draw a floor plan of what you think a serial killer’s dream house looks like. This needs to be detailed with notes about what you have included and why. (5)

16. Imagine you are a judge, what sort of sentence would you have given Ted Bundy and why? (3)

17. Create a rap about serial killers. (4)

18. Draw the movie poster about the life of a serial killer. (3)

19. Create a serial killer board game with full instructions. (5)

20 Decide whether or not it is a good thing that serial killers can make money from being famous for their crimes. (2)

This assignment was this year given to year nine students at Northern Bay College in Geelong.

It has been widely condemned and withdrawn from the curriculum.



“EDUCATION” PART TWO – Find out what the Prussian/Hindu Caste System “education system” was REALLY all about. – State Mind Control. AND A NEVER ENDING CONVEYER BELT OF OBEDIENT UNQUESTIONING MORONS


This is from the first chapter of my second “book” “Dumbed down word controlled monkey’s who think that keeping up with the Jones’s and not being the stupidest guy or gal in the room is ALL that really matters”. which is available on this site for free.

It has been posted as an addendum to my last post on the deliberate dumbing down of us ALL through the public education system – it is in fact a continuation of that theme, but in this second part you get to see the root ideology behind the whole caboodle. Enjoy.

I’m sorry to say my friend, but I genuinely hope that the first instalment of this work was a bit of an eye watering experience for you. (And unless you’re either thick, stupid, or one of today’s apathetic, generation X, post-ironic, phased by pure nada, automaton’s, or just one of those annoyingly pig-headed know-it-all types who thinks I’m talking bull (simply because the guy on the 6 o’clock news hasn’t told you any of this) it fucking well should have been!) It was compiled with the aim of capturing your attention, and to also open (or if required poke) your eyes. I have just spent nearly 900 pages showing you, (at times in great detail), that we have all been greatly manipulated for purposes that are entirely detrimental to our entire species, now I’m going to spend this part of the work showing you exactly how it is being done. (Including once again laying bare for your perusal all the utterly preposterous and downright whacky “Science*” that stands behind this nonsense).

*You may well recall my having a slight dig at science right back at the beginning of this work, (and continuously ever since). The reason for this is quite simple: Science and many of its “experts” are being used constantly to manipulate us in a whole multitude of ways.

The physics part during my introduction has also (hopefully) pointed out this second fact to you too: They (the experts) don’t know everything. – (And as you are about to see in this work, for mere money and platitudes, many of these so called scientist’s are quite willing to kill, maim, or otherwise seriously harm their fellow human beings, children included).

Right now I’m not going to waste any further time dwelling on the points raised earlier on in the work because we have much more to cover in this part. – But I will get back to them. The overwhelming theme of this part of the puzzle will be Mind Control. (Or from now on MK for short. (That’s where the K for Kontrol came from in my last work incidentally). It’s a subject that I’ve already touched upon many times up to this point in my thesis, and for that reason I will now dedicate a major amount of my time in detailing for you exactly how deep-rooted, powerful, and all pervasive this mental menace is. The public funds alone that have been spent on this field of “science” are astronomical. And then there’s the private fund’s… If you were to add it all up, to be blunt, it equals… DEEP FUCKING TROUBLE FOR ALL OF US!

We begin this journey by visiting a relatively forgotten region of Germany first of all, then we will then look across what seems like a small spectrum of “science” or “medicine” related subjects; we will be starting with psychiatry/psychology, and then we will move onto the dodgy goings on in the world of psychiatric drugs. Then we delve into Mind Control proper: From its (recently modern) – (as this has been going on for a long time) birth, to its present day perfection, (we will also take some time to look at the “covering up” of the ritual sexual abuse phenomena, because this relates to material that you read in the first part concerning paedophilia. (Do you remember that weirdo Uncle Fester lookalike Aquino? He pops up again.) Then after that, well after that it’s time to show you more “science” (often the work of intelligence services or the military) which has been developed, (and had an awful lot of financial aid flung in its direction over the years), all seeking to create, (and this is no exaggeration) full blown, bona-fide, (remote) mind controlled human beings!

Some of the men you will be reading about think that they have succeeded in this goal.

The material available (that is just from the PUBLIC RECORD) on this one subject alone is easily enough to prove my case 20 times over. And for that reason plenty of my proof will of course come direct from the public record. But I must add that, once again, it will also (of course) be a select band of “other’s” who will be teaching you plenty during this “my” (so called) “work”. One of those teachers will (once again) be the studious, intelligent and inimitable, Mr Dave McGowan. And trust me, he teaches you much with the sampling I have included of his best work to date: “Programmed to Kill” – (It talks about STATE sponsored serial killer’s and it is towards the end of my chapter’s concentrating on the development of mind control), I then finish this short group of chapter’s by casting a curious eye over the harrowing and unforgettable events that transpired at both Jonestown and in Dunblane.

The education system (you will discover) also has a massive part to play in all of this too, so I will spend some time with you going over where our present day education “system” really came from, what its true purpose is, and I will also show you how it is an institution which causes untold harm to our most precious of resources: – Our children. – I need to point out, that in order for me to do so, Mr John Taylor Gatto is the man being relied upon for the truly extraordinary work that he’s done both with, and also on, “Education” as a whole.

In the process of doing this I will also take the time to show you the many obvious links and common ground that clearly exists between these three seemingly unrelated matters:

The education “system” of the developed world, the rather insane “science” of psychiatry, and the even weirder subject of mind control.

And wouldn’t you know it, it turns out that the exact SAME people who had funded these three field’s (mentioned above) from their birth to the present day, who oddly, weirdly and rather conveniently (for me), had also funded the birth science’s, plus all that other stuff that you learned in the first part like: the abortion pill, feminism, homosexuality, etc.) – Yep, once again it’s those pesky Rockefeller (trust’s) (with the help of other’s in this helping, like Ford and Carnegie) who’ve been blatantly splashing their malevolent cash once again!

As I have said, to start this part of the section off we will cover a region of Germany that had a massive effect on the whole world during the 19th century, and even though you probably won’t agree with me, or you may even think I’m little weird* for saying this, this is the place where your guide on this tour feels that we need to start if you are to ever fully understand the true (modern) roots of this so called “science” of mind control. After that we will also be covering everything from psychiatry and psychology, to mind control in, theory, use, and practise, including the military side and also the intelligence service side as well. Then there’s the pharmaceutical and medical angle to all of this too. And as I have already said, we will then look at more of what I feel is Mr Dave McGowan’s best piece of work so far, – “Programmed to Kill”. – His enthralling, explosive, and always fascinating piece of work on State crafted serial killer’s, this is before finishing off the large part of this concentrating just on the “science” of MK, by showing you just two examples of exactly how this total control of the lives of others doesn’t just work on individuals, it can also work on large groups. – We’ll do this by looking at Jim Jones and Jonestown first of all, then we will be covering a subject I wanted to go over in part one, but that I ultimately felt you just weren’t ready for back then. It’s only now that we have covered all the ground we have that I can cover the Dunblane massacre. This was a brutal example of MK on a country-wide scale.

We then spend a little time looking at the blatant Mind Control going on through the media. And just to make my point on this matter rather succinctly. The simple fact is this: If any of these media people were actually doing their job, don’t you feel that you would already have been told about virtually all of the things that I have discussed with you up to this point? How many of them have you actually been told about on TV or in the newspaper? The fact that you will have heard almost NOTHING on ALL of the issues I have raised earlier should have demonstrated to you just how much our “news” is both filtered and controlled. When you see for yourself how utterly controlled the media is, then you will understand why.

We will be putting our government supplied education system under the microscope. I feel it is pertinent for me to be both starting and winding up this part of the work by showing you exactly how much of an effect these people have had on education, and on our CHILDREN.

When you are clearly shown the lie on each of these matters, and after being told why you were being lied to in the first place, I’d imagine that many of you will either get rather angry with me, or with my work. (Or if you’re smarter, you might get angry with “them”). If I was you, I wouldn’t waste my time doing either. Instead I’d pour all that frustration and anger into getting myself fully clued up on ALL of this nonsense. I’d then start educating others about it. – Give them this or my other work if you feel it will help them along the way. Feel free. – Your kind, humble, and always considerate (never rude or brash) friend. – Martin K.

*Weird to you, not me. – Remember I’m the annoying, cocky, Jock cunt who has been telling you, (right from page one, of part fucking one, for God’s sake), that I knows what I’s doing.

Now to begin this part of the work, we will begin at the beginning by taking the logical and necessary step of going right back to the very foundation’s of modern day mind control.

You might well think I’d begin with either Psychiatry or Behaviourism, but you’d be wrong.

You might, if you know a little on the matter say Wundt, Freud or Jung, but you’d still be wrong.

It’s not a person, or even a science as such, not in my view; it’s actually a place…

It’s a region in fact, one that pops up quite a lot in the second section of this work, and it’s one that many of you will know very little about. But don’t fret, that’s all about to change…

It’s called Prussia – (Cue the anti-climatical music to match that scrunchy look on your face)

Even though it may not be the starting place that you were expecting, trust me, (in my humble opinion), Prussia is the place where a lot of the modern attitudes prevalent in most “First World” countries (in the present day) really came from, like for example: “The State is more important than the people who make it up” – ”We all live to serve the State” – “Trust your Government” – “Trust ALL authority” – “Trust the media to find and print the truth” Etc.

Curiously, the “Prussian Model” is one that is being aimed for, and it is one being practised by so many of our governments worldwide today, that there must be something to it.

(Its mantra’s are also being preached to us by all of the high priest’s of our modern day “educational” institution’s – As you are about to find out for yourself.)

This first chapter’s significance will perhaps (I feel) only become truly apparent to you when you have read this work for a second time, don’t get me wrong, it fits right in with the rest of this part of section one, but it’s TRUE significance will probably only become clear when you have read all the section’s of this work, or perhaps, only once you’ve read them twice. –

(In section two, you’ll understand a lot clearer what I’m going on about.)

Before I defer to Mr Gatto, please allow me to leave you with these true words of wisdom…

Before you ever bother to look at any science in its application, you should take the time to look at the same science’s “Foundation’s”. (Especially if the name Rockefeller pops up!)

From the stunning book “Underground History of American Education” by John Taylor Gatto

A very small group of young psychologists around the turn of the century were able to create and market a system for measuring human talent that has permeated American (My note. And also the British too) institutions of learning and influenced such fundamental social concepts as democracy, sanity, justice, welfare, reproductive rights, and economic progress. In creating, owning, and advertising this social technology the testers created themselves as professionals. – Joanne Brown, The Definition of a Profession: The Authority of Metaphor in the History of Intelligence Testing.

I have undertaken to get at the facts from the point of view of the business men – citizens of the community who, after all, pay the bills and, therefore, have a right to say what they shall have in their schools. – Charles H. Thurber, from an address at the Annual Meeting of the National Education Association, July 9, 1897

(My note. My whole case proven in a lone quote!!!!!)

Chapter Seven – Prussian Fire-Discipline

On approaching the enemy, the marching columns of Prussians wheeled in succession to the right or left, passed along the front of the enemy until the rear company had wheeled. Then the whole together wheeled into line facing the enemy. These movements brought the infantry into two long well-closed lines, parade-ground precision obtained thanks to remorseless drilling. With this movement was bound up a fire-discipline more extraordinary than any perfection of manoeuvre. “Pelotonfeuer” was opened at 200 paces from the enemy and continued up to 30 paces when the line fell on with the bayonet. The possibility of this combination of fire and movement was the work of Leopold, who by sheer drill made the soldier a machine capable of delivering (with flintlock muzzle-loading muskets) five volleys a minute. The special Prussian fire-discipline gave an advantage of five shots to two against all opponents. The bayonet attack, if the rolling volleys had done their work, was merely “presenting the cheque for payment,” as a German writer put it. – Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition, “Prussia”

The Land of Frankenstein

 The particular utopia American believers chose to bring to the schoolhouse was Prussian.

The seed that became American schooling, twentieth-century style, was planted in 1806 when Napoleon’s amateur soldiers bested the professional soldiers of Prussia at the battle of Jena. When your business is renting soldiers and employing diplomatic extortion under threat of your soldiery, losing a battle like that is pretty serious. Something had to be done.

The most important immediate reaction to Jena was an immortal speech, the “Address to the German Nation” by the philosopher Fichte–one of the influential documents of modern history leading directly to the first workable compulsion schools in the West.

Other times, other lands talked about schooling, but all failed to deliver. Simple forced training for brief intervals and for narrow purposes was the best that had ever been managed. This time would be different. In no uncertain terms Fichte told Prussia the party was over. Children would have to be disciplined through a new form of universal conditioning. They could no longer be trusted to their parents. Look what Napoleon had done by banishing sentiment in the interests of nationalism. Through forced schooling, everyone would learn that “work makes free,” and working for the State, even laying down one’s life to its commands, was the greatest freedom of all. (My Note. Dulce Et Decorum Est Pro Patria Mori, the Owen poem, not the idea, perfectly summed it up.) Here in the genius of semantic redefinition1 lay the power to cloud men’s minds, a power later packaged and sold by public relations pioneers Edward Bernays and Ivy Lee in the seedtime of American forced schooling.

Prior to Fichte’s challenge any number of compulsion-school proclamations had rolled off printing presses here and there, including Martin Luther’s plan to tie church and state together this way and, of course, the “Old Deluder Satan” law of 1642 in Massachusetts and its 1645 extension. The problem was these earlier ventures were virtually unenforceable, roundly ignored by those who smelled mischief lurking behind fancy promises of free education. People who wanted their kids schooled had them schooled even then; people who didn’t didn’t. That was more or less true for most of us right into the twentieth century: as late as1920, only 32 percent of American kids went past elementary school. If that sounds impossible, consider the practice in Switzerland today where only 23 percent of the student population goes to high school, though Switzerland has the world’s highest per capita income in the world.

Prussia was prepared to use bayonets on its own people as readily as it wielded them against others, so it’s not all that surprising the human race got its first effective secular compulsion schooling out of Prussia in 1819, the same year Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, set in the darkness of far-off Germany, was published in England. Schule came after more than a decade of deliberations, commissions, testimony, and debate. For a brief, hopeful moment, Humboldt’s brilliant arguments for a high-level no-holds-barred, free-swinging, universal, intellectual course of study for all, full of variety, free debate, rich experience, and personalized curricula almost won the day. What a different world we would have today if Humboldt had won the Prussian debate, but the forces backing Baron vom Stein won instead. And that has made all the difference. 

The Prussian mind, which carried the day, held a clear idea of what centralised schooling should deliver:

1) Obedient soldiers to the army

2) Obedient workers for mines, factories, and farms

3) Well-subordinated civil servants, trained in their function

4) Well-subordinated clerks for industry

5) Citizens who thought alike on most issues

6) National uniformity in thought, word, and deed.

(My note. Tell me, does this all not sound a just a little tiny bit familiar to you?)

The area of individual volition for commoners was severely foreclosed by Prussian psychological training procedures drawn from the experience of animal husbandry and equestrian training, and also taken from past military experience. (Me. – WTF!)

 Much later, in our own time, the techniques of these assorted crafts and sullen arts became “discoveries” in the pedagogical pseudoscience of psychological behaviourism. (My Note. We will be covering this issue in great detail later on in this part of my work.)

Prussian schools delivered everything they promised.

Every important matter could now be confidently worked out in advance by leading families and institutional heads because well-schooled masses would concur with a minimum of opposition.

This tightly schooled consensus in Prussia eventually combined the kaleidoscopic German principalities into a united Germany, after a thousand years as a nation in fragments. What a surprise the world would soon get from this successful experiment in national centralization!

Under Prussian state socialism private industry surged, vaulting resource-poor Prussia up among world leaders. Military success remained Prussia’s touchstone. Even before the school law went into full effect as an enhancer of state priorities, the army corps under Blücher was the principal reason for Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo, its superb discipline allowing for a surprisingly successful return to combat after what seemed to be a crushing defeat at the Little Corporal’s hands just days before.3 Unschooled, the Prussians were awesome; conditioned in the classroom promised to make them even more formidable.

The immense prestige earned from this triumph reverberated through an America not so lucky in its own recent fortunes of war, a country humiliated by a shabby showing against the British in the War of 1812. Even thirty years after Waterloo, so highly was Prussia regarded in America and Britain, the English-speaking adversaries selected the Prussian king to arbitrate our northwest border with Canada. Hence the Pennsylvania town “King of Prussia.” Thirty-three years after Prussia made state schooling work, we borrowed the structure, style, and intention of those Germans for our own first compulsion schools.

Traditional American school purpose–piety, good manners, basic intellectual tools, self-reliance, etc.–was scrapped to make way for something different.

Our historical destination of personal independence gave way slowly to Prussian-purpose schooling, not because the American way lost in any competition of ideas, but because for the new commercial and manufacturing hierarchs, such a course made better economic sense.

This private advance toward nationalized schooling in America was partially organized, although little has ever been written about it; Orestes Brownson’s journal identifies a covert national apparatus (to which Brownson briefly belonged) already in place in the decade after the War of 1812, one whose stated purpose was to “Germanize” America, beginning in those troubled neighbourhoods where the urban poor huddled, and where disorganized new immigrants made easy targets, according to Brownson. Enmity on the part of old-stock middle-class and working-class populations toward newer immigrants gave these unfortunates no appeal against the school sentence to which Massachusetts assigned them. They were in for a complete makeover, like it or not. Much of the story, as it was being written by 1844, lies just under the surface of Mann’s florid prose in his Seventh

Annual Report to the Boston School Committee. On a visit to Prussia the year before, he had been much impressed (so he said) with the ease by which Prussian calculations could determine precisely how many thinkers, problem-solvers, and working stiffs the State would require over the coming decade, then how it offered the precise categories of training required to develop the percentages of human resource needed. All this was much fairer to Mann than England’s repulsive episcopal system–schooling based on social class; Prussia, he thought, was republican in the desirable, manly, Roman sense. Massachusetts must take the same direction.

1Machiavelli had clearly identified this as a necessary strategy of state in 1532, and even explored its choreography.

2For an ironic reflection on the success of Prussian educational ideals, take a look at Martin Van Creveld’s Fighting Power (Greenwood Press, 1982). Creveld, the world’s finest military historian, undertakes to explain why German armies in 1914–1918 and 1939–1945, although heavily outnumbered in the major battles of both wars, consistently inflicted 30 percent more casualties than they suffered, whether they were winning or losing, on defence or on offense, no matter who they fought. They were better led, we might suspect, but the actual training of those field commanders comes as a shock. While American officer selection was right out of Frederick Taylor, complete with psychological dossiers and standardized tests, German officer training emphasized individual apprenticeships, week-long field evaluations, extended discursive written evaluations by senior officers who personally knew the candidates. The surprise is, while German state management was rigid and regulated with its common citizens, it was liberal and adventuresome with its elites. After WWII, and particularly after Vietnam, American elite military practice began to follow this German model. Ironically enough, America’s elite private boarding schools like Groton had followed the Prussian lead from their inception as well as the British models of Eton and Harrow. German elite war doctrine cut straight to the heart of the difference between the truly educated and the merely schooled. For the German High Command war was seen as an art, a creative activity, grounded in science. War made the highest demands on an officer’s entire personality and the role of the individual in Germany was decisive. American emphasis, on the other hand, was doctrinal, fixated on cookbook rules. The U.S. officer’s manual said: “Doctrines of combat operation are neither numerous nor complex. Knowledge of these doctrines provides a firm basis for action in a particular situation.” This reliance on automatic procedure rather than on creative individual decisions got a lot of Americans killed by the book. The irony, of course, was that American, British, and French officers got the same lockstep conditioning in dependence that German foot soldiers did. There are some obvious lessons here which can be applied directly to public schooling.

3Napoleon assumed the Prussians were retreating in the direction of the Rhine after a defeat, but in truth they were only executing a feint. The French were about to overrun Wellington when Blücher’s “Death’s Head Hussars,” driven beyond human endurance by their officers, reached the battlefield at a decisive moment. Not pausing to rest, the Prussians immediately went into battle, taking the French in the rear and right wing. Napoleon toppled, and Prussian discipline became the focus of world attention.

The Long Reach Of The Teutonic Knights (My note. Much more on these guys in section two)

In 1876, before setting off from America to Germany to study, William H. Welch, an ambitious young Bostonian, told his sister: “If by absorbing German lore I can get a little start of a few thousand rivals and thereby reduce my competition to a few hundred more or less it is a good point to tally.” Welch did go off to Germany for the coveted Ph.D., a degree which at the time had its actual existence in any practical sense only there, and in due course his ambition was satisfied. Welch became first dean of Johns Hopkins Medical School and, later, chief advisor to the (My note Shockeroonie!) Rockefeller Foundation on medical projects. Welch was one of thousands who found the German Ph.D. a blessing without parallel in late-nineteenth-century America. German Ph.D.’s ruled the academic scene by then.

Prussia itself was a curious place, not an ordinary country unless you consider ordinary a land which by 1776 required women to register each onset of their monthly menses (My Note. Their period!) with the police.

North America had been interested in Prussian developments since long before the American Revolution, its social controls being a favourite subject of discussion among Ben Franklin’s1 exclusive private discussion group, the Junta. When the phony Prussian baron Von Steuben directed bayonet drills for the colonial army, interest rose even higher. Prussia was a place to watch, an experimental state totally synthetic like our own, having been assembled out of lands conquered in the last crusade. For a full century Prussia acted as our mirror, showing elite America what we might become with discipline. (Good slaves?)

In 1839, thirteen years before the first successful school compulsion law was passed in the United States, a perpetual critic of Boston Whig (Mann’s own party) leadership charged that proposals to erect German-style teacher seminaries in this country were a thinly disguised attack on local and popular autonomy. The critic Brownson2 allowed that state regulation of teaching licenses was a necessary preliminary only if school were intended to serve as a psychological control mechanism for the state and as a screen for a controlled economy. If that was the game truly afoot, said Brownson, it should be reckoned an act of treason.

Where the whole tendency of education is to create obedience,” Brownson said, “all teachers must be pliant tools of government. Such a system of education is not inconsistent with the theory of Prussian society but the thing is wholly inadmissible here.” He further argued that “according to our theory the people are wiser than the government. Here the people do not look to the government for light, for instruction, but the government looks to the people. The people give law to the government.” He concluded that “to entrust government with the power of determining education which our children shall receive is entrusting our servant with the power of the master. The fundamental difference between the United States and Prussia has been overlooked by the board of education and its supporters.”3 READ THAT SHIT AGAIN MY FRIEND PLEASE.

This same notion of German influence on American institutions occurred recently to a historian from Georgetown, Dr. Carroll Quigley. Quigley’s analysis of elements in German character which were exported to us occurs in his book Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time. Quigley traced what he called “the German thirst for the cosiness of a totalitarian way of life” to the breakup of German tribes in the great migrations fifteen hundred years ago. When pagan Germany finally transferred its loyalty to the even better totalitarian system of Diocletian in post-Constantine Rome, that system was soon shattered, too, a second tragic loss of security for the Germans. According to Quigley, they refused to accept this loss. For the next one thousand years, Germans made every effort to reconstruct the universal system, from Charlemagne’s Holy Roman Empire right up to the aftermath of Jena in 1806. During that thousand-year interval, other nations of the West developed individual liberty as the ultimate centre of society and its principal philosophical reality. But while Germany was dragged along in the same process, it was never convinced that individual sovereignty was the right way to organize society. Germans, said Quigley, wanted freedom from the need to make decisions, the negative freedom that comes from a universal totalitarian structure which gives security and meaning to life. The German is most at home in military, ecclesiastical, or educational organizations, ill at ease with equality, democracy, individualism, or freedom. This was the spirit that gave the West forced schooling in the early nineteenth century, so spare a little patience while I tell you about Prussia and Prussianized Germany whose original mission was expressly religious but in time became something else.

During the thirteenth century, the Order of Teutonic Knights set about creating a new state of their own. After fifty turbulent years of combat, the Order successfully Christianized Prussia by the efficient method of exterminating the entire native population and replacing it with Germans.

By 1281, the Order’s hold on lands once owned by the heathen Slavs was secure. Then something of vital importance to the future occurred–the system of administration selected to be set up over these territories was not one patterned on the customary European model of dispersed authority, but instead was built on the logic of Saracen centralized administration, an Asiatic form first described by crusaders returned from the Holy Land.

For an example of these modes of administration in conflict, we have Herodotus’ account of the Persian attempt to force the pass at Thermopylae– Persia with its huge bureaucratically subordinated army arrayed against self-directed Leonidas and his three hundred Spartans. This romantic image of personal initiative, however misleading, in conflict with a highly trained and specialized military bureaucracy, was passed down to sixty generations of citizens in Western lands as an inspiration and model. Now Prussia had established an Asiatic beachhead on the northern fringe of Europe, one guided by a different inspiration.

Between the thirteenth and nineteenth centuries, the Order of Teutonic Knights evolved by gradual stages into a highly efficient, secular civil service. In 1525, Albert of Brandenberg declared Prussia a secular kingdom. By the eighteenth century, under Frederick the Great, Prussia had become a major European power in spite of its striking material disadvantages. From 1740 onwards, it was feared throughout Europe for its large, well-equipped, and deadly standing army, comprising a formulaic 1 percent of the population. After centuries of debate, the 1 percent formula became the lot of the United States military, too, a gift of Prussian strategist von Clausewitz to America. By 1740, the mature Prussian state-structure was almost complete. During the reigns of Frederick I and his son Frederick II, Frederick the Great, the modern absolute state was fashioned there by means of immense sacrifices imposed on the citizenry to sustain permanent mobilization.

The historian Thomas Macauley wrote of Prussia during these years: “The King carried on warfare as no European power ever had, he governed his own kingdom as he would govern a besieged town, not caring to what extent private property was destroyed or civil life suspended. The coin was debased, civil functionaries unpaid, but as long as means for destroying life remained, Frederick was determined to fight to the last.” Goethe said Frederick “saw Prussia as a concept, the root cause of a process of abstraction consisting of norms, attitudes and characteristics which acquired a life of their own. It was a unique process, supra-individual, an attitude depersonalized, motivated only by the individual’s duty to the State.” Today it’s easy for us to recognize Frederick as a systems theorist of genius, one with a real country to practice upon.

Under Frederick William II, Frederick the Great’s nephew and successor, from the end of the eighteenth century on into the nineteenth, Prussian citizens were deprived of all rights and privileges. Every existence was comprehensively subordinated to the purposes of the State, and in exchange the State agreed to act as a good father, giving food, work, and wages suited to the people’s capacity, welfare for the poor and elderly, and universal schooling for children. The early nineteenth century saw Prussian state socialism arrive full-blown as the most dynamic force in world affairs, a powerful rival to industrial capitalism, with antagonisms sensed but not yet clearly identified. It was the moment of schooling, never to surrender its grip on the throat of society once achieved.

1Franklin’s great-grandson, Alexander Dallas Bache became the leading American proponent of Prussianism in 1839. After a European school inspection tour lasting several years, his Report on Education in Europe, promoted heavily by Quakers, devoted hundreds of pages to glowing description of Pestalozzian method and to the German gymnasium.

 2Brownson is the main figure in Christopher Lasch’s bravura study of Progressivism, The True and Only Heaven, being offered there as the best fruit of American democratic orchards, a man who, having seemingly tried every major scheme of meaning the new nation had to offer, settled on trusting ordinary people as the best course into the future.

3In Opposition to Centralization (1839).

4Quigley holds the distinction of being the only college professor ever to be publicly honoured by a major party presidential candidate, Bill Clinton, in his formal acceptance speech for the presidential nomination (My note. More on this later too.)

The Prussian Reform Movement

The devastating defeat by Napoleon at Jena triggered the so-called Prussian Reform Movement, a transformation which replaced cabinet rule (by appointees of the national leader) with rule by permanent civil servants and permanent government bureaus. Ask yourself which form of governance responds better to public opinion and you will realize what a radical chapter in European affairs was opened.

The familiar three-tier system of education emerged in the Napoleonic era, one private tier, and two government ones. At the top, one-half of 1 percent of the students attended Akadamiensschulen1, where, as future policy makers, they learned to think strategically, contextually, in wholes; they learned complex processes, and useful knowledge, studied history, wrote copiously, argued often, read deeply, and mastered tasks of command.

The next level, Realsschulen, was intended mostly as a manufactory for the professional proletariat of engineers, architects, doctors, lawyers, career civil servants, and such other assistants as policy thinkers at times would require. From 5 to 7.5 percent of all students attended these “real schools,” learning in a superficial fashion how to think in context, but mostly learning how to manage materials, men, and situations–to be problem solvers. This group would also staff the various policing functions of the state, bringing order to the domain.

Finally, at the bottom of the pile, a group between 92 and 94 percent of the population attended “people’s schools” where they learned obedience, cooperation and correct attitudes, along with rudiments of literacy and official state myths of history.

(My note. – The three paragraphs above ladies and gentleman are the education system of the whole “developed” world described to an absolute tee. – Which model of robot are you?)

This universal system of compulsion schooling was up and running by 1819, and soon became the eighth wonder of the world, promising for a brief time–in spite of its exclusionary layered structure–liberal education for all. But this early dream was soon abandoned. This particular utopia had a different target than human equality; it aimed instead for frictionless efficiency. From its inception Volksschulen, the people’s place, heavily discounted reading; reading produced dissatisfaction, it was thought. The Bell-school remedy was called for: a standard of virtual illiteracy formally taught under state church auspices. Reading offered too many windows onto better lives, too much familiarity with better ways of thinking. It was a gift unwise to share with those permanently consigned to low station.

Heinrich Pestalozzi, an odd2 Swiss-German school reformer, was producing at this time a non-literary, experience-based pedagogy, strong in music and industrial arts, which was attracting much favourable attention in Prussia. Here seemed a way to keep the poor happy without arousing in them hopes of dramatically changing the social order. Pestalozzi claimed ability to mould the poor “to accept all the efforts peculiar to their class.” He offered them love in place of ambition. By employing psychological means in the training of the young, class warfare might be avoided.

A curiously prophetic note for the future development of scientific school teaching was that Pestalozzi himself could barely read. Not that he was a dummy; those talents simply weren’t important in his work. He reckoned his own semiliteracy an advantage in dealing with children destined not to find employment requiring much verbal fluency.

Seventeen agents of the Prussian government acted as Pestalozzi’s assistants in Switzerland, bringing insights about the Swiss style of schooling home to northern Germany. While Pestalozzi’s raggedy schools lurched clumsily from year to year, a nobleman, von Fellenberg, refined and systematized the Swiss reformer’s disorderly notes, hammering the funky ensemble into clarified plans for a worldwide system of industrial education for the masses. As early as 1808, this non-academic formulation was introduced into the United States under Joseph Neef, formerly a teacher at Pestalozzi’s school. Neef, with important Quaker patronage, became the principal schoolmaster for Robert Owen’s pioneering work-utopia at New Harmony, Indiana. Neef’s efforts there provided high-powered conversational fodder to the fashionable Unitarian drawing rooms of Boston in the decades before compulsory legislation was passed. And when it did pass, all credit for the political victory belonged to those Unitarians. Neef’s influence resonated across the United States after the collapse of New Harmony, through lectures given by Robert Owen’s son (later a congressman, then referee of J.P. Morgan’s legal contretemps with the U.S. Army3), and through speeches and intrigues by that magnificent nineteenth-century female dynamo Scottish émigré Fanny Wright, who demanded the end of family life and its replacement by communitarian schooling. The tapestry of school origins is one of paths crossing and recrossing, and more apparent coincidences than seem likely.

Together, Owen and Wright created the successful Workingman’s Party of Philadelphia, which seized political control of that city in 1829. The party incorporated strong compulsion schooling proposals as part of its political platform. Its idea to place working-class children under the philosophical discipline of highly skilled craftsmen–men comparable socially to the yeomanry of pre-enclosure England–would have attracted favourable commentary in Philadelphia where banker Nicholas Biddle was locked in struggle for control of the nation’s currency with working- class hero Andrew Jackson. Biddle’s defeat by Jackson quickly moved abstract discussions of a possible social technology to control working class children from the airy realms of social hypothesis to policy discussions about immediate reality. In that instant of maximum tension between an embryonic financial capitalism and a populist republic struggling to emerge, the Prussian system of pedagogy came to seem perfectly sensible to men of means and ambition.

1I’ve exaggerated the neatness of this tripartite division in order to make clear its functional logic. The system as it actually grew in those days without an electronic technology of centralization was more whimsical than I’ve indicated, dependent partially on local tradition and resistance, partially on the ebb and flow of fortunes among different participants in the transformation. In some places, the “academy” portion didn’t occur in a separate institution, but as a division inside the Realsschulen, something like today’s “gifted and talented honours” programs as compared to the common garden variety “gifted and talented” pony shows.

2Pestalozzi’s strangeness comes through in almost all the standard biographical sketches of him, despite universal efforts to emphasize his saintliness. In a recent study, Anthony Sutton claims Pestalozzi was also director of a secret lodge of “illuminated” Freemasonry–with the code name “Alfred.” If true, the Swiss “educator” was even stranger than I sensed initially.

3During the Civil War, Morgan sold back to the army its own defective rifles (which had been auctioned as scrap) at a 1,300 percent profit. After a number of soldiers were killed and maimed, young Morgan found himself temporarily in hot water. Thanks to Owen his penalty was the return of about half his profit!

Travellers’ Reports

Information about Prussian schooling was brought to America by a series of travellers’ reports published in the early nineteenth century. First was the report of John Griscom, whose book A Year in Europe (1819) highly praised the new Prussian schools. Griscom was read and admired by Thomas Jefferson and leading Americans whose intellectual patronage drew admirers into the net. Pestalozzi came into the centre of focus at about the same time through the letters of William Woodbridge to The American Journal of Education, letters which examined this strange man and his “humane” methods through friendly eyes. Another important chapter in this school build-up came from Henry Dwight,1 whose Travels in North Germany (1825) praised the new quasi-religious teacher seminaries in Prussia where prospective teachers were screened for correct attitudes toward the State.

The most influential report, however, was French philosopher Victor Cousin’s to the French government in 1831. This account by Cousin, France’s Minister of Education, explained the administrative organization of Prussian education in depth, dwelling at length on the system of people’s schools and its far-reaching implications for the economy and social order. Cousin’s essay applauded Prussia for discovering ways to contain the danger of a frightening new social phenomenon, the industrial proletariat. So convincing was his presentation that within two years of its publication, French national schooling was drastically reorganized to meet Prussian Volksschulen standards. French children could be stupefied as easily as German ones.

Across the Atlantic, a similar revolution took place in the brand new state of Michigan. Mimicking Prussian organization, heavily Germanic Michigan established the very first State Superintendency of Education.2 With a state minister and state control entering all aspects of schooling, the only missing ingredient was compulsion legislation.

On Cousin’s heels came yet another influential report praising Prussian discipline and Prussian results, this time by the bearer of a prominent American name, the famous Calvin Stowe whose wife Harriet Beecher Stowe, conscience of the abolition movement, was author of its sacred text, Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Stowe’s report to the Ohio legislature attesting to Prussian superiority was widely distributed across the country, the Ohio group mailing out ten thousand copies and the legislatures of Massachusetts, Michigan, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and Virginia each reprinting and distributing the document.

The third major testimonial to Prussian schooling came in the form of Horace Mann’s Seventh Report to the Boston School Committee in 1843. Mann’s Sixth Report, as noted earlier, had been a paean to phrenology, the science of reading head bumps, which Mann argued was the only proper basis for curriculum design. The Seventh Report ranked Prussia first of all nations in schooling, England last. Pestalozzi’s psychologically grounded form of pedagogy was specifically singled out for praise in each of the three influential reports I’ve recited, as was the resolutely non-intellectual subject matter of Prussian Volksschulen. Also praised were mild Pestalozzian discipline, grouping by age, multiple layers of supervision, and selective training for teachers. Wrote Mann, “There are many things there which we should do well to imitate.”3

Mann’s Report strongly recommended radical changes in reading instruction from the traditional alphabet system, which had made America literate, to Prussia’s hieroglyphic-style technique. In a surprising way, this brought Mann’s Report to general public attention because a group of Boston schoolmasters attacked his conclusions about the efficacy of the new reading method and a lively newspaper debate followed. Throughout nineteenth-century

Prussia, its new form of education seemed to make that warlike nation prosper materially and militarily. While German science, philosophy, and military success seduced the whole world, thousands of prominent young Americans made the pilgrimage to Germany to study in its network of research universities, places where teaching and learning were always subordinate to investigations done on behalf of business and the state. Returning home with the coveted German Ph.D., those so degreed became university presidents and department heads, took over private industrial research bureaus, government offices, and the administrative professions. The men they subsequently hired for responsibility were those who found it morally agreeable to offer obeisance to the Prussian outlook, too; in this leveraged fashion the gradual takeover of American mental life managed itself.

For a century here, Germany seemed at the centre of everything civilized; nothing was so esoteric or commonplace it couldn’t benefit from the application of German scientific procedure. Hegel, of Berlin University, even proposed historicism–that history was a scientific subject, displaying a progressive linear movement toward some mysterious end. Elsewhere, Herbart and Fechner were applying mathematical principles to learning, Müller and Helmholtz were grafting physiology to behaviour in anticipation of the psychologised classroom, Fritsch and Hitzig were applying electrical stimulation to the brain to determine the relationship of brain functions to behaviour, and Germany itself was approaching its epiphany of unification under Bismarck.

When the spirit of Prussian pelotonfeuer crushed France in the lightning war of 1871, the world’s attention focused intently on this hypnotic, utopian place. What could be seen to happen there was an impressive demonstration that endless production flowed from a Baconian liaison between government, the academic mind, and industry. Credit for Prussian success was widely attributed to its form of schooling. What lay far from casual view was the religious vision of a completely systematic universe which animated this Frankensteinian nation.

1Of the legendary Dwight family which bankrolled Horace Mann’s forced schooling operation. Dwight was a distant ancestor of Dwight D. Eisenhower.

2This happened under the direction of William Pierce, a man as strange in his own way as Pestalozzi. Pierce had been a Unitarian minister around Rochester, New York, until he was forced to flee across the Great Lakes to escape personal harm during the anti-Masonic furore just before the first Jackson election. Pierce was accused of concealing a lodge of Illuminati behind the facade of his church. When his critics arrived with the tar and feathers, the great educator-to-be had already flown the coop to Michigan, his tools of illumination safely in his kit and a sneer of superior virtue on his noble lip. Some say a local lady of easy virtue betrayed the vigilante party to Pierce in exchange for a few pieces of Socinian silver, but I cannot confirm this reliably. How he came to be welcomed so warmly in Michigan and honoured with such a high position might be worth investigating.

3The fact is Mann arrived in Prussia after the schools had closed for the summer, so that he never actually saw one in operation. This did nothing to dampen his enthusiasm, nor did he find it necessary to enlighten his readers to this interesting fact. I’ll mention this again up ahead.

Finding Work For Intellectuals

The little North German state of Prussia had been described as “an army with a country,” “a perpetual armed camp,” “a gigantic penal institution.” Even the built environment in Prussia was closely regimented: streets were made to run straight, town buildings and traffic were state-approved and regulated. Attempts were made to cleanse society of irregular elements like beggars, vagrants, and Gypsies, all this intended to turn Prussian society into “a huge human automaton” in the words of Hans Rosenberg. It was a state where scientific farming alternated with military drilling and with state-ordered meaningless tasks intended for no purpose but to subject the entire community to the experience of collective discipline–like fire drills in a modern junior high school or enforced silence during the interval between class periods. Prussia had become a comprehensive administrative utopia. It was Sparta reborn.

Administrative utopias spring out of the psychological emptiness which happens where firmly established communities are nonexistent and what social cohesion there is is weak and undependable. Utopias lurch into being when utopia happens best where there is no other social and political life around which seems attractive or even safe. The dream of state power refashioning countryside and people is powerful, especially compelling in times of insecurity where local leadership is inadequate to create a satisfying social order, as must have seemed the case in the waning decades of the nineteenth century. In particular, the growing intellectual classes began to resent their bondage to wealthy patrons, their lack of any truly meaningful function, their seeming overeducation for what responsibilities were available, their feelings of superfluousness. The larger national production grew on wheels and belts of steam power. The more it produced unprecedented surpluses, the greater became the number of intellectuals condemned to a parasitic role, and the more certain it became that some utopian experiment must come along to make work for these idle hands.

In such a climate it could not have seemed out of line to the new army of homeless men whose work was only endless thinking, to reorganize the entire world and to believe such a thing not impossible to attain. It was only a short step before associations of intellectuals began to consider it their duty to reorganize the world. It was then the clamour for universal forced schooling became strong. Such a need coincided with a corresponding need on the part of business to train the population as consumers rather than independent producers. In the last third of the nineteenth century, a loud call for popular education arose from princes of industry, from comfortable clergy, professional humanists and academic scientists, those who saw schooling as an instrument to achieve state and corporate purposes. Prior to 1870, the only countries where everybody was literate were

Prussia, its tiny adjacent neighbour states in Nordic Scandinavia, and the United States. Despite all projects of the Enlightenment, of Napoleon, of the parliaments of England and Belgium and of revolutionaries like Cavour, the vast majority of Europeans could neither read nor write. It was not, of course, because they were stupid but because circumstances of their lives and cultures made literacy a luxury, sometimes even impossible.

Steam and coal provided the necessary funds for establishing and maintaining great national systems of elementary schooling. Another influence was the progressivism of the liberal impulse, never more evident than in the presence of truly unprecedented abundance. Yes, it was true that to create that abundance it became necessary to uproot millions from their traditional habitats and habits, but one’s conscience could be saved by saying that popular schooling would offer, in time, compensations for the proletariat. In any case, no one doubted Francois Guizot’s epigram: “The opening of every schoolhouse closes a jail.”

For the enlightened classes, popular education after Prussia became a sacred cause, one meriting crusading zeal. In 1868, Hungary announced compulsion schooling; in 1869, Austria; in 1872, the famous Prussian system was nationalized to all the Germanies; 1874, Switzerland; 1877, Italy; 1878, Holland; 1879, Belgium. Between 1878 and 1882, it became France’s turn. School was made compulsory for British children in 1880. No serious voice except Tolstoy’s questioned what was happening, and that Russian nobleman-novelist-mystic was easily ignored. Best known to the modern reader for War and Peace, Tolstoy is equally penetrating in The Kingdom of God Is Within You, in which he viewed such problems through the lens of Christianity. The school movement was strongest in Western and Northern Europe, the ancient lands of the Protestant Reformation, much weaker in Catholic Central and Southern Europe, virtually nonexistent at first in the Orthodox East. Enthusiasm for schooling is closely correlated with a nation’s intensity in mechanical industry, and that closely correlated with its natural heritage of coal. One result passed over too quickly in historical accounts of school beginnings is the provision for a quasi-military non-commissioned officer corps of teachers, and a staff-grade corps of administrators to oversee the mobilized children. One consequence unexpected by middle classes (though perhaps not so unexpected to intellectual elites) was a striking increase in gullibility among well-schooled masses.

Jacques Ellul is the most compelling analyst of this awful phenomenon, in his canonical essay Propaganda. He fingers schooling as an unparalleled propaganda instrument; if a schoolbook prints it and a teacher affirms it, who is so bold as to demur?

The Technology Of Subjection

Administrative utopias are a peculiar kind of dreaming by those in power, driven by an urge to arrange the lives of others, organizing them for production, combat, or detention. The operating principles of administrative utopia are hierarchy, discipline, regimentation, strict order, rational planning, a geometrical environment, a production line, a cellblock, and a form of welfarism. Government schools and some private schools pass such parameters with flying colours. In one sense, administrative utopias are laboratories for exploring the technology of subjection and as such belong to a precise subdivision of pornographic art: total surveillance and total control of the helpless. The aim and mode of administrative utopia is to bestow order and assistance on an unwilling population: to provide its clothing and food. To schedule it. In a masterpiece of cosmic misjudgement, the phrenologist George Combe wrote Horace Mann on November 14, 1843:

The Prussian and Saxon governments by means of their schools and their just laws and rational public administration are doing a good deal to bring their people into a rational and moral condition. It is pretty obvious to thinking men that a few years more of this cultivation will lead to the development of free institutions in Germany.

Earlier that year, on May 21, 1843, Mann had written to Combe: “I want to find out what are the results, as well as the workings of the famous Prussian system.” Just three years earlier, with the election of Marcus Morton as governor of Massachusetts, a serious challenge had been presented to Mann and to his Board of Education and the air of Prussianism surrounding it and its manufacturer/politician friends. A House committee was directed to look into the new Board of Education and its plan to undertake a teachers college with $10,000 put up by industrialist Edmund Dwight. Four days after its assignment, the majority reported out a bill to kill the board!

Discontinue the Normal School experiment, it said, and give Dwight his money back:

If then the Board has any actual power, it is a dangerous power, touching directly upon the rights and duties of the Legislature; if it has no power, why continue its existence at an annual expense to the commonwealth?

But the House committee did more; it warned explicitly that this board, dominated by a Unitarian majority of 7–5 (although Unitarians comprised less than 1 percent of the state), really wanted to install a Prussian system of education in Massachusetts, to put “a monopoly of power in a few hands, contrary in every respect to the true spirit of our democratical institutions.” The vote of the House on this was the single greatest victory of Mann’s political career, one for which he and his wealthy friends called in every favour they were owed. The result was 245 votes to continue, 182 votes to discontinue, and so the House voted to overturn the recommendations of its own committee. A 32-vote swing might have given us a much different twentieth century than the one we saw.

Although Mann’s own letters and diaries are replete with attacks on orthodox religionists as enemies of government schooling, an examination of the positive vote reveals that from the outset the orthodox churches were among Mann’s staunchest allies. Mann had general support from Congregational, Presbyterian, and Baptist clergymen. At this early stage they were completely unaware of the doom secular schooling would spell out for their denominations. They had been seduced into believing school was a necessary insurance policy to deal with incoming waves of Catholic immigration from Ireland and Germany, the cheap labour army which as early as 1830 had been talked about in business circles and eagerly anticipated as an answer to America’s production problems.

The reason Germany, and not England, provided the original model for America’s essay into compulsion schooling may be that Mann, while in Britain, had had a shocking experience in English class snobbery which left him reeling. Boston Common, he wrote, with its rows of mottled sycamore trees, gravel walks, and frog ponds was downright embarrassing compared with any number of stately English private grounds furnished with stag and deer, fine arboretums of botanical specimens from faraway lands, marble floors better than the table tops at home, portraits, tapestries, giant gold-frame mirrors. The ballroom in the Bulfinch house in Boston would be a butler’s pantry in England, he wrote. When Mann visited Stafford House of the Duke of Cumberland, he went into culture shock:

Convicts on treadmills provide the energy to pump water for fountains. I have seen equipages, palaces, and the regalia of royalty side by side with beggary, squalidness, and degradation in which the very features of humanity were almost lost in those of the brute.

For this great distinction between the stratified orders of society, Mann held the Anglican church to blame. “Give me America with all its rawness and want. We have aristocracy enough at home and here I trace its foundations.” Shocked from his English experience, Mann virtually willed that Prussian schools would provide him with answers, says his biographer Jonathan Messerli.

Mann arrived in Prussia when its schools were closed for vacation. He toured empty classrooms, spoke with authorities, interviewed vacationing schoolmasters, and read piles of dusty official reports. Yet from this nonexperience he claimed to come away with a strong sense of the professional competence of Prussian teachers!


All “admirably qualified and full of animation!” His wife Mary, of the famous Peabodys, wrote home: “We have not seen a teacher with a book in his hand in all Prussia; no, not one!” (emphasis added)

This wasn’t surprising, for they hardly saw teachers at all.

Equally impressive, he wrote, was the wonderful obedience of children; these German kinder had “innate respect for superior years.” The German teacher corps? “The finest collection of men I have ever seen–full of intelligence, dignity, benevolence, kindness and bearing….” Never, says Mann, did he witness “an instance of harshness and severity. All is kind, encouraging, animating, sympathizing.” On the basis of imagining this miraculous vision of exactly the Prussia he wanted to see, Mann made a special plea for changes in the teaching of reading. He criticized the standard American practice of beginning with the alphabet and moving to syllables, urging his readers to consider the superior merit of teaching entire words from the beginning. “I am satisfied,” he said, “our greatest error in teaching lies in beginning with the alphabet.”

The heart of Mann’s most famous Report to the Boston School Committee, the legendary Seventh, rings a familiar theme in American affairs. It seems even then we were falling behind! This time, behind the Prussians in education. In order to catch up, it was mandatory to create a professional corps of teachers and a systematic curriculum, just as the Prussians had. Mann fervently implored the board to accept his prescription…while there was still time! The note of hysteria is a drum roll sounding throughout Mann’s entire career; together with the vilification of his opponents, it constitutes much of Mann’s spiritual signature.

That fall, the Association of Masters of the Boston Public Schools published its 150-page rebuttal of Mann’s Report. It attacked the normal schools proposal as a vehicle for propaganda for Mann’s “hot bed theories, in which the projectors have disregarded experience and observation.” It belittled his advocacy of phrenology and charged Mann with attempting to excite the prejudices of the ignorant. Its second attack was against the teacher-centred nonbook presentations of Prussian classrooms, insisting the psychological result of these was to break student potential “for forming the habit of independent and individual effort.” The third attack was against the “word method” in teaching reading, and in defence of the traditional alphabet method. Lastly, it attacked Mann’s belief that interest was a better motivator to learning than discipline: “Duty should come first and pleasure should grow out of the discharge of it.” Thus was framed a profound conflict between the old world of the Puritans and the new psychological strategy of the Germans.

The German/American Reichsbank

 Sixty years later, amid a well-coordinated attempt on the part of industrialists and financiers to transfer power over money and interest rates from elected representatives of the American people to a “Federal Reserve” of centralized private banking interests, George Reynolds, president of the American Bankers Association, rose before an audience on September 13, 1909, to declare himself flatly in favour of a central bank modelled after the German Reichsbank. As he spoke, the schools of the United States were being forcibly rebuilt on Prussian lines.

On September 14, 1909, in Boston, the president of the United States, William Howard Taft, instructed the country that it should “take up seriously” the problem of establishing a centralized bank on the German model. As The Wall Street Journal put it, an important step in the education of Americans would soon be taken to translate the “realm of theory” into “practical politics,” in pedagogy as well as finance. Dramatic, symbolic evidence of what was working deep in the bowels of the school institution surfaced in 1935. At the University of Chicago’s experimental high school, the head of the Social Science department, Howard C. Hill, published an inspirational textbook, The Life and Work of the Citizen. It is decorated throughout with the fasces, symbol of the Fascist movement, an emblem binding government and corporation together as one entity. Mussolini had landed in America.

The fasces are strange hybridized images, one might almost say Americanized. The bundle of sticks wrapped around a two-headed axe, the classic Italian Fascist image, has been decisively altered. Now the sticks are wrapped around a sword. They appear on the spine of this high school text, on the decorative page introducing Part One, again on a similar page for Part Two, and are repeated on Part Three and Part Four as well. There are also fierce, military eagles hovering above those pages. The strangest decoration of all faces the title page, a weird interlock of hands and wrists which, with only a few slight alterations of its structural members, would be a living swastika.1 The legend announces it as representing the “united strength” of Law, Order, Science, and the Trades. Where the strength of America had been traditionally located in our First Amendment guarantee of argument, now the Prussian connection was shifting the focus of attention in school to cooperation, with both working and professional classes sandwiched between the watchful eye of Law and Order. Prussia had entrenched itself deep into the bowels of American institutional schooling.

1Interestingly enough, several versions of this book exist–although no indication that this is so appears on the copyright page. In one of these versions the familiar totalitarian symbols are much more pronounced than in the others.

…By 1776 the theocratic utopia toward which such a principle moves, was well established in the Britain of the German Georges, as well as in the three North German states of Prussia, Saxony, and Hanover. Together with England, all three were to play an important role in twentieth- century forced schooling in America

Chapter nine

On the night of June 9, 1834, a group of prominent men “chiefly engaged in commerce” gathered privately in a Boston drawing room to discuss a scheme of universal schooling. Secretary of this meeting was William Ellery Channing, Horace Mann’s own minister as well as an international figure and the leading Unitarian of his day. The location of the meeting house is not entered in the minutes nor are the names of the assembly’s participants apart from Channing. Even though the literacy rate in Massachusetts was 98 percent, and in neighbouring Connecticut, 99.8 percent, the assembled businessmen agreed the present system of schooling allowed too much to depend upon chance. It encouraged more entrepreneurial exuberance than the social system could bear. – The minutes of this meeting are Appleton Papers collection, Massachusetts Historical Society

Frederick W. Taylor

The first man on record to perceive how much additional production could be extracted from close regulation of labour was Frederick Winslow Taylor, son of a wealthy Philadelphia lawyer. “What I demand of the worker,” Taylor said, “is not to produce any longer by his own initiative, but to execute punctiliously the orders given down to their minutest details.”

The Taylors, a prominent Quaker family from Germantown, Pennsylvania, had taken Freddy to Europe for three years from 1869 to 1872, where he was attending an aristocratic German academy when von Moltke’s Prussian blitzkrieg culminated in the French disaster at Sedan and a German Empire was finally proclaimed, ending a thousand years of disunion. Prussian schooling was the widely credited forge which made those miracles possible.

The jubilation which spread through Germany underlined a presumably fatal difference between political systems which disciplined with ruthless efficiency, like Prussia’s socialist paradise, and those devoted to whimsy and luxury, like France’s. The lesson wasn’t lost on little Fred.

Near the conclusion of his Principles of Scientific Management 1 (1911), published thirty-nine years later, Taylor summarized the new managerial discipline as follows:

A regimen of science, not rule of thumb.

An emphasis on harmony, not the discord of competition.

An insistence on cooperation, not individualism.

A fixation on maximum output.

The development of each man to his greatest productivity.

Taylor’s biographers, Wrege and Greenwood, wrote:

He left us a great legacy. Frederick Taylor advanced a total system of management, one which he built from pieces taken from numerous others whom he rarely would credit…. His genius lies in being a missionary.

After Taylor’s death in 1915, the Frederick W. Taylor Cooperators were formed to project his Scientific Management movement into the future. Frank Copley called Taylor “a man whose heart was aflame with missionary zeal.” Much about this Quaker-turned-Unitarian, who married into an Arbella-descended Puritan family before finally becoming an Episcopalian, bears decisively on the shape schooling took in this country. Wrege and

Greenwood describe him as: “often arrogant, somewhat caustic, and inflexible in how his system should be implemented….Taylor was cerebral; like a machine he was polished and he was also intellectual….Taylor’s brilliant reasoning was marred when he attempted to articulate it, for his delivery was often demeaning, even derogatory at times.”

Frank Gilbreth’s2 Motion Study says:

It is the never ceasing marvel concerning this man that age cannot wither nor custom stale his work. After many a weary day’s study the investigator awakes from a dream of greatness to find he has only worked out a new proof for a problem Taylor has already solved. Time study, the instruction card, functional foremanship, the differential rate piece method of compensation, and numerous other scientifically derived methods of decreasing costs and increasing output and wages–these are by no means his only contributions to standardizing the trades.

To fully grasp the effect of Taylor’s industrial evangelism on American national schooling, you need to listen to him play teacher in his own words to Schmidt at Bethlehem Steel in the 1890s:

Now Schmidt, you are a first-class pig-iron handler and know your business well. You have been handling at a rate of twelve and a half tons per day. I have given considerable study to handling pig-iron, and feel you could handle forty-seven tons of pig-iron per day if you really tried instead of twelve and a half tons.

Skeptical but willing, Schmidt started to work, and all day long, and at regular intervals, was told by the men who stood over him with a watch, “now pick up a pig and walk. Now sit down and rest. Now walk–rest,” etc. He worked when he was told to work, and rested when he was told to rest, and at half past five in the afternoon had his forty-seven tons loaded on the car.

The incident described above is, incidentally, a fabrication. There was no Schmidt except in Taylor’s mind, just as there was no close observation of Prussian schools by Mann. Below, he testifies before Congress in 1912:

There is a right way of forcing the shovel into materials and many wrong ways. Now, the way to shovel refractory stuff is to press the forearm hard against the upper part of the right leg just below the thigh, like this, take the end of the shovel in your right hand and when you push the shovel into the pile, instead of using the muscular effort of the arms, which is tiresome, throw the weight of your body on the shovel like this; that pushes your shovel in the pile with hardly any exertion and without tiring the arms in the least.

Harlow Person called Taylor’s approach to the simplest tasks of working life “a meaningful and fundamental break with the past.” Scientific management, or Taylorism, had four characteristics designed to make the worker “an interchangeable part of an interchangeable machine making interchangeable parts.”

Since each quickly found its analogue in scientific schooling, let me show them to you:3

1) A mechanically controlled work pace;

2) The repetition of simple motions;

3) Tools and technique selected for the worker;

4) Only superficial attention is asked from the worker, just enough to keep up with the moving line. The connection of all to school procedure is apparent.

“In the past,” Taylor wrote, “Man has been first. In the future the system must be first.” It was not sufficient to have physical movements standardized; the standardized worker “must be happy in his work,” too, therefore his thought processes also must be standardized.4

Scientific management was applied wholesale in American industry in the decade after 1910. It spread quickly to schools.

In the preface to the classic study on the effects of scientific management on schooling in America, Education and the Cult of Efficiency,5 Raymond Callahan explains that when he set out to write, his intent was to explore the origin and development of business values in educational administration, an occurrence he tracks to about 1900.

Callahan wanted to know why school administrators had adopted business practices and management parameters of assessment when “Education is not a business. The school is not a factory.”

Could the inappropriate procedure be explained simply by a familiar process in which ideas and values flow from high-status groups to those of lesser distinction? As Callahan put it, “It does not take profound knowledge of American education to know that educators are, and have been, a relatively low-status, low-power group.” But the degree of intellectual domination shocked him:

What was unexpected was the extent, not only of the power of business-industrial groups, but of the strength of the business ideology…and the extreme weakness and vulnerability of school administrators. I had expected more professional autonomy and I was completely unprepared for the extent and degree of capitulation by administrators to whatever demands were made upon them. I was surprised and then dismayed to learn how many decisions they made or were forced to make, not on educational grounds, but as a means of appeasing their critics in order to maintain their positions in the school. [emphasis added]

1The actual term “scientific management” was created by famous lawyer Louis Brandeis in 1910 for the Interstate Commerce Commission rate hearings. Brandeis understood thoroughly how a clever phrase could control public imagination.

2Gilbreth, the man who made the term “industrial engineering” familiar to the public, was a devotee of Taylorism. His daughter wrote a best seller about the Gilbreth home, Cheaper By The Dozen, in which her father’s penchant for refining work processes is recalled. Behind his back, Taylor ran Gilbreth down as a “fakir.”

3List adapted from Melvin Kranzberg and Joseph Gies, By the Sweat of Thy Brow.

4Taylor was no garden-variety fanatic. He won the national doubles tennis title in 1881with a racket of his own design, and pioneered slip-on shoes (to save time, of course). Being happy in your work was the demand of Bellamy and other leading socialist thinkers, otherwise you would have to be “adjusted” (hence the expression “well- adjusted”). Taylor concurred.

5Callahan’s analysis why schoolmen are always vulnerable is somewhat innocent and ivory tower, and his recommendation for reform–to effectively protect their revenue stream from criticism on the part of the public–is simply tragic; but his gathering of data is matchless and his judgment throughout in small matters and large is consistently illuminating.

The Adoption Of Business Organization By Schools

In 1903, The Atlantic Monthly called for adoption of business organization by schools and William C. Bagley identified the ideal teacher as one who would rigidly “hew to the line.” Bagley’s6 ideal school was a place strictly reduced to rigid routine; he repeatedly stressed in his writing a need for “unquestioned obedience.

Before 1900, school boards were large, clumsy organizations, with a seat available to represent every interest (they often had thirty to fifty members). A great transformation was engineered in the first decade of the twentieth century, however, and after 1910 they were dominated by businessmen, lawyers, real estate men, and politicians.

Business pressure extended from the kindergarten rung of the new school ladder all the way into the German-inspired teacher training schools. The Atlantic Monthly approved what it had earlier asked for, saying in 1910, “Our universities are beginning to run as business colleges.”

Successful industrial leaders were featured regularly in the press, holding forth on their success but seldom attributing it to book learning or scholarship. Carnegie, self-educated in libraries, appears in his writings and public appearances as the leading school critic of the day; echoing Carnegie, the governor of Michigan welcomed an NEA convention to Detroit with his injunction: “The demand of the age is for practical education.” The State

Superintendent of Public Instruction in Michigan followed the governor:

The character of our education must change with the oncoming of the years of this highly practical age. We have educated the mind to think and trained the vocal organs to express the thought, and we have forgotten the fact that in four times out of five the practical man expresses his thought by the hand rather than by mere words.

Something was cooking. The message was clear: academic education had become a strange kind of national emergency, just as had been prophesied by the Department of Education’s Circular of Information in 1871 and 1872. Twenty years later Francis Parker praised the elite Committee of Ten under Harvard president Charles Eliot for rejecting “tracking,” the practice of school class assignment based upon future social destination. The committee

had come down squarely for common schools, an ideal that Parker said was “worth all the pains necessary to produce the report. The conclusion is that there should be no such thing as class education.” Parker had noticed the start of an attempt to provide common people with only partial education. He was relieved it had been turned back. Or so he thought.

The pronouncements of the Committee of Ten turned out to be the last gasp of the common school notion apart from Fourth of July rhetoric. The common school was being buried by the determination of new tycoon-class businessmen to see the demise of an older democratic-republican order and its dangerous libertarian ideals. If “educators,” as they were self-consciously beginning to refer to themselves, had any misunderstanding of what was expected by 1910, NEA meetings of that year were specifically designed to clear them up. Attendees were told the business community had judged their work to date to be “theoretical, visionary, and impractical“:

All over the country our courses are being attacked and the demand for revision is along the line of fitting mathematical teaching to the needs of the masses.

In 1909, Leonard Ayres charged in Laggards in Our Schools that although these institutions were filled with “retarded children,” school programs were, alas, “fitted…to the unusually bright one.” Ayres invented means for measuring the efficiency of school systems by computing the dropout/holdover rate–a game still in evidence today.

This was begging the question with a vengeance but no challenge to this assessment was ever raised.

Taylor’s system of management efficiency was being formally taught at Harvard and Dartmouth by 1910. In the next year, 219 articles on the subject appeared in magazines, hundreds more followed: by 1917 a bibliography of 550 school management-science references was available from a Boston publisher. As the steel core of school reform, scientific management enjoyed national recognition. It was the main topic at the 1913 convention of the Department of Superintendence. Paul Hanus, professor of education at Harvard, launched a series of books for the World Book Company under the title School Efficiency Series, and famous muckraker J.M. Rice published his own Scientific Management in Education in 1913, showing local “ward” schooling an arena of low-lives and grifters.

Frederick Taylor’s influence was not limited to America; it soon circled the globe. Principles of Scientific Management spread the efficiency mania over Europe, Japan, and China. A letter to the editor of The Nation in 1911 gives the flavour of what was happening:

I am tired of scientific management, so-called. I have heard of it from scientific managers, from university presidents, from casual acquaintances in railway trains; I have read of it in the daily papers, the weekly paper, the ten-cent magazine, and in the Outlook. I have only missed its treatment by Theodore Roosevelt; but that is probably because I cannot keep up with his writings. For 15 years I have been a subscriber to a magazine dealing with engineering matters, feeling it incumbent on me to keep in touch but the touch has become a pressure, the pressure a crushing strain, until the mass of articles on shop practice and scientific management threatened to crush all thought out of my brain, and I stopped my subscription.

In an article from Izvestia dated April 1918, Lenin urged the system upon Russians.

6His jargon-enriched Classroom Management (1907) was reprinted thirty times in the next 20 years as a teacher training text. Bagley’s metaphors drawn from big business can fairly be said to have controlled the pedagogical imagination for the entire twentieth century.

The Ford System And The Kronstadt Commune

“An anti-intellectual, a hater of individuals,” is the way Richard Stites characterizes Taylor in Revolutionary Dreams, his book on the utopian beginning of the Soviet Era. Says Stites, “His system is the basis for virtually every twisted dystopia in our century, from death under the Gas Bell in Zamiatin’s We for the unspeakable crime of deviance, to the maintenance of a fictitious state-operated underground in Orwell’s 1984 in order to draw deviants into disclosing who they are.”

Oddly enough, an actual scheme of dissident entrapment was the brainchild of J.P. Morgan, his unique contribution to the Cecil Rhodes–inspired “Round Table” group. Morgan contended that revolution could be subverted permanently by infiltrating the underground and subsidizing it. In this way the thinking of the opposition could be known as it developed and fatally compromised. Corporate, government, and foundation cash grants to subversives might be one way to derail the train of insurrection that Hegelian theory predicted would arise against every ruling class.

As this practice matured, the insights of Fabian socialism were stirred into the mix; gradually a socialist levelling through practices pioneered in Bismarck’s Prussia came to be seen as the most efficient control system for the masses, the bottom 80 percent of the population in advanced industrial states. For the rest, an invigorating system of laissez-faire market competition would keep the advanced breeding stock on its toes.

A large portion of the intellectual Left jumped on Taylor’s bandwagon, even as labour universally opposed it. Lenin himself was an aggressive advocate:

The war taught us much, not only that people suffered, but especially the fact that those who have the best technology, organization, discipline and the best machines emerge on top; it is this the war has taught us. It is essential to learn that without machines, without discipline, it is impossible to live in modern society. It is necessary to master the highest technology or be crushed.

But even in Russia, workers resisted Taylorish methods. The rebellion of the Kronstadt Commune in 1921 charged that Bolsheviks were “planning to introduce the sweat labour system of Taylor.” They were right.

Taylor distilled the essence of Bismarck’s Prussian school training under whose regimen he had witnessed firsthand the defeat of France in 1871. His American syntheses of these disciplines made him the direct inspiration for Henry Ford and “Fordism.” Between 1895 and 1915, Ford radically transformed factory procedure, relying on Taylorized management and a mass production assembly line marked by precision, continuity, coordination, speed, and standardization. Ford wrote two extraordinary essays in the 1920s, “The Meaning of Time,” and “Machinery, The New Messiah,” in which he equated planning, timing, precision, and the rest of the scientific management catalogue with the great moral meaning of life:

A clean factory, clean tools, accurate gauges, and precise methods of manufacture produce a smooth working efficient machine [just as] clean thinking, clean living, and square dealing make for a decent home life.

By the 1920s, the reality of the Ford system paralleled the rules of a Prussian infantry regiment. Both were places where workers were held under close surveillance, kept silent, and punished for small infractions. Ford was unmoved by labour complaints. Men were disposable cogs in his machine. “A great business is really too big to be human,” he commented in 1929. Fordism and Taylorism swept the Soviet Union as they had swept the United States and Western Europe. By the 1920s the words fordizatsiya and teilorizatsiya, both appellations describing good work habits, were common across Russia.

The National Press Attack On Academic Schooling

In May of 1911, the first salvo of a sustained national press attack on the academic ambitions of public schooling was fired. For the previous ten years the idea of school as an oasis of mental development built around a common, high-level curriculum had been steadily undermined by the rise of educational psychology and its empty-child/elastic-child hypotheses. Psychology was a business from the first, an aggressive business lobbying for jobs and school contracts. But resistance of parents, community groups, and students themselves to the new psychologised schooling was formidable.

As the summer of 1911 approached, the influential Educational Review gave educators something grim to muse upon as they prepared to clean out their desks: “Must definite reforms with measurable results be foresworn,” it asked, “that an antiquated school system may grind out useless produce?” The magazine demanded quantifiable proof of school’s contributions to society–or education should have its budget cut. The article, titled “An Economic Measure of School Efficiency,” charged that “The advocate of pure water or clean streets shows by how much the death rate will be altered with each proposed addition to his share of the budget–only a teacher is without such figures.” An editorial in Ladies Home Journal reported that dissatisfaction with schools was increasing, claiming “On every hand signs are evident of a widely growing distrust of the effectiveness of the present educational system…” In Providence, the school board was criticized by the local press for declaring a holiday on the Monday preceding Decoration Day to allow a four-day vacation. “This cost the public $5,000 in loss of possible returns on the money invested,” readers were informed.

Suddenly school critics were everywhere. A major assault was mounted in two popular journals, Saturday Evening Post and Ladies Home Journal, with millions each in circulation, both read by leaders of the middle classes. The Post sounded the anti-intellectual theme this way:

“Miltonized, Chaucerized, Vergilized, Shillered, physicked and chemicaled, the high school ….should be of no use in the world–particularly the business world.”

Three heavy punches in succession came from Ladies Home Journal: The case of Seventeen Million Children–Is Our Public-School System Providing an Utter Failure?” This declaration would seem difficult to top, but the second article did just that: “Is the Public School a Failure? It Is: The Most Momentous Failure in Our American Life Today.” And a third, written by the principal of a New York City high school, went even further. Entitled “The Danger of Running a Fool Factory,” it made this point: that education is “permeated with errors and hypocrisy,”

While the Dean of Columbia Teachers College, James E. Russell added that “If school cannot be made to drop its mental development obsession the whole system should be abolished.” [emphasis mine]

The Fabian Spirit (My Note. I cover the Fabian Society again at the beginning of book three)

To speak of scientific management in school and society without crediting the influence of the Fabians would do great disservice to truth, but the nature of Fabianism is so complex it raises questions this essay cannot answer. To deal with the Fabians in a brief compass as I’m going to do is to deal necessarily in simplifications in order to see a little how this charming group of scholars, writers, heirs, heiresses, scientists, philosophers, bombazines, gazebos, trust-fund babies, and successful men and women of affairs became the most potent force in the creation of the modern welfare state, distributors of its characteristically dumbed-down version of schooling. Yet pointing only to this often frivolous organization’s eccentricity would be to disrespect the incredible accomplishments of Beatrice Webb and her associates, and their decisive effort on schooling. Mrs. Webb is the only woman ever deemed worthy of burial in Westminster Abbey.

What nineteenth-century Transcendentalists and Muggletonians hoped to be in reordering the triumvirate of society, school, and family, twentieth-century Fabians actually were. Although far from the only potent organization working behind the scenes to radically reshape domestic and international life, it would not be too far out of line to call the twentieth century the Fabian century. One thing is certain: the direction of modern schooling for the bottom 90 percent of our society has followed a largely Fabian design–and the puzzling security and prestige enjoyed at the moment by those who speak of “globalism” and “multiculturalism” are a direct result of heed paid earlier to Fabian prophecies that a welfare state, followed by an intense focus on internationalism, would be the mechanism elevating corporate society over political society, and a necessary precursor to utopia. Fabian theory is the Das Kapital of financial capitalism.

Fabianism always floated above simplistic politics, seeking to preempt both sides. The British Labour Party and its post-WWII welfare state are Fabianism made visible. This is well understood; not so easily comprehended are signs of an aristocratic temper–like this little anti-meritocractic Fabian gem found in a report of the British College of Surgeons:

Medicine would lose immeasurably if the proportion of such students [from upper-class and upper-middle-class homes] were to be reduced in favour of precocious children who qualify for subsidies [i.e., scholarship students].

Even though meritocracy is their reliable cover, social stratification was always the Fabian’s real trump suit.

Entitlements are another Fabian insertion into the social fabric, even though the idea antedates them, of course.

To realize the tremendous task Fabians originally assigned themselves (a significant part of which was given to schooling to perform), we need to reflect again on Darwin’s shattering books, The Origin of Species (1859) and The Descent of Man (1871), each arguing in its own way that far from being blank slates, children are written upon indelibly by their race of origin, some “favoured” in Darwin’s language, some not. A powerful public relations initiative of recent years has attempted to separate Darwin from “social Darwinism,” but it cannot be done because Darwin himself is the prototypical social Darwinist. Both books taken together issued a license for liberal upper classes to justify forced schooling. From an evolutionary perspective, schools are the indoctrination phase of a gigantic breeding experiment. Working-class fantasies of “self-improvement” were dismissed from the start as sentimentality that evolutionary theory had no place for.

What Darwin accomplished with his books was a freeing of discussion from the narrow straitjacket it had worn when society was considered a matter of internal associations and relationships. Darwin made it possible to consider political affairs as a prime instrument of social evolution. Here was a pivotal moment in Western thought, a changing of the guard in which secular purpose replaced religious purpose, long before trashed by the Enlightenment.

For the poor, the working classes, and middle classes in the American sense,7 this change in outlook, lauded by the most influential minds of the nineteenth century, was a catastrophe of titanic proportions, especially for government schoolchildren. Children could no longer simply be parents’ darlings. Many were (biologically) a racial menace. The rest had to be thought of as soldiers in genetic combat, the moral equivalent of war. For all but a relative handful of favoured families, aspiration was off the board as a scientific proposition.

For governments, children could no longer be considered individuals but were regarded as categories, rungs on a biological ladder. Evolutionary science pronounced the majority useless mouths waiting for nature to dispense with entirely. Nature (as expressed through her human agents) was to be understood not as cruel or oppressive but beautifully, functionally purposeful–a neo-pagan perspective to be reflected in the organization and administration of schools.

Three distinct and conflicting tendencies competed in the nineteenth-century theory of society: first was the empirical tendency stemming from John Locke and David Hume which led to that outlook on the study of society we call pragmatism, and eventually to behaviouristic psychology; the second line descended from Immanuel Kant, Hegel, Savigny, and others and led to the organic theory of the modern state, the preferred metaphor of Fabians (and many later systems theorists); the third outlook comes to us out of Rousseau, Diderot, d’Alembert, Bentham, the Mills, and leads almost directly to the utilitarian state of Marxist socialism. Each of these postures was savagely assailed over time by the development of academic Darwinism. After Darwin, utopia as a human-friendly place dies an agonizing death. The last conception of utopia after Darwin which isn’t some kind of hellish nightmare is William Morris’ News from Nowhere.

With only niggling reservations, the Fabian brain trust had no difficulty employing force to shape recalcitrant individuals, groups, and organizations. Force in the absence of divine injunctions is a tool to be employed unsentimentally. Fabian George Bernard Shaw established the principle wittily in 1920 when he said that under a Fabian future government:

You would not be allowed to be poor. You would be forcibly fed, clothed, lodged, taught, and employed whether you like it or not. If it were discovered that you have not character and industry, you might possibly be executed in a kindly manner. – The Intelligent Woman’s Guide to Socialism and Capitalism

 Fabianism came into existence around the year 1884, taking its name from Roman general Fabius Cunctator8 who preserved the Roman state by defeating Hannibal, chipping away at Hannibal’s patience and will to win by avoiding combat. Darwin was the weird holy man Fabians adored, the man who gave them their principle, a theory inspirationally equal to god-theory, around which a new organization of society could be justified.

Society, after Darwin, was incontrovertibly about good breeding. That was the only true goal it had, or scientifically could have. Before Darwin, the view of historical development which fit best with Anglo/American tradition was a conception of individual rights independent of any theory of reciprocal obligations to the State; the duty of leaders was to Society, not to Government, a crucial distinction in perfect harmony with the teachings of Reformation

Christianity, which extended to all believers a conception of individual duty, individual responsibility, and a free will right to decide for oneself beyond any claims of states. John Calvin proclaimed in his Institutes that through natural law, the judgment of conscience alone was able to distinguish between justice and injustice. It’s hard for secular minds to face, but the powerful freedoms of the West, unmatched by any other society at any other time, are rooted deeply in a religion so radical, so demanding it revolts the modern temper.

For Protestant Christians, salvation was uniquely a matter between God and the individual. The mind of northern Europe had for centuries been fixed on the task of winning liberties for the individual against the State. Notable individual freedoms were taken from the State beginning symbolically at Runnemede9 in 1215. By 1859, six and a half centuries later, in the Age of Darwin, individual rights were everywhere in the Anglo-Saxon world understood to transcend theories of obligation to the State. Herbert Spencer embodies this attitude, albeit ambiguously. For Spencer, Darwinian evolution promised rights only to the strong. It is well to keep in mind that his brief for liberty masks a rigorously exclusionary philosophy, particularly when he sounds most like Thomas Paine. The first and second amendments of our own constitution illustrate just how far this freedom process could carry. Say what you please before God and Man; protect yourself with a gun if need be from government interference.

Spencer was the reigning British philosopher from 1870 to 1900. In the Westminster Review of January 1860, he wrote: “The welfare of citizens cannot rightly be sacrificed to some supposed benefit of the State, the State is to be maintained solely for the benefit of citizens.10 The corporate life in society must be subservient to the lives of its parts, instead of the lives of the parts being subservient to the corporate life.” Spencer had an even greater vogue in America, influencing every intellectual from Walt Whitman to John Dewey and becoming the darling of corporate business. Early in 1882 a grand dinner was held in his honour by the great and powerful who gathered to hear scientific proof of Anglo-Saxon fitness for rule–and a brief for moral relativism. This dinner and its implications set the standard for twentieth-century management, including the management of schooling. A clear appraisal of the fateful meal and its resonance is given in E. Digby Baltzell’s The Protestant Establishment, a well-bred look at the resurgence of the Anglican outlook in America.

This attitude constituted a violent contradiction of German strong-state, state-as-first-parent doctrine which held that interests of the individual as individual are without significance. But derogation of individual rights was entirely consistent with Darwinian science. The German authoritarian preference received an invigorating restorative with Darwin’s advent. Natural selection, the operational principle of Darwinism, was held to reach individuals only indirectly–through the action of society. Hence society becomes a natural subject for regulation and intervention by the State.

To illustrate how reverberant a drum the innocent-sounding locution “natural selection”11 can really be, translated into social practice, try to imagine how denial of black dignities and rights and the corresponding degradation of black family relationships in America because of this denial, might well be reckoned an evolutionarily positive course, in Darwinian terms. By discouraging Negro breeding, eventually the numbers of this most disfavoured race would diminish. The state not only had a vested interest in becoming an active agent of evolution, it could not help but become one, willy-nilly. Fabians set out to write a sensible evolutionary agenda when they entered the political arena. Once this biopolitical connection is recognized, the past, present, and future of this seemingly bumbling movement takes on a formidable coherence. Under the dottiness, lovability, intelligence, high social position, and genuine goodness of some of their works, the system held out as humanitarian by Fabians is grotesquely deceptive; in reality, Fabian compassion masks a real aloofness to humanity. It is purely an intellectual project in scientific management.

Thomas Davidson’s History of Education seen through this lens transmutes in front of our eyes from the harmlessly addled excursion into romantic futurism it seems to be into a manual of frightening strategic goals and tactical methods. Fabians emerged in the first years of the twentieth century as great champions of social efficiency in the name of the evolutionary destiny of the race. This infused a powerful secular theology into the movement, allowing its members to revel privately in an ennobling destiny. The Fabian program spread quickly through the best colleges and universities under many different names, multiplying its de facto membership among young men and women blissfully unaware of their induction. They were only being modern. H.G. Wells called it “the open conspiracy” in an essay bearing the same title, and worth your time to track down.

As the movement developed, Fabians became aristocratic friends of other social-efficiency vanguards like Taylorism or allies of the Methodist social gospel crowd of liberal Christian religionists busy substituting Works for Faith in one of the most noteworthy religious reversals of all time. Especially, they became friends and advisors of industrialists and financiers, travellers in the same direction. This cross-fertilization occurred naturally, not out of petty motives of profit, but because by Fabian lights evolution had progressed furthest among the international business and banking classes!

These laughing gentry were impressively effective at whatever they turned their hands to because they understood principles of social leverage. Kitty Muggeridge writes:

If you want to pinpoint the moment in time when the very first foundation of the Welfare State was laid, a reasonable date to choose would be the last fortnight of November in 1905 when Beatrice Webb was appointed to the Royal Commission on the Poor Law, and she convinced her protégé, Albert Beveridge, to join a committee for dealing with employment.

During Mrs. Webb’s tenure on the Royal Commission, she laid down the first blueprint of cradle-to-grave social security to eradicate poverty “without toppling the whole social structure.” She lived to see Beveridge promulgate her major ideas in the historic Beveridge Report, from which they were brought to life in post-WWII Britain and the United States.

Fabian practitioners developed Hegelian principles which they co-taught alongside Morgan bankers and other important financial allies over the first half of the twentieth century. One insightful Hegelianism was that to push ideas efficiently it was necessary first to co-opt both political Left and political Right. Adversarial politics–competition–was a loser’s game.12 By infiltrating all major media, by continual low-intensity propaganda, by massive changes in group orientations (accomplished through principles developed in the psychological-warfare bureaus of the military), and with the ability, using government intelligence agents and press contacts, to induce a succession of crises, they accomplished that astonishing feat.

7In the British sense, middle classes are a buffer protecting elites from the poor; our own statistical income-based designation leads to a more eclectic composition, and to somewhat less predictability of attitudes and values. 8The origins are disputed but it was an offshoot of Thomas Davidson’s utopian group in New York, “The Fellowship of the New Life”–an American export to Britain, not the other way around. The reader should be warned I use the term “Fabian” more indiscriminately with less concern for actual affiliation through the rest of the book than I do here. Fabianism was a zeitgeist as well as a literal association, and thousands of twentieth-century influentials have been Fabians who might be uncomfortable around its flesh and blood adherents, or who would be puzzled by the label.

9The spelling preferred by baronial descendants of the actual event. See Chapter Twelve.

10Contrast this with John F. Kennedy’s “Ask not what your country can do for you but what you can do for your country” Inaugural of 1960 which measured the distance we had retreated since the Civil War. It’s useful to remember, however, that Spencer reserved these feelings only for the Elect.

11 1900, Sidney Sherwood of Johns Hopkins University joined a host of prominent organizations and men like Andrew Carnegie in declaring the emergence of the corporate system as the highest stage in evolution. Sherwood suggested the modern corporation’s historic task was to sort out “genius,” to get rid of “the weak.” This elimination is “the real function of the trust,” and the formation of monopoly control is “natural selection of the highest order.” Try to imagine how this outlook played out in corporate schooling.

12The most dramatic example of abandoning competition and replacing it with cooperation was the breath-taking monopolization of first the nation’s, then the world’s oil supply by Standard Oil under the personal direction of John D. Rockefeller Sr. Rockefeller despised the competitive marketplace, as did his fellow titans of finance and industry, J.P. Morgan and Andrew Carnegie. Rockefeller’s negotiating team was instructed to accommodate any company willing to enter his cartel, to destroy any that resisted.

The Open Conspiracy

 When I speak of Fabianism, or of any particular Fabians, actual or virtual like Kurt Lewin, once head of Britain’s Psychological Warfare Bureau, or R.D. Laing, once staff psychologist at the Tavistock Institute, I have no interest in mounting a polemic against this particular conceit of the comfortable intelligentsia. Fabian strategy and tactics have been openly announced and discussed with clarity for nearly a century, whether identified as Fabian or not. Nothing illegal about it. I do think it a tragedy, however, that government school children are left in the dark about the existence of influential groups with complex social agendas aimed at their lives.

I’ve neglected to tell you so far about the role stress plays in Fabian evolutionary theory. Just as Hegel taught that history moves faster toward its conclusion by way of warfare, so evolutionary socialists were taught by Hegel to see struggle as the precipitant of evolutionary improvement for the species, a necessary purifier eliminating the weak from the breeding sweepstakes. Society evolves slowly toward “social efficiency” all by itself; society under stress, however, evolves much faster! Thus the deliberate creation of crisis is an important tool of evolutionary socialists. Does that help you understand the government school drama a little better, or the well-publicized doomsday scenarios of environmentalists?

The London School of Economics is a Fabian creation. Mick Jagger spent time there; so did John F. Kennedy. Once elitist, the Economist, now a worldwide pop-intellectual publication, is Fabian, as is The New Statesman and Ruskin Labour College of Oxford. The legendary Royal Institute of International Affairs and the Tavistock Institute for Human Relations, premier mind- bending institutions of the world, are Fabian. Theodor Adorno, an important if barely visible avatar of the therapeutic state, and a one-time eminence at Tavistock, travelled the Fabian road as well. (My Note. Can you see things pulling together here?)

You needn’t carry a card or even have heard the name Fabian to follow the wolf-in-sheep’s-clothing flag.

Fabianism is mainly a value-system with progressive objectives. Its social club aspect isn’t for coalminers, farmers, or steam-fitters. We’ve all been exposed to many details of the Fabian program without realizing it. In the United States, some organizations heavily influenced by Fabianism are the Ford Foundation, the Russell Sage Foundation,

the Stanford Research Institute, the Carnegie Endowments, the Aspen Institute, the Wharton School, and RAND. And this short list is illustrative, not complete. Tavistock underwrites or has intimate relations with thirty research institutions in the United States, all which at one time or another have taken a player’s hand in the shaping of American schooling.

Once again, you need to remember we aren’t conspiracy hunting but tracking an idea, like microchipping an eel to see what holes it swims into in case we want to catch it later on. H.G. Wells, best known of all early Fabians, once wrote of the Fabian project:

The political world of the Open Conspiracy must weaken, efface, incorporate and supersede existing governments….The character of the Open Conspiracy will then be plainly displayed. It will be a world religion. This large, loose assimilatory mass of groups and societies will definitely and obviously attempt to swallow up the entire population of the world and become a new human community….The immediate task before all people, a planned World State, is appearing at a thousand points of light [but]…generations of propaganda and education may have to precede it. (emphasis added)

Zbigniew Brzezinski wrote his famous signature book “Between Two Ages: America’s Role in the Technetronic Era” in 1970, a piece reeking with Fabianisms: dislike of direct popular power, relentless advocacy of the right and duty of evolutionarily advanced nations to administer less developed parts of the world, revulsion at populist demands for “selfish self-government” (homeschooling would be a prime example), and stress on collectivism.

Brzezinski said in the book:

It will soon be possible to assert almost continuous control over every citizen and to maintain up-to-date files containing even the most personal details about health and personal behaviour of every citizen, in addition to the more customary data. These files will be subject to instantaneous retrieval by the authorities.

Power will gravitate into the hands of those who control information.

In his essay, Brzezinski called common people, “an increasingly purposeless mass.” And, of course, if the army of children collected in mass schooling is really “purposeless,” what argument says it should exist at all?

13The government-created crisis, masquerading as an unexpected external provocation, is elementary Hegelian strategy. If you want to take Texas and California from Mexico, first shoot a few Americans while the press disinforms the nation that Mexican depredations against our nationals have to be stopped; if you want Cuba as a satrapy, blow up an American battleship and pin it on the Cubans. By this strategy, a nation which has decided to suspend its democratic traditions with a period of martial law (under which permanent social reordering would occur) might arrange a series of “terrorist” attacks upon itself which would justify the transformation as a defence of general public safety.

14In the “world peace” phenomenon so necessary to establish a unitary world order lies a real danger, according to evolutionists, of species deterioration caused by inadvertent preservation of inferior genes which would otherwise be killed or starved. Hence the urgency of insulating superior breeding stock from pollution through various strategies of social segregation. Among these, forced classification through schooling has been by far the most important.

An Everlasting Faith

 Fabianism was a principal force and inspiration behind all major school legislation of the first half of the twentieth century. And it will doubtless continue to be in the twenty-first. It will help us understand Fabian influence to look at the first Fabian-authored consideration of public schooling, the most talked-about education book of 1900, Thomas Davidson’s peculiar and fantastic History of Education.

 The Dictionary of American Biography describes Davidson as a naturalized Scot, American since 1867, and a follower of William Torrey Harris, federal Commissioner of Education–the most influential Hegelian in North America. Davidson was also first president of the Fabian Society in England, a fact not thought worthy of preservation in the biographical dictionary, but otherwise easy enough to confirm. This news is also absent from Pelling’s America and The British Left, although Davidson is credited there with “usurping” the Fabians.

In his important monograph “Education in the Forming of American Society,” Bernard Bailyn, as you’ll recall, said anyone bold enough to venture a history of American schooling would have to explain the sharp disjunction separating these local institutions as they existed from 1620 to 1890 from the massification which followed afterwards. In presenting his case, Bailyn had cause to compare “two notable books” on the subject which both appeared in 1900. One was Davidson’s, the other Edward Eggleston’s.

Eggleston’s Transit of Civilization Bailyn calls “a remarkably imaginative effort to analyze the original investment from which has developed Anglo-Saxon culture in America by probing the complex states of knowing and thinking, of feeling and passion of the seventeenth century colonists.” The opening words of Eggleston’s book, said Bailyn, make clear the central position of education in early America. Bailyn calls Transit “one of the subtlest and most original books ever written on the subject” and “a seminal work,” but he notes how quickly it was “laid aside by American intelligentsia as an oddity, irrelevant to the interests of the group then firmly shaping the historical study of American education.”

For that group, the book of books was Davidson’s History of Education. William James called its author a “knight-errant of the intellectual life,” an “exuberant polymath.” Bailyn agrees that Davidson’s “was a remarkable book”:

Davidson starts with “The Rise of Intelligence” when “man first rose above the brute.” Then he trots briskly through “ancient Turanian,” Semitic, and Aryan education, picks up speed on “civic education” in Judaea, Greece, and Rome, gallops swiftly across Hellenistic, Alexandrian, Patristic, and Muslim education; leaps magnificently over the thorny barriers of scholasticism, the mediaeval universities, Renaissance, Reformation, and Counter-Reformation, and then plunges wildly through the remaining five centuries in sixty-four pages flat.

It was less the frantic scope than the purpose of this strange philosophical essay that distinguished it in the eyes of an influential group of writers. Its purpose was to dignify a newly self-conscious profession called Education. Its argument, a heady distillation of conclusions from Social Darwinism, claimed that modern education was a cosmic force leading mankind to full realization of itself. Davidson’s preface puts the intellectual core of Fabianism on centre stage:

My endeavour has been to present education as the last and highest form of evolution…. By placing education in relation to the whole process of evolution, as its highest form, I have hoped to impart to it a dignity which it could hardly otherwise receive or claim…when it is recognized to be the highest phase of the world-process. “World process” here is an echo of Kant and Hegel, and for the teacher to be the chief agent in that process, both it and he assumes a very different aspect.

Here is the intellectual and emotional antecedent of “creation spirituality,” Pierre Teilhard de Chardin’s assertion that evolution has become a spiritual inevitability in our time.

Suddenly mere schooling found itself elevated from its petty, despised position on the periphery of the known universe into an intimate involvement in the cosmic destiny of man, a master key too important to be left to parents.

By 1906, Paul Monroe of Teachers College could write in his Text-book in the History of Education that knowledge of the “purpose of education” was to supply the teacher with “fundamentals of an everlasting faith as broad as human nature and as deep as the life of the race.”

This History of Education, according to Bailyn, “came to be taught as an introductory course, a form of initiation, in every normal school, department of education, and teachers college in the country”:

The story had to be got straight. And so a few of the more imaginative of that energetic and able group of men concerned with mapping overall progress of “scientific” education, though not otherwise historians, took over the management of the historical work in education. With great virtuosity they drew up what became the patristic literature of a powerful academic ecclesia.

The official history of education: grew in almost total isolation from the major influences and shaping minds of twentieth-century historiography; and its isolation proved to be self-intensifying: the more parochial the subject became, the less capable it was of attracting the kinds of scholars who could give it broad relevance and bring it back into the public domain. It soon displayed the exaggeration of weakness and extravagance of emphasis that are the typical results of sustained inbreeding.

These “educational missionaries” spoke of schools as if they were monasteries. By limiting the idea of education to formal school instruction, the public gradually lost sight of what the real thing was. The questions these specialists disputed were as irrelevant to real people as the disputes of medieval divines; there was about their writing condescension for public concerns, for them “the whole range of education had become an instrument of deliberate social purpose.” (emphasis added) After 1910, divergence between what various publics expected would happen, in government schools and what the rapidly expanding school establishment intended to make happen opened a deep gulf between home and school, ordinary citizen and policymaker.

Regulating Lives Like Machinery

The real explanation for this sudden gulf between NEA policies in 1893 and 1911 had nothing to do with intervening feedback from teachers, principals, or superintendents about what schools needed; rather, it signalled titanic forces gathering outside the closed universe of schooling with the intention of altering this nation’s economy, politics, social relationships, future direction, and eventually the terms of its national existence, using schools as instruments in the work.

Schoolmen were never invited to the policy table at which momentous decisions were made. When Ellwood P. Cubberley began tentatively to raise his voice in protest against radical changes being forced upon schools (in his history of education), particularly the sudden enforcement of compulsory attendance laws which brought amazing disruption into the heretofore well-mannered school world, he quickly pulled back without naming the community leaders–as he called them–who gave the actual orders. This evidence of impotence documents the pedagogue status of even the most elevated titans of schooling like Cubberley. You can find this reference and others like it in Public Education in the United States.

Scientific management was about to merge with systematic schooling in the United States; it preferred to steal in silently on little cat’s feet, but nobody ever questioned the right of businessmen to impose a business philosophy to tamper with children’s lives. On the cantilever principle of interlocking directorates pioneered by Morgan interests, scientific school management flowed into other institutional domains of American life, too. According to Taylor, application of mechanical power to production could be generalized into every arena of national life, even to the pulpit, certainly to schools. This would bring about a realization that people’s lives could be regulated very much like machinery, without sentiment. Any expenditure of time and energy demanded rationalization, whether first-grader or coalminer, behaviour should be mathematically accounted for following the new statistical procedures of Galton and Karl Pearson.

The scientific management movement was backed by many international bankers and industrialists. In 1905, the vice president of the National City Bank of New York, Frank Vanderlip, made his way to the speaker’s podium at the National Education Association’s annual convention to say:

I am firmly convinced the economic success of Germany can be encompassed in a single word–schoolmaster. From the economic point of view the school system of Germany stands unparalleled.

German schools were psychologically managed, ours must be, too. People of substance stood, they thought, on the verge of an ultimate secret. How to write upon the empty slates of empty children’s minds in the dawning era of scientific management. What they would write there was a program to make dwarf and fractional human beings, people crippled by implanted urges and habits beyond their understanding, men and women who cry out to be managed.

The Gary Plan

 Frederick Taylor’s gospel of efficiency demanded complete and intensive use of industrial plant facilities. From 1903 onwards, strenuous efforts were made to achieve full utilization of space by forcing year-round school on society. Callahan suggests it was “the children of America, who would have been unwilling victims of this scheme, who played a decisive role in beating the original effort to effect this back.”

But east of Chicago, in the synthetic U.S. Steel company town of Gary, Indiana, Superintendent William A. Wirt, a former student of John Dewey’s at the University of Chicago, was busy testing a radical school innovation called the Gary Plan soon to be sprung on the national scene. Wirt had supposedly invented a new organizational scheme in which school subjects were departmentalized; this required movement of students from room to room on a regular basis so that all building spaces were in constant use. Bells would ring and just as with Pavlov’s salivating dog, children would shift out of their seats and lurch toward yet another class.

In this way children could be exposed to many nonacademic socialization experiences and much scientifically engineered physical activity, and it would be a bonus value from the same investment, a curriculum apart from so-called basic subjects which by this time were being looked upon as an actual menace to long-range social goals.

Wirt called his system the “work-study-play” school, but outside of Gary it was referred to simply as “the Gary Plan.” Its noteworthy economical feature, rigorously scheduling a student body twice as large as before into the same space and time, earned it the informal name “platoon school.”

While the prototype was being established and tested on children of the new industrial proletariat in Gary, the plan itself was merchandised from newsstand, pulpit, and lecture circuit, lauded in administrative circles, and soundly praised by first pedagogical couple John and Evelyn Dewey in their 1915 book, Schools of Tomorrow. The first inkling Gary might be a deliberate stepchild of the scientific management movement occurred in a February 1911 article by Wirt for The American School Board Journal, “Scientific Management of School Plants.” But a more thorough and forceful exposition of its provenance was presented in the Elementary School Teacher by John Franklin Bobbit in a 1912 piece titled “Elimination of Waste in Education.”

Bobbit said Gary schools were the work of businessmen who understood scientific management. Teaching was slated to become a specialized scientific calling conducted by pre-approved agents of the central business office.

Classroom teachers would teach the same thing over and over to groups of travelling children; special subject teachers would deliver their special subjects to classes rotating through the building on a precision time schedule.

Early in 1914, the Federal Bureau of Education, then located in the Interior Department, strongly endorsed Wirt’s system. This led to one of the most dramatic and least-known events in twentieth-century school history. In New York City, a spontaneous rebellion occurred on the part of the students and parents against extension of the Gary Plan to their own city. While the revolt had only short-lived effects, it highlights the demoralization of private life occasioned by passing methods of industry off as education.

15Bobbit was the influential schoolman who reorganized the Los Angeles school curriculum, replacing formal history with “Social Studies.” Of the Bobbitized set of educational objectives, the five most important were 1) Social intercommunication 2) Maintenance of physical efficiency 3) Efficient citizenship 4) General social contacts and relationships 5) Leisure occupations. My own favourite is “efficient citizenship,” which bears rolling around on the point of one’s bayonet as the bill is presented for payment.

The Jewish Student Riots

Less than three weeks before the mayoral election of 1917, rioting broke out at PS 171, an elementary school on Madison Avenue near 103rd Street in New York City which had adopted the Gary Plan. About a thousand demonstrators smashed windows, menaced passersby, shouted threats, and made school operation impossible.

Over the next few days newspapers downplayed the riot, marginalizing the rioters as “street corner agitators” from Harlem and the Upper East Side, but they were nothing of the sort, being mainly immigrant parents. Demonstrations and rioting spread to other Gary Plan schools, including high schools where student volunteers were available to join parents on the picket line.

At one place, five thousand children marched. For ten days trouble continued, breaking out in first one place then another. Thousands of mothers milled around schools in Yorkville, a German immigrant section, and in East Harlem, complaining angrily that their children had been put on “half-rations” of education. They meant that mental exercise had been removed from the centre of things. Riots flared out into Williamsburg and Brownsville in the borough of Brooklyn; schools were stoned, police car tires slashed by demonstrators. Schools on the Lower East Side and in the Bronx reported trouble also.

The most notable aspect of this rioting was its source in what today would be the bottom of the bell-curve masses…and they were complaining that school was too easy! What could have possessed recently arrived immigrants to defy their betters? Whatever it was, it poisoned the promising political career of mayoral incumbent, John Purroy Mitchel, a well-connected, aristocratic young progressive who had been seriously mentioned as presidential timber. Although Teddy Roosevelt personally campaigned for him, Mitchel lost by a two-to-one margin when election day arrived shortly after the riots were over, the disruptions widely credited with bringing Mitchel down. In all, three hundred students were arrested, almost all Jewish. I identify their ethnicity because today we don’t usually expect Jewish kids to get arrested in bulk.

To understand what was happening requires us to meet an entity calling itself the Public Education Association. If we pierce its associational veil, we find that it is made up of bankers, society ladies, corporation lawyers and, in general, people with private fortunes or access to private fortunes. The PEA announced in 1911 an “urgent need” to transform public schools into child welfare agencies. (emphasis added) Shortly afterward, Mitchel, a member of the PEA, was elected mayor of New York. Superintendent Wirt in Gary was promptly contacted and offered the New York superintendency. He agreed, and the first Gary schools opened in New York City in March 1915.

Bear in mind there was no public debate, no warning of this radical step. Just seventy-five days after the Gary trial began, the financial arm of New York City government declared it a total success, authorizing conversion of twelve more schools. (The original trial had only been for two.) This was done in June at the end of the school year when public attention was notoriously low. Then in September of 1915, after a net one hundred days of trial, Comptroller Prendergast issued a formal report recommending extension of the Gary Plan into all schools of New York City! He further recommended lengthening the school day and the school year.

At the very time this astonishing surprise was being prepared for the children of New York City in 1915, a series of highly laudatory articles sprouted like zits all over the periodical press calling the Gary Plan the answer to our nation’s school prayers. One characteristic piece read, “School must fill the vacuum of the home, school must be life itself as once the old household was a life itself.” (emphasis added)

Like Rommel’s Panzer columns, true believers were on the move. At the same time press agents were skilfully manipulating the press, officers of the Rockefeller Foundation, a body which supported the Gary Plan wholeheartedly, were appointed without fanfare as members of the New York City Board of Education, compliments of Mayor Mitchel.

Immediately after Prendergast’s report appeared calling for total Gary-ization of public schooling, a book written by a prominent young protégé of John Dewey directed national attention to the Gary miracle “where children learn to play and prepare for vocations as well as to study abstractions.” Titled The Gary Schools, its author, Randolph Bourne, was among the most beloved columnists for The New Republic in the days when that magazine, product of J.P. Morgan banker Willard Straight’s personal patronage, took some of its editorial instruction directly from the tables of power in America.

In light of what happened in 1917, you might find it interesting to have your librarian scare up a copy of Bourne’s Gary Schools so you can study how a well-orchestrated national propaganda campaign can colonize your mind. 

Even as Bourne’s book was being read, determined opposition was forming. In 1917, in spite of grassroots protest, the elite Public Education Association urged the opening of forty-eight more Gary schools (there were by that time thirty-two in operation). Whoever was running the timetable on this thing had apparently tired of gradualism and was preparing to step from the shadows and open the engine full throttle. A letter from the PEA director (New York Times, 27 June, 1917) urged that more Gary schools must be opened. An earlier letter by director Nudd struck an even more hysterical note: “The situation is acute, no further delay.” This Hegelian manufactured crisis was used to thaw Board of Estimate recalcitrance, which body voted sufficient funds to extend the Gary scheme through the New York City school system.

School riots followed hard on the heels of that vote. European immigrants, especially Jews from Germany (where collectivist thinking in the West had been perfected), knew exactly what the scientific Gary Plan would mean to their children. They weren’t buying. In the fallout from these disturbances, socialite Mitchel was thrown out of office in the next election. The Gary schools themselves were dissolved by incoming Mayor Hylan who called them “a scheme” of the Rockefeller Foundation: “a system by which Rockefellers and their allies hope to educate coming generations in the ‘doctrine of contentment,’ another name for social serfdom.”

The Rockefeller Report

 The Gary tale is a model of how managed school machinery can be geared up in secret without public debate to deliver a product parents don’t want. Part One of the Gary story is the lesson we learned from the impromptu opinion poll of Gary schooling taken by housewives and immigrant children, a poll whose results translated into riots. Having only their native wit and past experience to guide them, these immigrant parents concluded that Gary schools were caste schools. Not what they expected from America. They turned to the only weapon at their disposal– disruption–and it worked. They shrewdly recognized that boys in elite schools wouldn’t tolerate the dumbing down their own were being asked to accept. They knew this would close doors of opportunity, not open them.

Some individual comments from parents and principals about Gary are worth preserving: “too much play and time-wasting,” “they spend all day listening to the phonograph and dancing,” “they change class every forty minutes, my daughter has to wear her coat constantly to keep it from being stolen,” “the cult of the easy,” “a step backwards in human development,” “focusing on the group instead of the individual.” One principal predicted if the plan were kept, retardation would multiply as a result of minimal contact between teachers and students. And so it has.

Part Two of the Gary story is the official Rockefeller report condemning Gary, circulated at Rockefeller headquarters in 1916, but not issued until 1918. Why this report was suppressed for two years we can only guess. You’ll recall Mayor Hylan’s charge that the Rockefeller Foundation moved heaven and earth to force its Gary Plan on an unwitting and unwilling citizenry, using money, position, and influence to such an extent that a New York State Senate Resolution of 1916 accused the foundation of moving to gain complete control of the New York City Board of Education. Keep in mind that Rockefeller people were active in 1915, 1916, and 1917, lobbying to impose a Gary destiny on the public schools of New York City even after its own house analyst pointed to the intellectual damage these places caused.

The 1916 analytical report leapfrogged New York City to examine the original schools as they functioned back in Gary, Indiana. Written by Abraham Flexner,16 it stated flatly that Gary schools were a total failure, “offering insubstantial programs and a general atmosphere which habituated students to inferior performance.” Flexner’s analysis was a massive repudiation of John Dewey’s shallow Schools of Tomorrow hype for Gary.

Now we come to the mystery. After this bad idea crashed in New York City in 1917, the critical Rockefeller report held in house since 1916 was issued in 1918 to embarrass critics who had claimed the whole mess was the idea of the Rockefeller project officers. So we know in retrospect that the Rockefeller Foundation was aware of serious shortcomings before it used its political muscle to impose Gary on New York. Had the Flexner report been offered in a timely fashion before the riots, it would have spelled doom for the Gary Plan. Why it wasn’t has never been explained.

The third and final part of the Gary story comes straight out of Weird Tales. In all existing accounts of the Gary drama, none mentions the end of Superintendent Wirt’s career after his New York defeat. Only Diane Ravitch (in The Great School Wars) even bothers to track Wirt back home to Gary, where he resumed the superintendency and became, she tells us, a “very conservative schoolman” in his later years. Ah, what Ravitch missed!

The full facts are engrossing: seventeen years after Wirt left New York City, a government publication printed the next significant chapter of the Wirt story. Its title: Hearings, House Select Committee to Investigate Certain Statements of Dr. William Wirt, 73rd Congress, 2nd Session, April 10 and 17, 1934. It seems that Dr. Wirt, while in Washington to attend a school administrators meeting in 1933, had been invited to an elite private dinner

party at the home of a high Roosevelt administration official. The dinner was attended by well-placed members of the new government, including A.A. Berle, a famous “inner circle” brain-truster. There, Wirt heard that the Depression was being artificially prolonged by credit rigging, until little people and businessmen were shaken enough to agree to a plan where government must dominate business and commerce in the future!

All this he testified to before Congress. The transformation was to make government the source of long-term capital loans. Control of business would follow. Wirt testified he was told Roosevelt was only a puppet; that his hosts had made propaganda a science, that they could make newspapers and magazines beg for mercy by taking away much of their advertising; that provided they were subservient, leaders of business and labour would be silenced by offers of government contracts for materials and services; that colleges and schools would be kept in line by promises of federal aid until such time as they were under safe control; and that farmers would be managed by letting key operators “get their hands in the public trough.”

In the yellow journalism outburst following Wirt’s disclosure, Berle admitted everything. But he said they were just pulling Wirt’s leg! Pulling the leg of the one-time nationally acclaimed saviour of public education. Time magazine, The New York Times, and other major media ridiculed Wirt, effectively silencing him.

Of Wirt’s earlier New York foray into the engineering of young people, New York City mayor Hylan was quoted vividly in The New York Times of March 27, 1922:

The real menace to our republic is this invisible government which like a giant octopus sprawls its slimy length over city, state and nation…. It has seized in its tentacles our executive officers, our legislative bodies, our schools, our courts, our newspapers, and every agency created for the public protection…. To depart from mere generalizations, let me say that at the head of this octopus are the Rockefeller Standard Oil interests.

Like many of the rest of you, I was conditioned early in adult life to avoid conspiracy talk and conspiracy takers by the universal scorn heaped upon the introduction of such arguments into the discourse. All “responsible” journalistic media, and virtually all of the professoriate allowed public access through those media, respond reflexively, and negatively, it seems, to any hint of a dark underside to our national life. With that in mind, what are we to make of Mayor Hylan’s outburst or for that matter, the statements of three senators quoted later on this page?

Don’t expect me to answer that question for you. But do take a deep breath and make the effort to read Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan, written back in the 17th century but easily located in every library of any size in the USA, for some enlightenment in your ruminations.

During the crucial years of the school changeover from academic institution to behavioural modification instrument, the radical nature of the metamorphosis caught the attention of a few national politicians who spoke out, but could never muster enough strength for effective opposition. In the Congressional Record of January 26, 1917, for instance, Senator Chamberlain of Oregon entered these words: 

They are moving with military precision all along the line to get control of the education of the children of the land.

Senator Poindexter of Washington followed, saying: 

The cult of Rockefeller, the cult of Carnegie…as much to be guarded against in the educational system of this country as a particular religious sect.

And in the same issue, Senator Kenyon of Iowa related:

There are certain colleges that have sought endowments, and the agent of the Rockefeller Foundation or the General Education Board had gone out and examined the curriculum of these colleges and compelled certain changes….It seems to me one of the most dangerous things that can go on in a republic is to have an institution of this power apparently trying to shape and mould the thought of the young people of this country. 

Senator Works of California added:

These people…are attempting to get control of the whole educational work of the country.

If it interests you, take a look. It’s all in the Congressional Record of January 26, 1917.

16A man considered the father of twentieth-century American systematic medicine and a longtime employee of the Rockefeller Foundation.

Prussian education system  –  From Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia

The political motivations of the King of Prussia

Seeking to replace the controlling functions of the local aristocracy, the Prussian court attempted to instil social obedience in the citizens through indoctrination. Every individual had to become convinced, in the core of his being, that the King was just, his decisions always right, and the need for obedience paramount.

The schools imposed an official language, to the prejudice of ethnic groups living in Prussia. The purpose of the system was to instil loyalty to the Crown and to train young men for the military and the bureaucracy. As the German philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte, a key influence on the system, said, “If you want to influence [the student] at all, you must do more than merely talk to him; you must fashion him, and fashion him in such a way that he simply cannot will otherwise than what you wish him to will.” [1]

1 ^ Addresses to the German Nation, 1807. Second Address : “The General Nature of the New Education”. Chicago and London, The Open Court Publishing Company, 1922, p. 21

So there you have it my friend, Prussia gave us more than a just country name that rhymes with Russia. They produced obedient slaves through their education system and by doing so they in fact gave us our modern concept of the “State”.

It was an idea that had probably not been seen to be acted out with such fervour and on such a scale since the time of Sparta, but it was one embraced wholeheartedly by these German’s, and in turn also by the American’s and even the Brit’s. We all coveted and emulated their education system. (Which is the Hindu caste system as you will soon see).

I will cover the goings on in this region of Germany later on in this work as it is I feel both an area that has been largely glossed over by most of the mainstream recorder’s of Western history, and yet at the same time it is also a piece of land, that on many occasions, plays a pivotal and critical role in my tale… An odd anomaly you might think, unless of course that is, you think like me… I have observed that quite often our true history, (or to be more specific the parts of history that REALLY matter) is more often about what has been purposefully omitted or glossed over in our history books, than about the history that was included. – Religion does the same kinda thing whenever people point out that “their” custom, symbol, or practise in fact belongs to an older culture… They just don’t mention it.

I chose to start with this piece because it neatly encapsulated many of the theme’s covered in this group of chapters. It discussed education which is the key to controlling the mind of a large group of people. It discussed the idea of making the state more important than the people who make it up. And it also discussed psychology which is the subject we will be looking at next. As I said at the beginning of this, you probably won’t realise Prussia’s true significance until you have either read all of this work, or perhaps even only once you have read it for a second time. – In truth it’s a region that has had a less than subtle effect on almost EVERYTHING of importance for over 300 years. But you need to see that for yourself.

Undeniable proof of the deliberate dumbing down of our children through the use of “public education” – starting with a school test for young American teenagers over a century ago that will PROVE 100% just how dumb we ALL are TODAY. I bet NOT ONE reader could pass it.


Undeniable proof of the deliberate dumbing down of our children through the use of “public education” – starting with a school test for young American teenagers over a century ago that will PROVE 100% just how dumb we ALL are TODAY. I bet NOT ONE reader could pass it.

For Luna and the the other brave troopers teaching their kids “truth and rights”.

The greatest discoveries in all of the sciences, during all of recorded history were generally found by people who were essentially non-experts and who were usually self-taught.

Many kids were often able to speak perfectly well, they even had time for manners, and some even possessed the capability to write, and all of this was before joining school a century ago, yet now with ever rising grades year on year why is it that so many children today actually leave school unable to read or write, or for that matter even have a decent conversation with anyone, and where the hell did the manners go to? Why is it that the exam for an 8th grade child in the USA from nearly a century ago probably couldn´t be passed today by many of the teachers, or the kids parents, never mind by 13/14 year old children?

And for those who just deridedly snorted at that suggestion, unfortunately for smug smart arse you, here is the 8th grade test for an American student in 1895. It, like so much of the other material mentioned by me, was taken from the inimitable web-site of Jordan Maxwell, a site you will find that doesn´t give you answers as much as it has you asking questions, highly utilised by me and warmly recommended to you –

1895 TEST

This is the eighth-grade final exam from 1895 from Salina, Kansas. It was taken from the original document on file at the Smoky Valley Genealogical Society and Library in Salina, Kansas and reprinted by the Salina Journal.

8th Grade Final Exam: Salina, Kansas – 1895

Grammar (Time, one hour)

  1. Give nine rules for the use of Capital Letters.
  2. Name the Parts of Speech and define those that have no modifications.
  3. Define Verse, Stanza and Paragraph.
  4. What are the Principal Parts of a verb? Give Principal Parts of do, lie, lay and run.
  5. Define Case, Illustrate each Case.
  6. What is Punctuation? Give rules for principal marks of Punctuation.

7-10. Write a composition of about 150 words and show therein that you understand the practical use of the rules of grammar.

Arithmetic (Time, 1.25 hours)

  1. Name and define the Fundamental Rules of Arithmetic.
  2. A wagon box is 2 ft. deep, 10 feet long, and 3 ft. wide. How many bushels of wheat will it hold?
  3. If a load of wheat weighs 3942 lbs., what is it worth at 50 cts. per bu, deducting 1050 lbs. for tare?
  4. District No. 33 has a valuation of $35,000. What is the necessary levy to carry on a school seven months at $50 per month, and have $104 for incidentals?
  5. Find cost of 6720 lbs. coal at $6.00 per ton.
  6. Find the interest of $512.60 for 8 months and 18 days at 7 percent.
  7. What is the cost of 40 boards 12 inches wide and 16 ft. long at $.20 per inch?
  8. Find bank discount on $300 for 90 days (no grace) at 10 percent.
  9. What is the cost of a square farm at $15 per acre, the distance around which is 640 rods?
  10. Write a Bank Check, a Promissory Note, and a Receipt.

U.S. History (Time, 45 minutes)

  1. Give the epochs into which U.S. History is divided.
  2. Give an account of the discovery of America by Columbus.
  3. Relate the causes and results of the Revolutionary War.
  4. Show the territorial growth of the United States.
  5. Tell what you can of the history of Kansas.
  6. Describe three of the most prominent battles of the Rebellion.
  7. Who were the following: Morse, Whitney, Fulton, Bell, Lincoln, Penn, and Howe?
  8. Name events connected with the following dates: 1607, 1620, 1800, 1849, and 1865?

Orthography (Time, one hour)

  1. What is meant by the following: Alphabet, phonetic orthography, etymology, syllabication?
  2. What are elementary sounds? How classified?
  3. What are the following, and give examples of each: Trigraph, subvocals, diphthong, cognate letters, linguals?
  4. Give four substitutes for caret ‘u’.
  5. Give two rules for spelling words with final ‘e’. Name two exceptions under each rule.
  6. Give two uses of silent letters in spelling. Illustrate each.
  7. Define the following prefixes and use in connection with a word: Bi, dis, mis, pre, semi, post, non, inter, mono, super.
  8. Mark diacritically and divide into syllables the following, and name the sign that indicates the sound: Card, ball, mercy, sir, odd, cell, rise, blood, fare, last.
  9. Use the following correctly in sentences, Cite, site, sight, fane, fain, feign, vane, vain, vein, raze, raise, rays.
  10. Write 10 words frequently mispronounced and indicate pronunciation by use of diacritical marks and by syllabication.

Geography (Time, one hour)

  1. What is climate? Upon what does climate depend?
  2. How do you account for the extremes of climate in Kansas?
  3. Of what use are rivers? Of what use is the ocean?
  4. Describe the mountains of N.A.
  5. Name and describe the following: Monrovia, Odessa, Denver, Manitoba, Hecla, Yukon, St.

Helena, Juan Fermandez, Aspinwall and Orinoco.

  1. Name and locate the principal trade centres of the U.S.
  2. Name all the republics of Europe and give capital of each.
  3. Why is the Atlantic Coast colder than the Pacific in the same latitude?
  4. Describe the process by which the water of the ocean returns to the sources of rivers.
  5. Describe the movements of the earth. Give inclination of the earth.

Put your pencil down. Now contemplate just how dumb you really are

…I said contemplate dummy, no more reading until you admit how thick YOU truly are.

Imagine a college student who went to public school trying to pass this test, even if the few outdated questions were modernized. Imagine their professors even being able to pass the 8th Grade. Can Americans or Britain´s, students and professors alike, get back up to the 8th Grade level of 1895?

I seriously doubt there is many people in America or the  U.K. who could pass this test.

Some professors and the like could pass the subjects they have a doctorate in, but they would probably fail some parts of the rest of that test.

This I think is absolute proof that the New World Order Gang you’ve ocassionaly been haering bout has succeeded in dumbing down the American and British people.

As you can see Mr or Mrs super-sceptic, kids aged 13/14 (I think 8th grade is thirteen or fourteen.) had to pass this test in American schools over 100 years ago, how did you get on? Even if it was adapted for the U.K. or, wherever you are from, I bet only the top couple of percent of us could scrape a pass at this test as fully grown, seemingly educated adults.

Now every time you are told children are getting smarter consider that a child just becoming a teenager would have passed this a century ago just to go to high school, are the kids you are seeing being churned out yearly by our education system that smart when they are only 12? Are you that smart? Once again, on education this time, I rest my case, but just to hammer home the point – in case your inbuilt brainwashing has somehow convinced you that I am twisting the truth (although how I can make an exam from over a century ago harder in the future I don´t know). But just in case, here is conclusive proof that our children’s IQs have dipped in the same period, they in fact in many cases now LEAVE school unable to read or write! Here is an extract to prove my point it was taken from an article recently in the Telegraph newspaper here in the UK:

“Teenagers in Britain have lower IQ scores than their counterparts did a generation ago, according to a study by a leading expert.

By Richard Gray, Science Correspondent 08 Feb 2009

Tests carried out in 1980 and again in 2008 show that the IQ score of an average 14-year-old dropped by more than two points over the period.

Among those in the upper half of the intelligence scale, a group that is typically dominated by children from middle class families, performance was even worse, with an average IQ score six points below what it was 28 years ago.

The trend marks an abrupt reversal of the so-called “Flynn effect” which has seen IQ scores rise year on year, among all age groups, in most industrialised countries throughout the past century.

Professor James Flynn, of the University of Otago in New Zealand, the discoverer of the Flynn effect and the author of the latest study, believes the abnormal drop in British teenage IQ could be due to youth culture having “stagnated” or even dumbed down.”

So as you can plainly it is not just me who has noticed these phenomena, the fact is, I think you can all feel it too, you just prefer to lie to yourselves and say “that´s just the way it is” or “that´s the price of modern living”.

Dumbest Generation Getting Dumber

by Walter E. Williams

The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) is an international comparison of 15-year-olds conducted by The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) that measures applied learning and problem-solving ability. In 2006, U.S. students ranked 25th of 30 advanced nations in math and 24th in science. McKinsey & Company, in releasing its report “The Economic Impact of the Achievement Gap in America’s Schools” (April 2009) said, “Several other facts paint a worrisome picture. First, the longer American children are in school, the worse they perform compared to their international peers. In recent cross-country comparisons of fourth grade reading, math, and science, US students scored in the top quarter or top half of advanced nations. By age 15 these rankings drop to the bottom half. In other words, American students are farthest behind just as they are about to enter higher education or the workforce.” That’s a sobering thought. The longer kids are in school and the more money we spend on them, the further behind they get.

While the academic performance of white students is grossly inferior, that of black and Latino students is a national disgrace. (In case you thought me racist I made damn sure I included a picture of the man who wrote this!) The McKinsey report says, “On average, black and Latino students are roughly two to three years of learning behind white students of the same age. This racial gap exists regardless of how it is measured, including both achievement (e.g., test score) and attainment (e.g., graduation rate) measures. Taking the average National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) scores for math and reading across the fourth and eighth grades, for example, 48 percent of blacks and 43 percent of Latinos are ‘below basic,’ while only 17 percent of whites are, and this gap exists in every state. A more pronounced racial achievement gap exists in most large urban school districts.” Below basic is the category the NAEP uses for students unable to display even partial mastery of knowledge and skills fundamental for proficient work at their grade level.

The teaching establishment and politicians have hoodwinked taxpayers into believing that more money is needed to improve education. The Washington, D.C., school budget is about the nation’s costliest, spending about $15,000 per pupil. Its student/teacher ratio, at 15.2 to 1, is lower than the nation’s average. Yet student achievement is just about the lowest in the nation. What’s so callous about the Washington situation is about 1,700 children in kindergarten through 12th grade receive the $7,500 annual scholarships in order to escape rotten D.C. public schools, and four times as many apply for the scholarships, yet Congress, beholden to the education establishment, will end funding the school voucher program.

Any long-term solution to our education problems requires the decentralization that can come from competition. Centralization has been massive. In 1930, there were 119,000 school districts across the U.S; today, there are less than 15,000. Control has moved from local communities to the school district, to the state, and to the federal government. Public education has become a highly centralized government-backed monopoly and we shouldn’t be surprised by the results. It’s a no-brainer that the areas of our lives with the greatest innovation, tailoring of services to individual wants and falling prices are the areas where there is ruthless competition such as computers, food, telephone and clothing industries, and delivery companies such as UPS, Federal Express and electronic bill payments that have begun to undermine the postal monopoly in first-class mail.

At a Washington press conference launching the McKinsey report, Al Sharpton called school reform the civil rights challenge of our time. He said that the enemy of opportunity for blacks in the U.S. was once Jim Crow; today, in a slap at the educational establishment, he said it was “Professor James Crow.” Sharpton is only partly correct. School reform is not solely a racial issue; it’s a vital issue for the entire nation.

Dr. Williams serves on the faculty of George Mason University as John M. Olin Distinguished Professor of Economics and is the author of More Liberty Means Less Government: Our Founders Knew This Well. –

Where you seem to be unable to apportion any blame for these things, I have no qualms about laying serious documentary evidence in front of you that makes it abundantly clear exactly who is culpable, what the aim of these changes was, and how it was accomplished.

The Bankers have realized that education is very important for the control of people. If there is real knowledge & information taught, people might actually figure out what is going and make changes. So simple changes were made starting in the 1890’s that on the surface didn’t seem like much yet decades later, children read less, have less comprehension, hate school more and are less likely to actually do something to make real positive changes in the world.

Instead of time primarily spent really learning reading, arithmetic and writing, more time is spent on trivia and fluff subjects. Reading has been changed from phonetics to sight reading. The McGuffey readers that were straight forward and fit each grade level have changed to readers that have words up to 2 or 3 grades levels higher causing frustration and incomprehension amongst the children. Math is in a spiral approach so less time is spent on each area but moving faster through more problems with less explanation so kids end up punching numbers in a calculator without understanding why except the teacher did it this way. Writing on stories of interest to children has been changed to drudgery projects with various do it this way by different teachers and again, not learning the real basics of sentence structures and forming them.

From older children being responsible, encouraging and helping younger children in a multigrade school, it has changed along with removing the strap to an attitude of both teachers & students of just putting in time and trying to suffer as little as possible or cause as much trouble as possible as the teachers can’t do anything. Those that don’t break down from the 2 or 3 hours of extra school work assigned every day, will fit into the robotized job life that they will enter after school. Those that break down and can’t keep up feel like failures and can end up juvenile delinquents, drinking, drugs &/or sex believing they are failures rather than realizing the system was designed to break them down and spit them out like boot camp in the army. Schools that provided nourishing meals along with removing soda pop & junk food have found that the children’s attitudes, grades and interest have risen quite dramatically. Yet when parents try to talk and ask for changes such as these, they are made to feel like outdated fools compared to the experts that put the system together.

Home schoolers often spend only 2 or 3 hours per day and if in districts where they can choose what subjects, interests and time to spend on each are even more motivated and excited about learning in general. Pushing children ahead of their development causes more frustration for both them and parents and often in just waiting a year or two, the children will pick up something that much easier when their brain has developed sufficiently for processing that information. They can be learning practical things like cooking, cleaning, helping parents or having part time jobs. With more balance in physical, emotional and spiritual life instead of mostly mentally, they will be calmer and more likely to succeed in life.

They can be learning more practical subjects like starting your own business, saving & investing money, choices for products that produce versus being consumers of the latest gadget. They can learn the effort and time involved in raising and taking care of children versus the mass media of doing it any time anywhere and somehow it magically ends up all right. It is important for bankers to remove children from the troubling influence of knowledgeable parents so government money is poured into child care centres and detention centres rather than giving tax credits and support for parents or local controlled community schools and home schooling projects. It is paradoxical that public schools have government money tied up in carpentry, metal working and other trades that are barely used yet when parents try to get permission to use the facilities to work with their children, they are denied access.

The elite send their children to schools where the real information is taught on how to choose, manage and control people as the future leaders. Monopolies, connections for beneficial government laws and the use of media to monitor and shift people’s thinking are just some of the information they pick up along the way.

Mark Twain is more right than most people realize when he says, “I try to not let schooling interfere with my education”.

In this rather long chapter we are going to look at the effect men like Wundt had on the educational system, vested interests that we shall get to in later sections put a lot of time, effort and money into dumbing our children down and turning them into well drilled robot’s.

I will start by letting one of America’s most respected teacher’s give you his honest and learned opinion on this subject.

Foundation’s like the one carrying the name of Mr Ford or Carnegie, or indeed the already mentioned one bearing the name Rockefeller are also very prominent in this field of endeavour, it appears to me that all of these entities have an important part to play in the formation, promotion and subsequent revisions of not only America’s education system, but that of most of the “civilised” world. One last point, if you can get hold of any of this next writer’s work I seriously urge you to do so, as he knows the education system inside out. (this is why he has been popping up so much in this work) Plus what you will learn from him will truly shock you.

John Taylor Gatto, – Underground History of American Education

Prologue Bianca, You Animal, Shut Up!

Our problem in understanding forced schooling stems from an inconvenient fact: that the wrong it does from a human perspective is right from a systems perspective. You can see this in the case of six-year-old Bianca, who came to my attention because an assistant principal screamed at her in front of an assembly, “BIANCA, YOU ANIMAL SHUT UP!” Like the wail of a banshee, this sang the school doom of Bianca. Even though her body continued to shuffle around, the voodoo had poisoned her.

Do I make too much of this simple act of putting a little girl in her place? It must happen thousands of times every day in schools all over. I’ve seen it many times, and if I were painfully honest I’d admit to doing it many times.

Schools are supposed to teach kids their place. That’s why we have age-graded classes. In any case, it wasn’t your own little Janey or mine. Most of us tacitly accept the pragmatic terms of public school which allow every kind of psychic violence to be inflicted on Bianca in order to fulfil the prime directive of the system: putting children in their place. It’s called “social efficiency.” But I get this precognition, this flash-forward to a moment far in the future when your little girl Jane, having left her comfortable home, wakes up to a world where Bianca is her enraged meter maid, or the passport clerk Jane counts on for her emergency ticket out of the country, or the strange lady who lives next door. I picture this animal Bianca grown large and mean, the same Bianca who didn’t go to school for a month after her little friends took to whispering, “Bianca is an animal, Bianca is an animal,” while Bianca, only seconds earlier a human being like themselves, sat choking back tears, struggling her way through a reading selection by guessing what the words meant.

In my dream I see Bianca as a fiend manufactured by schooling who now regards Janey as a vehicle for vengeance. In a transport of passion she:

Gives Jane’s car a ticket before the meter runs out.

Throws away Jane’s passport application after Jane leaves the office.

Plays heavy metal music through the thin partition which separates Bianca’s apartment from Jane’s while Jane pounds frantically on the wall for relief.

Or, all the above.

You aren’t compelled to loan your car to anyone who wants it, but you are compelled to surrender your school-age child to strangers who process children for a livelihood, even though one in every nine schoolchildren is terrified of physical harm happening to them in school, terrified with good cause; about thirty-three are murdered there every year. From 1992 through 1999, 262 children were murdered in school in the United States. Your great-great-grandmother didn’t have to surrender her children. What happened?

If I demanded you give up your television to an anonymous, itinerant repairman who needed work you’d think I was crazy; if I came with a policeman who forced you to pay that repairman even after he broke your set, you would be outraged. Why are you so docile when you give up your child to a government agent called a schoolteacher?

I want to open up concealed aspects of modern schooling such as the deterioration it forces in the morality of parenting. You have no say at all in choosing your teachers. You know nothing about their backgrounds or families.

And the state knows little more than you do. This is as radical a piece of social engineering as the human imagination can conceive. What does it mean?

One thing you do know is how unlikely it will be for any teacher to understand the personality of your particular child or anything significant about your family, culture, religion, plans, hopes, dreams. In the confusion of school affairs even teachers so disposed don’t have opportunity to know those things. How did this happen?

Before you hire a company to build a house, you would, I expect, insist on detailed plans showing what the finished structure was going to look like. Building a child’s mind and character is what public schools do, their justification for prematurely breaking family and neighbourhood learning. Where is documentary evidence to prove this assumption that trained and certified professionals do it better than people who know and love them can? There isn’t any.

The cost in New York State for building a well-schooled child in the year 2000 is $200,000 per body when lost interest is calculated. That capital sum invested in the child’s name over the past twelve years would have delivered a million dollars to each kid as a nest egg to compensate for having no school. The original $200,000 is more than the average home in New York costs. You wouldn’t build a home without some idea what it would look like when finished, but you are compelled to let a corps of perfect strangers tinker with your child’s mind and personality without the foggiest idea what they want to do with it.

Law courts and legislatures have totally absolved school people from liability. You can sue a doctor for malpractice, not a schoolteacher. Every homebuilder is accountable to customers years after the home is built; not schoolteachers, though. You can’t sue a priest, minister, or rabbi either; that should be a clue.

If you can’t be guaranteed even minimal results by these institutions, not even physical safety; if you can’t be guaranteed anything except that you’ll be arrested if you fail to surrender your kid, just what does the public in public schools mean?

What exactly is public about public schools? That’s a question to take seriously. If schools were public as libraries, parks, and swimming pools are public, as highways and sidewalks are public, then the public would be satisfied with them most of the time. Instead, a situation of constant dissatisfaction has spanned many decades. Only in Orwell’s Newspeak, as perfected by legendary spin doctors of the twentieth century such as Ed Bernays or Ivy Lee or great advertising combines, is there anything public about public schools.

I Quit, I Think

In the first year of the last decade of the twentieth century during my thirtieth year as a school teacher in Community School District 3, Manhattan, after teaching in all five secondary schools in the district, crossing swords with one professional administration after another as they strove to rid themselves of me, after having my license suspended twice for insubordination and terminated covertly once while I was on medical leave of absence, after the City University of New York borrowed me for a five-year stint as a lecturer in the Education Department (and the faculty rating handbook published by the Student Council gave me the highest ratings in the department my last three years), after planning and bringing about the most successful permanent school fund-raiser in New York City history, after placing a single eighth-grade class into 30,000 hours of volunteer community service, after organizing and financing a student-run food cooperative, after securing over a thousand apprenticeships, directing the collection of tens of thousands of books for the construction of private student libraries, after producing four talking job dictionaries for the blind, writing two original student musicals, and launching an armada of other initiatives to reintegrate students within a larger human reality, I quit.

I was New York State Teacher of the Year when it happened. An accumulation of disgust and frustration which grew too heavy to be borne finally did me in. To test my resolve I sent a short essay to The Wall Street Journal titled “I Quit, I Think.” In it I explained my reasons for deciding to wrap it up, even though I had no savings and not the slightest idea what else I might do in my mid-fifties to pay the rent. In its entirety it read like this:

Government schooling is the most radical adventure in history. It kills the family by monopolizing the best times of childhood and by teaching disrespect for home and parents. The whole blueprint of school procedure is Egyptian, not Greek or Roman. It grows from the theological idea that human value is a scarce thing, represented symbolically by the narrow peak of a pyramid.

That idea passed into American history through the Puritans. It found its “scientific” presentation in the bell curve, along which talent supposedly apportions itself by some Iron Law of Biology. It’s a religious notion, School is its church. I offer rituals to keep heresy at bay. I provide documentation to justify the heavenly pyramid.

Socrates foresaw if teaching became a formal profession, something like this would happen. Professional interest is served by making what is easy to do seem hard; by subordinating the laity to the priesthood. School is too vital a jobs-project, contract giver and protector of the social order to allow itself to be “re-formed.” It has political allies to guard its marches, that’s why reforms come and go without changing much. Even reformers can’t imagine school much different.

David learns to read at age four; Rachel, at age nine: In normal development, when both are 13, you can’t tell which one learned first–the five-year spread means nothing at all. But in school I label Rachel “learning disabled” and slow David down a bit, too. For a paycheck, I adjust David to depend on me to tell him when to go and stop. He won’t outgrow that dependency. I identify Rachel as discount merchandise, “special education” fodder. She’ll be locked in her place forever.

In 30 years of teaching kid’s rich and poor I almost never met a learning disabled child; hardly ever met a gifted and talented one either. Like all school categories, these are sacred myths, created by human imagination. They derive from questionable values we never examine because they preserve the temple of schooling. That’s the secret behind short-answer tests, bells, uniform time blocks, age grading, standardization, and all the rest of the school religion punishing our nation. There isn’t a right way to become educated; there are as many ways as fingerprints. We don’t need state-certified teachers to make education happen–that probably guarantees it won’t.

How much more evidence is necessary? Good schools don’t need more money or a longer year; they need real free-market choices, variety that speaks to every need and runs risks. We don’t need a national curriculum or national testing either. Both initiatives arise from ignorance of how people learn or deliberate indifference to it. I can’t teach this way any longer. If you hear of a job where I don’t have to hurt kids to make a living, let me know.

Come fall I’ll be looking for work.

The New Individualism

The little essay went off in March and I forgot it. Somewhere along the way I must have gotten a note saying it would be published at the editor’s discretion, but if so, it was quickly forgotten in the press of turbulent feelings that accompanied my own internal struggle. Finally, on July 5, 1991, I swallowed hard and quit. Twenty days later the Journal published the piece. A week later I was studying invitations to speak at NASA Space Centre, the Western White House, the Nashville Centre for the Arts, Columbia Graduate Business School, the Colorado Librarian’s Convention, Apple Computer, and the financial control board of United Technologies Corporation. Nine years later, still enveloped in the orbit of compulsion schooling, I had spoken 750 times in fifty states and seven foreign countries. I had no agent and never advertised, but a lot of people made an effort to find me. It was as if parents were starving for someone to tell them the truth.

My hunch is it wasn’t so much what I was saying that kept the lecture round unfolding, but that a teacher was speaking out at all and the curious fact that I represented nobody except myself. In the great school debate, this is unheard of. Every single voice allowed regular access to the national podium is the mouthpiece of some association, corporation, university, agency, or institutionalized cause. The poles of debate blocked out by these ritualized, figurehead voices are extremely narrow. Each has a stake in continuing forced schooling much as it is.

As I travelled, I discovered a universal hunger, often unvoiced, to be free of managed debate. A desire to be given untainted information. Nobody seemed to have maps of where this thing had come from or why it acted as it did, but the ability to smell a rat was alive and well all over America.

Exactly what John Dewey heralded at the onset of the twentieth century has indeed happened. Our once highly individualized nation has evolved into a centrally managed village, an agora made up of huge special interests which regard individual voices as irrelevant.

The masquerade is managed by having collective agencies speak through particular human beings. Dewey said this would mark a great advance in human affairs, but the net effect is to reduce men and women to the status of functions in whatever subsystem they are placed. Public opinion is turned on and off in laboratory fashion. All this in the name of social efficiency, one of the two main goals of forced schooling.

MY NOTE – If I was you I’d read those last two paragraphs again please, truly let them sink in before continuing.

Dewey called this transformation “the new individualism.” When I stepped into the job of schoolteacher in 1961, the new individualism was sitting in the driver’s seat all over urban America, a far cry from my own school days on the Monongahela when the Lone Ranger, not Sesame Street, was our nation’s teacher, and school things weren’t nearly so oppressive. But gradually they became something else in the euphoric times following WWII. Easy money and easy travel provided welcome relief from wartime austerity, the advent of television, the new nonstop theatre, offered easy laughs, effortless entertainment. Thus preoccupied, Americans failed to notice the deliberate conversion of formal education that was taking place, a transformation that would turn school into an instrument of the leviathan state. Who made that happen and why is part of the story I have to tell.

School as Religion

Nothing about school is what it seems, not even boredom. To show you what I mean is the burden of this long essay. My book represents a try at arranging my own thoughts in order to figure out what fifty years of classroom confinement (as student and teacher) add up to for me. You’ll encounter a great deal of speculative history here. This is a personal investigation of why school is a dangerous place. It’s not so much that anyone there sets out to hurt children; more that all of us associated with the institution are stuck like flies in the same great web your kids are. We buzz frantically to cover our own panic but have little power to help smaller flies. Looking backward on a thirty-year teaching career full of rewards and prizes, somehow I can’t completely believe that I spent my time on earth institutionalized; I can’t believe that centralized schooling is allowed to exist at all as a gigantic indoctrination and sorting machine, robbing people of their children. Did it really happen? Was this my life? God help me.

School is a religion. Without understanding the holy mission aspect you’re certain to misperceive what takes place as a result of human stupidity or venality or even class warfare. All are present in the equation, it’s just that none of these matter very much–even without them school would move in the same direction. Dewey’s Pedagogic Creed statement of 1897 gives you a clue to the zeitgeist:

Every teacher should realize he is a social servant set apart for the maintenance of the proper social order and the securing of the right social growth. In this way the teacher is always the prophet of the true God and the usherer in of the true kingdom of heaven.


What is “proper” social order? What does “right” social growth look like? If you don’t know you’re like me, not like John Dewey who did, or the Rockefellers, his patrons, who did, too.

Somehow out of the industrial confusion which followed the Civil War, powerful men and dreamers became certain what kind of social order America needed, one very like the British system we had escaped a hundred years earlier. This realization didn’t arise as a product of public debate as it should have in a democracy, but as a distillation of private discussion. Their ideas contradicted the original American charter but that didn’t disturb them. They had a stupendous goal in mind–the rationalization of everything. The end of unpredictable history; its transformation into dependable order.

From mid-century onwards certain utopian schemes to retard maturity in the interests of a greater good were put into play, following roughly the blueprint Rousseau laid down in the book Emile. At least rhetorically. The first goal, to be reached in stages, was an orderly, scientifically managed society, one in which the best people would make the decisions, unhampered by democratic tradition. After that, human breeding, the evolutionary destiny of the species, would be in reach.

Universal institutionalized formal forced schooling was the prescription, extending the dependency of the young well into what had traditionally been early adult life. Individuals would be prevented from taking up important work until a relatively advanced age. Maturity was to be retarded. MY NOTE. STOP, GO BACK AND READ THAT AGAIN.

During the post-Civil War period, childhood was extended about four years. Later, a special label was created to describe very old children. It was called adolescence, a phenomenon hitherto unknown to the human race.

The infantilization of young people didn’t stop at the beginning of the twentieth century; child labour laws were extended to cover more and more kinds of work, the age of school leaving set higher and higher. The greatest victory for this utopian project was making school the only avenue to certain occupations. The intention was ultimately to draw all work into the school net. By the 1950s it wasn’t unusual to find graduate students well into their thirties, running errands, waiting to start their lives.

He Was Square Inside and Brown

Barbara Whiteside showed me a poem written by a high school senior in Alton, Illinois, two weeks before he committed suicide:

He drew… the things inside that needed saying. Beautiful pictures he kept under his pillow.

When he started school he brought them…To have along like a friend. It was funny about school; he sat at a square brown desk like all the other square brown desks… and his room was a square brown room like all the other rooms, tight and close and stiff. He hated to hold the pencil and chalk, his arms stiff his feet flat on the floor, stiff, the teacher watching and watching. She told him to wear a tie like all the other boys, he said he didn’t like them.

She said it didn’t matter what he liked. After that the class drew. He drew all yellow. It was the way he felt about morning. The teacher came and smiled, “What’s this? Why don’t you draw something like Ken’s drawing?”

After that his mother bought him a tie, and he always drew airplanes and rocketships like everyone else.

He was square inside and brown and his hands were stiff. The things inside that needed saying didn’t need it anymore, they had stopped pushing… crushed, stiff like everything else.

After I spoke in Nashville, a mother named Debbie pressed a handwritten note on me which I read on the airplane to Binghamton, New York:

We started to see Brandon flounder in the first grade, hives, depression, he cried every night after he asked his father, “Is tomorrow school, too?” In second grade the physical stress became apparent. The teacher pronounced his problem Attention Deficit Syndrome. My happy, bouncy child was now looked at as a medical problem, by us as well as the school. A doctor, a psychiatrist, and a school authority all determined he did have this affliction. Medication was stressed along with behaviour modification. If it was suspected that Brandon had not been medicated he was sent home. My square peg needed a bit of whittling to fit their round hole, it seemed.

I cried as I watched my parenting choices stripped away. My ignorance of options allowed Brandon to be medicated through second grade. The tears and hives continued another full year until I couldn’t stand it. I began to homeschool Brandon. It was his salvation. No more pills, tears, or hives. He is thriving. He never cries now and does his work eagerly.

The New Dumbness

Ordinary people send their children to school to get smart, but what modern schooling teaches is dumbness. It’s a religious idea gone out of control.

You don’t have to accept that, though, to realize this kind of economy would be jeopardized by too many smart people who understand too much. I won’t ask you to take that on faith. Be patient. I’ll let a famous American publisher explain to you the secret of our global financial success in just a little while. Be patient.

Old-fashioned dumbness used to be simple ignorance; now it is transformed from ignorance into permanent mathematical categories of relative stupidity like “gifted and talented,” “mainstream,” “special ed.” Categories in which learning is rationed for the good of a system of order. Dumb people are no longer merely ignorant. Now they are indoctrinated, their minds conditioned with substantial doses of commercially prepared disinformation dispensed for tranquilizing purposes.

Jacques Ellul, whose book Propaganda is a reflection on the phenomenon, warned us that prosperous children are more susceptible than others to the effects of schooling because they are promised more lifelong comfort and security for yielding wholly:

Critical judgment disappears altogether, for in no way can there ever be collective critical judgment….The individual can no longer judge for himself because he inescapably relates his thoughts to the entire complex of values and prejudices established by propaganda. With regard to political situations, he is given ready-made value judgments invested with the power of the truth by…the word of experts. (COUGH COUGH NUDGE NUDGE)

The new dumbness is particularly deadly to middle- and upper-middle-class kids already made shallow by multiple pressures to conform imposed by the outside world on their usually lightly rooted parents. When they come of age, they are certain they must know something because their degrees and licenses say they do. They remain so convinced until an unexpectedly brutal divorce, a corporate downsizing in midlife, or panic attacks of meaninglessness upset the precarious balance of their incomplete humanity, their stillborn adult lives. Alan Bullock, the English historian, said Evil was a state of incompetence. If true, our school adventure has filled the twentieth century with evil.

Ellul puts it this way:

The individual has no chance to exercise his judgment either on principal questions or on their implication; this leads to the atrophy of a faculty not comfortably exercised under [the best of] conditions…Once personal judgment and critical faculties have disappeared or have atrophied, they will not simply reappear when propaganda is suppressed…years of intellectual and spiritual education would be needed to restore such faculties. The propagandee, if deprived of one propaganda, will immediately adopt another, this will spare him the agony of finding himself vis a vis some event without a ready-made opinion.

Once the best children are broken to such a system, they disintegrate morally, becoming dependent on group approval. 9NUDGETY NUDGETY WINK WINK SOUND FAMILIAR?) A National Merit Scholar in my own family once wrote that her dream was to be “a small part in a great machine.” It broke my heart. What kids dumbed down by schooling can’t do is to think for themselves or ever be at rest for very long without feeling crazy; stupefied boys and girls reveal dependence in many ways easily exploitable by their knowledgeable elders.

According to all official analysis, dumbness isn’t taught (as I claim), but is innate in a great percentage of what has come to be called “the workforce.” Workforce itself is a term that should tell you much about the mind that governs modern society. According to official reports, only a small fraction of the population is capable of what you and I call mental life: creative thought, analytical thought, judgmental thought, a trio occupying the three highest positions on Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Just how small a fraction would shock you. According to experts, the bulk of the mob is hopelessly dumb, even dangerously so. Perhaps you’re a willing accomplice to this social coup which revived the English class system. Certainly you are if your own child has been rewarded with a “gifted and talented” label by your local school. This is what Dewey means by “proper” social order.

If you believe nothing can be done for the dumb except kindness, because it’s biology (the bell-curve model); if you believe capitalist oppressors have ruined the dumb because they are bad people (the neo-Marxist model); if you believe dumbness reflects depraved moral fibre (the Calvinist model); or that it’s nature’s way of disqualifying boobies from the reproduction sweepstakes (the Darwinian model); or nature’s way of providing someone to clean your toilet (the pragmatic elitist model); or that it’s evidence of bad karma (the Buddhist model); if you believe any of the various explanations given for the position of the dumb in the social order we have, then you will be forced to concur that a vast bureaucracy is indeed necessary to address the dumb. Otherwise they would murder us in our beds.

The shocking possibility that dumb people don’t exist in sufficient numbers to warrant the careers devoted to tending to them will seem incredible to you. Yet that is my proposition: Mass dumbness first had to be imagined; it isn’t real.

Once the dumb are wished into existence, they serve valuable functions: as a danger to themselves and others they have to be watched, classified, disciplined, trained, medicated, sterilized, ghettoized, cajoled, coerced, jailed. To idealists they represent a challenge, reprobates to be made socially useful. Either way you want it, hundreds of millions of perpetual children require paid attention from millions of adult custodians. An ignorant horde to be schooled one way or another.

Putting Pedagogy to the Question

More than anything else, this book is a work of intuition. The official story of why we school doesn’t add up today any more than it did yesterday. A few years before I quit, I began to try to piece together where this school project came from, why it took the shape it took, and why every attempt to change it has ended in abysmal failure. By now I’ve invested the better part of a decade looking for answers. If you want a conventional history of schooling, or education as it is carelessly called, you’d better stop reading now. Although years of research in the most arcane sources are reflected here, throughout it’s mainly intuition that drives my synthesis.

This is in part a private narrative, the map of a schoolteacher’s mind as it tracked strands in the web in which it had been wrapped; in part a public narrative, an account of the latest chapter in an ancient war: the conflict between systems which offer physical safety and certainty at the cost of suppressing free will, and those which offer liberty at the price of constant risk. If you keep both plots in mind, no matter how far afield my book seems to range, you won’t wonder what a chapter on coal or one on private hereditary societies has to do with schoolchildren.

What I’m most determined to do is start a conversation among those who’ve been silent up until now, and that includes schoolteachers. We need to put sterile discussions of grading and testing, discipline, curriculum, multiculturalism and tracking aside as distractions, as mere symptoms of something larger, darker, and more intransigent than any problem a problem-solver could tackle next week. Talking endlessly about such things encourages the bureaucratic tactic of talking around the vital, messy stuff. In partial compensation for your effort, I promise you’ll discover what’s in the mind of a man who spent his life in a room with children. Give an ear, then, to what follows. We shall cross-examine history together. We shall put pedagogy to the question. And if the judgment following this auto da fe is that only pain can make this monster relax its grip, let us pray together for the courage to inflict it.

Reading my essay will help you sort things out. It will give you a different topological map upon which to fix your own position. No doubt I’ve made some factual mistakes, but essays since Montaigne have been about locating truth, not about assembling facts. Truth and fact aren’t the same thing. My essay is meant to mark out crudely some ground for a scholarship of schooling, my intention is that you not continue to regard the official project of education through an older, traditional perspective, but to see it as a frightening chapter in the administrative organization of knowledge–a text we must vigorously repudiate as our ancestors once did. We live together, you and I, in a dark time when all official history is propaganda. If you want truth, you have to struggle for it. This is my struggle. Let me bear witness to what I have seen.

…The Rockefeller Foundation has been instrumental through the century just passed (along with a few others) in giving us the schools we have. It imported the German research model into college life, elevated service to business and government as the goal of higher education, not teaching. And Rockefeller-financed University of Chicago and Columbia Teachers College have been among the most energetic actors in the lower school tragedy. There is more, too, but none of it means the Rockefeller family “masterminded” the school institution, or even that his foundation or his colleges did. All became in time submerged in the system they did so much to create, almost helpless to slow its momentum even had they so desired.

The best advice in this book is scattered throughout and indirect, you’ll have to work to extract it. It begins with the very first sentence of the book where I remind you that what is right for systems is often wrong for human beings. Translated into a recommendation, that means that to avoid the revenge of Bianca, we must be prepared to insult systems for the convenience of humanity, not the other way around.

*For instance, for those of you who believe in testing, school superintendents as a class are virtually the stupidest people to pass through a graduate college program, ranking fifty-one points below the elementary school teachers they normally “supervise,” (on the Graduate Record Examination), and about eighty points below secondary-school teachers, while teachers themselves as an aggregate finish seventeenth of twenty occupational groups surveyed. The reader is of course at liberty to believe this happened accidentally, or that the moon is composed of blue, not green, cheese as is popularly believed. It’s also possible to take this anomaly as conclusive evidence of the irrelevance of standardized testing. Your choice.

Take at hazard one hundred children of several educated generations and one hundred uneducated children of the people and compare them in anything you please; in strength, in agility, in mind, in the ability to acquire knowledge, even in morality–and in all respects you are startled by the vast superiority on the side of the children of the uneducated– Count Leo Tolstoy, “Education and Children” (1862)

Chapter One – The Art of Driving

Now come back to the present while I demonstrate that the identical trust placed in ordinary people two hundred years ago still survives where it suits managers of our economy to allow it. Consider the art of driving, which I learned at the age of eleven. Without everybody behind the wheel, our sort of economy would be impossible, so everybody is there, IQ notwithstanding. With less than thirty hours of combined training and experience, a hundred million people are allowed access to vehicular weapons more lethal than pistols or rifles. Turned loose without a teacher, so to speak. Why does our government make such presumptions of competence, placing nearly unqualified trust in drivers, while it maintains such a tight grip on near-monopoly state schooling?

An analogy will illustrate just how radical this trust really is. What if I proposed that we hand three sticks of dynamite and a detonator to anyone who asked for them. All an applicant would need is money to pay for the explosives. You’d have to be an idiot to agree with my plan–at least based on the assumptions you picked up in school about human nature and human competence.

And yet gasoline, a spectacularly mischievous explosive, dangerously unstable and with the intriguing characteristic as an assault weapon that it can flow under locked doors and saturate bulletproof clothing, is available to anyone with a container. Five gallons of gasoline have the destructive power of a stick of dynamite.3 The average tank holds fifteen gallons, yet no background check is necessary for dispenser or dispensee. As long as gasoline is freely available, gun control is beside the point. Push on. Why do we allow access to a portable substance capable of incinerating houses, torching crowded theatres, or even turning skyscrapers into infernos? We haven’t even considered the battering ram aspect of cars–why are novice operators allowed to command a ton of metal capable of hurtling through school crossings at up to two miles a minute? Why do we give the power of life and death this way to everyone?

It should strike you at once that our unstated official assumptions about human nature are dead wrong. Nearly all people are competent and responsible; universal motoring proves that. The efficiency of motor vehicles as terrorist instruments would have written a tragic record long ago if people were inclined to terrorism. But almost all auto mishaps are accidents, and while there are seemingly a lot of those, the actual fraction of mishaps, when held up against the stupendous number of possibilities for mishap, is quite small. I know it’s difficult to accept this because the spectre of global terrorism is a favourite cover story of governments, but the truth is substantially different from the tale the public is sold. According to the U.S. State Department, 1995 was a near-record year for terrorist murders; it saw three hundred worldwide (two hundred at the hand of the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka) compared to four hundred thousand smoking-related deaths in the United States alone. When we consider our assumptions about human nature that keep children in a condition of confinement and limited options, we need to reflect on driving and things like almost nonexistent global terrorism.

Notice how quickly people learn to drive well. Early failure is efficiently corrected, usually self-corrected, because the terrific motivation of staying alive and in one piece steers driving improvement. If the grand theories of Comenius and Herbart about learning by incremental revelation, or those lifelong nanny rules of Owen, Maclure, Pestalozzi, and Beatrice Webb, or those calls for precision in human ranking of Thorndike and Hall, or those nuanced interventions of Yale, Stanford, and Columbia Teachers College were actually as essential as their proponents claimed, this libertarian miracle of motoring would be unfathomable.

Now consider the intellectual component of driving. It isn’t all just hand-eye-foot coordination. First-time drivers make dozens, no, hundreds, of continuous hypotheses, plans, computations, and fine-tuned judgments every day they drive. They do this skilfully, without being graded, because if they don’t, organic provision exists in the motoring universe to punish them. There isn’t any court of appeal from your own stupidity on the road.4 I could go on: think of licensing, maintenance, storage, adapting machine and driver to seasons and daily conditions. Carefully analyzed, driving is as impressive a miracle as walking, talking, or reading, but this only shows the inherent weakness of analysis since we know almost everyone learns to drive well in a few hours. The way we used to be as Americans, learning everything, breaking down social class barriers, is the way we might be again without forced schooling. Driving proves that to me.

The Schools of Hellas

Wherever it occurred, schooling through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (up until the last third of the nineteenth) heavily invested its hours with language, philosophy, art, and the life of the classical civilizations of Greece and Rome. In the grammar schools of the day, little pure grammar as we understand it existed; they were places of classical learning. Early America rested easily on a foundation of classical understanding, one subversive to the normal standards of British class society. The lessons of antiquity were so vital to the construction of every American institution it’s hardly possible to grasp how deep the gulf between then and now is without knowing a little about those lessons. Prepare yourself for a surprise.

For a long time, for instance, classical Athens distributed its most responsible public positions by lottery: army generalships, water supply, everything. The implications are awesome– trust in everyone’s competence was assumed; it was their version of universal driving. Professionals existed but did not make key decisions; they were only technicians, never well regarded because prevailing opinion held that technicians had enslaved their own minds.

Anyone worthy of citizenship was expected to be able to think clearly and to welcome great responsibility.

As you reflect on this, remember our own unvoiced assumption that anyone can guide a ton of metal travelling at high speed with three sticks of dynamite sloshing around in its tanks.

When we ask what kind of schooling was behind this brilliant society which has enchanted the centuries ever since, any honest reply can be carried in one word: None. After writing a book searching for the hidden genius of Greece in its schools, Kenneth Freeman concluded his unique study The Schools of Hellas in 1907 with this summary, “There were no schools in Hellas.” No place boys and girls spent their youth attending continuous instruction under command of strangers. Indeed, nobody did homework in the modern sense; none could be located on standardized tests. The tests that mattered came in living, striving to meet ideals that local tradition imposed. The word sköle itself means leisure, leisure in a formal garden to think and reflect. Plato in The Laws is the first to refer to school as learned discussion.

The most famous school in Athens was Plato’s Academy, but in its physical manifestation it had no classes or bells, was a well-mannered hangout for thinkers and seekers, a generator of good conversation and good friendship, things Plato thought lay at the core of education. Today we might call such a phenomenon a salon. Aristotle’s Lyceum was pretty much the same, although Aristotle delivered two lectures a day–a tough one in the morning for intense thinkers, a kinder, gentler version of the same in the afternoon for less ambitious minds. Attendance was optional. And the famous Gymnasium so memorable as a forge for German leadership later on was in reality only an open training ground where men sixteen to fifty were free to participate in high-quality, state-subsidized instruction in boxing, wrestling, and javelin.

The idea of schooling free men in anything would have revolted Athenians. Forced training was for slaves. Among free men, learning was self-discipline, not the gift of experts. From such notions Americans derived their own academies, the French their lycees, and the Germans their gymnasium. Think of it: In Athens, instruction was unorganized even though the city-state was surrounded by enemies and its own society engaged in the difficult social experiment of sustaining a participatory democracy, extending privileges without precedent to citizens, and maintaining literary, artistic, and legislative standards which remain to this day benchmarks of human genius. For its five-hundred-year history from Homer to Aristotle, Athenian civilization was a miracle in a rude world; teachers flourished there but none was grounded in fixed buildings with regular curricula under the thumb of an intricately layered bureaucracy.

There were no schools in Hellas. For the Greeks, study was its own reward. Beyond that few cared to go.

The Fresco at Herculaneum

Sparta, Athens’ neighbour, was a horse of a different colour. Society in Sparta was organized around the concept of cradle-to-grave formal training. The whole state was a universal schoolhouse, official prescriptions for the population filled every waking minute and the family was employed as a convenience for the state. Sparta’s public political arrangements were an elaborate sham, organized nominally around an executive branch with two legislative bodies, but ultimate decision-making was in the hands of ephors, a small elite who conducted state policy among themselves. The practical aspect of imitation democracy figures strongly in the thought of later social thinkers such as Machiavelli (1532) and Hobbes (1651), as well as in minds nearer our own time who had influence on the shape of American forced schooling.

Spartan ideas of management came to American consciousness through classical studies in early schooling, through churches, and also through interest in the German military state of Prussia, which consciously modelled itself after Sparta. As the nineteenth century entered its final decades American university training came to follow the Prussian/Spartan model. Service to business and the political state became the most important reason for college and university existence after 1910. No longer was college primarily about developing mind and character in the young. Instead, it was about moulding those things as instruments for use by others. Here is an important clue to the philosophical split which informed the foundation of modern schooling and to an important extent still does: small farmers, crafts folk, trades people, little town and city professionals, little industrialists, and older manorial interests took a part of their dream of America from democratic Athens or from republican Rome (not the Rome of the emperors); this comprised a significant proportion of ordinary America. But new urban managerial elites pointed to a future based on Spartan outlook.

When the instructional system of Athens transferred to Imperial Rome, a few schools we would recognize began to appear. The familiar punishment practices of colonial America can be found anticipated vividly in the famous fresco at Herculaneum, showing a Roman schoolboy being held by two of his classmates while the master advances, carrying a long whip. Roman schools must have started discipline early in the morning for we find the poet Martial cursing a school for waking him up at cock’s crow with shouts and beatings; Horace immortalizes pedagogue Orbilius for whipping a love of old poets into him. But we shouldn’t be misled by these school references. What few schools there were in Rome were for boys of prosperous classes, and even most of these relied upon tutors, tradition, and emulation, not school.

The word pedagogue is Latin for a specialized class of slave assigned to walk a student to the schoolmaster; over time the slave was given additional duties, his role was enlarged to that of drill master, a procedure memorialized in Varro’s instituit pedagogus, docet magister: in my rusty altar-boy Latin, The master creates instruction, the slave pounds it in. A key to modern schooling is this: free men were never pedagogues. And yet we often refer to the science of modern schooling as pedagogy. The unenlightened parent who innocently brings matters of concern to the pedagogue, whether that poor soul is called schoolteacher, principal, or superintendent, is usually beginning a game of frustration which will end in no fundamental change. A case of barking up the wrong tree in a dark wood where the right tree is far away and obscure.

Pedagogy is social technology for winning attention and cooperation (or obedience) while strings are attached to the mind and placed in the hands of an unseen master. – READ THAT AGAIN STUDENTS OF THE INDY MEDIA AND ALL IT’S CULTS AND CHURCHES.

This may be done holistically, with smiles, music, and light-duty simulations of intellection, or it can be done harshly with rigorous drills and competitive tests. The quality of self-doubt aimed for in either case is similar. MY NOTE – PATRONISE OR CHASTISE, PUNISHMENT OR REWARD. AND ALL FOR TOTAL CONTROL OF YOUR MIND.

Pedagogy is a useful concept to help us unthread some of the mysteries of modern schooling. That it is increasingly vital to the social order is evinced by the quiet teacher-pay revolution that has occurred since the 1960s. As with police work (to which pedagogy bears important similarities), school pay has become relatively good, its hours of labour short, its job security first rate. Contrast this with the golden years of one-room schooling where pay was subsistence only and teachers were compelled to board around to keep body and soul together. Yet there was no shortage then of applicants and many sons of prominent Americans began their adult lives as schoolteachers.

With the relative opulence of today, it would be simple to fill teaching slots with accomplished men and women if that were a goal. A little adjustment in what are rationally indefensible licensing requirements would make talented people, many performance-tested adults in their fifties and sixties, available to teach. That there is not such fluid access is a good sign the purpose of schooling is more than it appears. The year-in, year-out consistency of mediocre teacher candidates demonstrates clearly that the school institution actively seeks, nurtures, hires, and promotes the calibre of personnel it needs.

The Seven Liberal Arts

When Rome dissolved in the sixth century, Roman genius emerged as the Universal Christian Church, an inspired religious sect grown spontaneously into a vehicle which invested ultimate responsibility for personal salvation in the sovereign individual. The Roman Church hit upon schooling as a useful adjunct, and so what few schools could be found after the fall of Rome were in ecclesiastical hands, remaining there for the next eleven or twelve centuries. MY NOTE IT ALWAYS HAS DONE AND WILL DO IF WE DON’T CHANGE.

Promotion inside the Church began to depend on having first received training of the Hellenic type. Thus a brotherhood of thoughtful men was created from the demise of the Empire and from the necessity of intellectually defining the new mission.

As the Church experimented with schooling, students met originally at the teacher’s house, but gradually some church space was dedicated for the purpose. Thanks to competition among Church officials, each Bishop strove to offer a school and these, in time to be called Cathedral schools, attracted attention and some important sponsorship, each being a showcase of the Bishop’s own educational taste.

When the Germanic tribes evacuated northern Europe, overrunning the south, cathedral schools and monastic schools trained the invading leadership–a precedent of disregarding local interests which has continued ever after. Cathedral schools were the important educational institutions of the Middle Ages; from them derived all the schools of Western Europe, at least in principle. In practice, however, few forms of later schooling would be the intense intellectual centres these were. The Seven Liberal Arts made up the main curriculum; lower studies were composed of grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic. Grammar was an introduction to literature, rhetoric an introduction to law and history, dialectic the path to philosophical and metaphysical disputation. Higher studies included arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. Arithmetic was well beyond simple calculation, entering into descriptive and analytical capacities of numbers and their prophetic use (which became modern statistics); geometry embraced geography and surveying; music covered a broad course in theory; astronomy prepared entry into physics and advanced mathematics.

Between the eleventh and the fourteenth centuries, an attempt to reduce the influence of emotionality in religion took command of church policy. Presenting the teachings of the Church in scientific form became the main ecclesiastical purpose of school, a tendency called scholasticism. This shift from emotion to intellect resulted in great skill in analysis, in comparison and contrasts, in classifications and abstraction, as well as famous verbal hairsplitting–like how many angels could dance on the head of a pin. Scholasticism became the basis for future upper-class schooling.

The Platonic Ideal

The official use of common schooling was invented by Plato; after him the idea languished, its single torchbearer the Church. Educational offerings from the Church were intended for, though not completely limited to, those young whose parentage qualified them as a potential Guardian class. You would hardly know this from reading any standard histories of Western schooling intended for the clientele of teacher colleges.

Intense development of the Platonic ideal of comprehensive social control through schooling suddenly reappeared two thousand years later in eighteenth-century France at the hands of a philosophical cultus known to history as philosophes, enthusiastic promoters of the bizarre idea of mass forced schooling. Most prominent among them, a self-willed man named Jean Jacques Rousseau. To add piquancy to Rousseau’s thought, you need to know that when they were born, he chose to give away his own five offspring to strangers. If any man captures the essence of enlightenment transformation, it is Rousseau.

The Enlightenment “project” was conceived as a series of stages, each further levelling mankind, collectivizing ordinary humanity into a colonial organism like a volvox. The penetration of this idea, at least on the periphery of our own Founders’ consciousness, is captured in the powerful mystery image of the pyramid on the obverse of our Great Seal.5 Of course, this was only one of many colours to emerge with the new nation, and it was not the most important, an inference that can be drawn from the fact that the pyramid was kept from public notice until 1935. Then it appeared suddenly on the back of our one dollar bill, signalling a profound shift in political management.

Oriental Pedagogy

The ideal of a levelling Oriental pedagogy expressed through government schooling was promoted by Jacobin orators of the French National Convention in the early 1790s, the commencement years of our own republic. The notion of forced schooling was irresistible to French radicals, an enthusiasm whose foundation had been laid in preceding centuries by utopian writers like Harrington (Oceania), More (Utopia), Bacon (New Atlantis), Campanella (City of the Sun), and in other speculative fantasy embracing the fate of children. Cultivating a collective social organism was considered the ingredient missing from feudal society, an ingredient which would allow the West the harmony and stability of the East.

Utopian schooling is never about learning in the traditional sense; it’s about the  transformation of human nature. The core of the difference between Occident and Orient lies in the power relationship between privileged and ordinary, and in respective outlooks on human nature. In the West, a metaphorical table is spread by society; the student decides how much to eat; in the East, the teacher makes that decision. The Chinese character for school shows a passive child with adult hands pouring knowledge into his empty head.

To mandate outcomes centrally would be a major step in the destruction of Western identity. Management by objectives, whatever those objectives might be, is a technique of corporate subordination, not of education. Like Alfred’s, Charlemagne’s awareness of Asia was sharpened in mortal combat. He was the first secular Western potentate to beat the drum for secular schooling. It was easy to ignore Plato’s gloomy forecast that however attractive utopia appears in imagination, human nature will not live easily with the degree of synthetic constraint it requires.

Counter-Attack On Democracy

By standards of the time, America was utopia already. No grinding poverty, no dangerous national enemies, no indigenous tradition beyond a general spirit of exuberant optimism, a belief the land had been touched by destiny, a conviction Americans could accomplish anything. John Jay wrote to Jefferson in 1787, “The enterprise of our country is inconceivable”–inconceivable, that is, to the British, Germans, and French, who were accustomed to keeping the common population on a leash. Our colonial government was the creation of the Crown, of course, but soon a fantastic idea began to circulate, a belief that people might create or destroy governments at their will.

The empty slate of the new republic made it vulnerable to advanced utopian thinking. While in England and Germany, temptation was great to develop and use Oriental social machinery to bend mass population into an instrument of elite will, in America there was no hereditary order or traditional direction. We were a nation awash in literate, self-reliant men and women, the vast majority with an independent livelihood or ambitions toward getting one. Americans were inventors and technicians without precedent, entrepreneurs unlocked from traditional controls, dreamers, confidence men, flim-flam artists. There never was a social stew quite like it.

The practical difficulties these circumstances posed to utopian governing would have been insuperable except for one seemingly strange source of enthusiasm for such an endeavour in the business community. That puzzle can be solved by considering how the promise of democracy was a frightening terra incognita to men of substance. To look to men like Sam Adams or Tom Paine as directors of the future was like looking down the barrel of a loaded gun, at least to people of means. So the men who had begun the Revolution were eased out by the men who ended it.

As early as 1784, a concerted effort was made by the Boston business community to overthrow town meetings, replacing them with a professionally managed corporation. Joseph Barrell, a wealthy merchant, claimed that citizen safety could be enhanced this way–and besides, “a great number of very respectable gentlemen” wished it.

Timothy Dwight, longtime president of Yale after 1795, and a pioneer in modern education (advocating science as the centre of curriculum), fought a mighty battle against advancing democracy. Democracy was hardly the sort of experiment men of affairs would willingly submit their lives and fortunes to for very long.

This tension explains much about how our romance with forced schooling came about; it was a way to stop democracy aborning as Germany had done. Much ingenuity was expended on this problem in the early republic, particularly by so-called liberal Christian sects like Unitarians and Universalists. If you read relics of their debates preserved from select lyceums, private meetings at which minutes were kept, journals, recollections of drawing room conversations and club discussions, you see that what was shaping up was an attempt to square the circle, to give the appearance that the new society was true to its founding promise, while at the same time a sound basis could be established for the meritorious to run things. Once again, the spirit of Sparta was alive with its ephors and its reliance on forced instruction. In discussions, speeches, sermons, editorials, experimental legislation, letters, diaries, and elsewhere, the ancient idea of mass forced schooling was called forth and mused upon.

How Hindu Schooling Came To America (I)

By the end of the first quarter of the nineteenth century, a form of school technology was up and running in America’s larger cities, one in which children of lower-class customers were psychologically conditioned to obedience under pretext that they were learning reading and counting (which may also have happened). These were the Lancaster schools, sponsored by Governor DeWitt Clinton of New York and prominent Quakers like Thomas Eddy, builder of the Erie Canal. They soon spread to every corner of the nation where the problem of an incipient proletariat existed. Lancaster schools are cousins of today’s school factories. What few knew then or realize now is that they were also a Hindu invention, designed with the express purpose of retarding intellectual development.

How Hindu schooling came to America, England, Germany, and France at just about the same time is a story which has never been told. A full treatment is beyond the scope of this book, but I’ll tell you enough to set you wondering how an Asiatic device specifically intended to preserve a caste system came to reproduce itself in the early republic, protected by influential’s of the magnitude of Clinton and Eddy. Even a brief dusting off of schooling’s Hindu provenance should warn you that what you know about American schooling isn’t much.

First, a quick gloss on the historical position of India at the time of the American Revolution–for Lancaster schools were in New York two decades after its end. India fell victim to Western dominance through nautical technology in the following fashion: When medieval Europe broke up after its long struggle to reconcile emergent science with religion, five great ocean powers appeared to compete for the wealth of the planet: Portugal, Spain, France, the Netherlands, and England. Portugal was the first to sail for treasure, leaving colonies in India, China, and South America, but its day in the sun was short. Spain emerged as the next global superpower, but after 1600, her character decayed rapidly from the corrupting effects of the gold of the Americas, which triggered a long national decline. The Netherlands, turn followed because that nation had the advantage of a single-minded commercial class in control of things with one aim in mind: wealth. The Dutch monopolized the carrying trade of Europe with globe-trotting merchant ships and courageous military seamanship, yet as with Portugal before it, the Dutch population was too small, its internal resources too anaemic for its dominance to extend very long. Beginning in the seventeenth century, England and France gradually built business in the East, both balked for a time by the Dutch who controlled the spice trade of the Indies. Three naval wars with the Dutch made the Royal Navy master of the seas, in the process developing tactics of sea warfare that made it dominant for the next two centuries. By 1700, only France and England remained as global sea powers with impressive fighting capability, and during the last half of that century these giants slugged it out directly in Canada, India, and in the territory which is today the United States, with the result that France went permanently into eclipse.

In India, the two contended through their commercial pseudopodia, the British and French East India Companies: each maintained a private army to war on the other for tea, indigo, turmeric, ginger, quinine, oilseeds, silk, and that product which most captivated British merchants with its portability and breakaway profit potential–opium. At Plassey, Chandernagor, Madras, and Wandiwash, this long corporate rivalry ended. The French abandoned India to the British. The drug monopoly was finally England’s. (SEE BK. ONE).

Out of this experience and the observations of a wealthy young Anglican chaplain in India, the formula for modern schooling was discovered. Perhaps it was no more than coincidence this fellow held his first gainful employment as a schoolteacher in the United States; on the other hand, perhaps his experience in a nation which successfully threw off British shackles sensitized him to the danger an educated population poses to plutocracies.

How Hindu Schooling Came To America (II)

Andrew Bell, the gentleman in question, used to be described in old editions of the Britannica as “cold, shrewd, self-seeking.” He might not have been the most pious cleric. Perhaps like his contemporary, Parson Malthus, he didn’t really believe in God at all, but as a young man following the flag he had an eye out for the main chance. Bell found his opportunity when he studied the structure Hindus arranged for training the lower castes, about 95 percent of the Indian population. It might well serve a Britain which had driven its peasantry into ruin in order to create an industrial proletariat for coal-driven industry.

Bell was fascinated by the purposeful nature of Hindu schooling. It seemed eminently compatible with the goals of the English state church. So as many another ambitious young man has done throughout history when he stumbles upon a little-known novelty, he swiped it. Before we turn to details of the Hindu method, and how Bell himself was upstaged by an ambitious young Quaker who beat him into the school market with a working version of Bell’s idea, you should understand a little about Hindu religion.

The caste system of Hinduism or Brahmanism is the Anglican class system pushed to its imaginative limits. A five-category ranking (each category further subdivided) apportions people into a system similar to that found in modern schools. Prestige and authority are reserved for the three highest castes, although they only comprise 5 percent of the total; inescapable servility is assigned the lowest caste, a pariah group outside serious consideration.

In the Hindu system one may fall into a lower caste, but one cannot rise.

When the British began to administer India, Hindus represented 70 percent of a population well over a hundred million. Contrast this with an America of perhaps three million. In the northern region, British hero Robert Clive was president of Bengal where people were conspicuously lighter-skinned than the other major Indian group, having features not unlike those of the British.

Hindu castes looked like this:

The upper 5 percent was divided into three “twice-born” groups.

Brahmins–Priests and those trained for law, medicine, teaching, and other professional occupations.

The warrior and administrative caste.

The industrial caste, which would include land cultivators and mercantile groups.

The lower 95 percent was divided into:

The menial caste.

Pariahs, called “untouchables.”

The entire purpose of Hindu schooling was to preserve the caste system. Only the lucky 5 percent received an education which gave perspective on the whole, a key to understanding. In actual practice, warriors, administrators, and most of the other leaders were given much diluted insight into the driving engines of the culture, so that policy could be kept in the hands of Brahmins. But what of the others, the “masses” as Western socialist tradition would come to call them in an echoing tribute to the Hindu class idea? The answer to that vital question launched factory schooling in the West.

Which brings us back to Andrew Bell. Bell noticed that in some places Hinduism had created a mass schooling institution for children of the ordinary, one inculcating a curriculum of self-abnegation and willing servility. In these places hundreds of children were gathered in a single gigantic room, divided into phalanxes of ten under the direction of student leaders with the whole ensemble directed by a Brahmin. In the Roman manner, paid pedagogues drilled underlings in the memorization and imitation of desired attitudes and these underlings drilled the rest. Here was a social technology made in heaven for the factories and mines of Britain, still uncomfortably saturated in older yeoman legends of liberty and dignity, one not yet possessing the perfect proletarian attitudes mass production must have for maximum efficiency. Nobody in the early years of British rule had made a connection between this Hindu practice and the pressing requirements of an industrial future. Nobody, that is, until a thirty-four-year-old Scotsman arrived in India as military chaplain.

How Hindu Schooling Came To America (III)

Young Bell was a go-getter. Two years after he got to India he was superintendent of the male orphan asylum of Madras. In order to save money Bell decided to try the Hindu system he had seen and found it led students quickly to docile cooperation, like parts of a machine. Furthermore, they seemed relieved not to have to think, grateful to have their time reduced to rituals and routines as Frederick Taylor was to reform the American workplace a hundred years later.

In 1797, Bell, now forty-two, published an account of what he had seen and done. Pulling no punches. A twenty-year-old Quaker, Joseph Lancaster, read Bell’s pamphlet, thought deeply on the method, and concluded, ironically, it would be a cheap way to awaken intellect in the lower classes, ignoring the Anglican’s observation (and Hindu experience) that it did just the opposite. Lancaster began to gather poor children under his father’s roof in Borough Road, London, to give them rudimentary instruction without a fee. Word spread and children emerged from every alley, dive, and garret, craving to learn. Soon a thousand children were gathering in the street. The Duke of Bedford heard about Lancaster and provided him with a single enormous schoolroom and a few materials. The monitorial system, as it was called, promised to promote a mental counterpart to the productivity of factories. Transforming dirty ghetto children into an orderly army attracted many observers. The fact that Lancaster’s school ran at tiny cost with only one employee raised interest, too. Invitations arrived to lecture in surrounding towns, where the Quaker expounded on what had now become his system. Lancaster schools multiplied under the direction of young men he personally trained. So talked about did the phenomenon become, it eventually attracted the attention of King George III himself, who commanded an interview with Joseph. Royal patronage followed on the stipulation that every poor child be taught to read the Bible.

But with fame and public responsibility, another side of Lancaster showed itself–he became vain, reckless, improvident. Interested noblemen bailed him out after he fell deeply in debt, and helped him found the British and Foreign School Society, but Lancaster hated being watched over and soon proved impossible to control. He left the organization his patrons erected, starting a private school which went bankrupt. By 1818 the Anglican Church, warming to Bell’s insight that schooled ignorance was more useful than unschooled stupidity, set up a rival chain of factory schools that proved to be handwriting on the wall for Lancaster. In the face of this competition he fled to America where his fame and his method had already preceded him.

Meanwhile, in England, the whole body of dissenting sects gave Lancaster vociferous public support, thoroughly alarming the state church hierarchy. Prominent church laymen and clergy were not unaware that Lancaster’s schools weren’t playing by Hindu rules–the prospect of a literate underclass with unseemly ambitions was a window on a future impossible to tolerate. Bell had been recalled from his rectory in Dorset in 1807 to contest Lancaster’s use of Hindu schooling. In 1811, he was named superintendent of an organization to oppose Lancaster’s British and Foreign School Society, “The National Society for Promoting the Education of the Poor in the Principles of the Established Church.” Since those principles held that the poor were poor because the Lord wanted it that way, the content of the society’s schooling leaves little about which we need to speculate. Bell was sent to plant his system in Presbyterian Scotland, while the patronage advantage of Bell-system schools contained and diminished the reach of Lancaster.

For his services to the state, Bell was eventually buried in Westminster Abbey.

At first, Lancaster was welcomed warmly in the United States, but his affection for children and his ability to awaken pride and ambition in his charges made him ultimately unacceptable to important patrons who were much more interested in spreading Bell’s dumbed-down method, without its Church of England baggage attached. Fortunately for their schemes, Lancaster grew even more shiftless, unmethodical, and incapable of sustained effort (or principled action). In the twenty remaining years of his life, Lancaster ranged from Montreal to Caracas, disowned by Quakers for reasons I’ve been unable to discover. He once declared it would be possible to teach illiterates to read fluently in twenty to ninety days, which is certainly true. At the age of sixty he was run over by a carriage in New York and died a few hours later.

But while he died an outcast, his system outlived him, or at least a system bearing his name did, albeit more Bell’s than Lancaster’s. It accustomed an influential public to expect streets to be clear of the offspring of the poor and to expenditures of tax money to accomplish this end. The first Lancaster school was opened in New York City in 1806; by 1829 the idea had spread to the Mexican state of Texas with stops as far west as Cincinnati, Louisville, and Detroit. The governors of New York and Pennsylvania recommended general adoption to their legislatures. What exactly was a “Lancaster” school? Its essential features involved one large room stuffed with anywhere from three hundred to a thousand children under the direction of a single teacher. The children were seated in rows. The teacher was not there to teach but to be “a bystander and inspector”; students, ranked in a paramilitary hierarchy, did the actual teaching:

What the master says should be done. When the pupils as well as the schoolmaster understand how to act and learn on this system, the system, not the master’s vague discretionary, uncertain judgment, will be in practice. In common school the authority of the master is personal, and the rod is his sceptre. His absence is an immediate signal for confusion, but in a school conducted on my plan when the master leaves the school, the business will go on as well in his absence as in his presence. [emphasis added]

Here, without forcing the matter, is our modern pedagogus technologicus, harbinger of future computerized instruction. In such a system, teachers and administrators are forbidden to depart from instructions elsewhere written. But while dumbing children down was the whole of the government school education in England, it was only part of the story in America, and a minor one until the twentieth century.

Montaigne’s Curriculum

Between the fall of Rome in the late fifth century and the decline of monarchy in the eighteenth, secular schooling in any form was hardly a ripple on the societies of Europe. There was talk of it at certain times and places, but it was courtly talk, never very serious. What simple schooling we find was modestly undertaken by religious orders which usually had no greater ambition than providing a stream of assistants to the ecclesiastical bureaucracy, and perhaps moulding the values of whatever future leaders proved susceptible; the few exceptions shouldn’t be looked upon as the spark for our own schools. School was only a tiny blip on the radar until the last half of the eighteenth century.

If you and I are to have a productive partnership in this book you need to clear your mind of false history, the type that clogs the typical school chronicle written for teacher training institutes where each fact may be verifiable but the conclusions drawn from them are not. Turn to typical school history and you will learn about the alleged anticipation of our own schools by Comenius, of the reformed Latin Grammar School founded by Dean Colet at St. Paul’s in London in 1510, of the “solitaries of Port Royal,” whoever those lonely men may have been; each instance is real, the direction they lead in is false. What formal school experimentation the West provided touched only a tiny fraction of the population, and rarely those who became social leaders, let alone pioneers of the future.

Chapter two

One way to see the difference between school and real (life) is to examine different procedures which separate librarians, the custodians of real books, from schoolteachers, the custodians of schoolbooks. To begin with, libraries are usually comfortable, clean, and quiet. They are orderly places where you can actually read instead of just pretending to read.

For some reason libraries are never age-segregated, nor do they presume to segregate readers by questionable tests of ability any more than farms or forests or oceans do. The librarian doesn’t tell me what to read, doesn’t tell me what sequence of reading I have to follow, doesn’t grade my reading. The librarian trusts me to have a worthwhile purpose of my own. I appreciate that and trust the library in return.

Some other significant differences between libraries and schools: the librarian lets me ask my own questions and helps me when I want help, not when she decides I need it. If I feel like reading all day long, that’s okay with the librarian, who doesn’t compel me to stop at intervals by ringing a bell in my ear. The library keeps its nose out of my home. It doesn’t send letters to my family, nor does it issue orders on how I should use my reading time at home.

The library doesn’t play favourites; it’s a democratic place as seems proper in a democracy. If the books I want are available, I get them, even if that decision deprives someone more gifted and talented than I am. The library never humiliates me by posting ranked lists of good readers. It presumes good reading is its own reward and doesn’t need to be held up as an object lesson to bad readers. One of the strangest differences between a library and a school is that you almost never see a kid behaving badly in a library.

The library never makes predictions about my future based on my past reading habits. It tolerates eccentric reading because it realizes free men and women are often very eccentric. Finally, the library has real books, not schoolbooks. I know the Moby Dick I find in the library won’t have questions at the end of the chapter or be scientifically bowdlerized. Library books are not written by collective pens. At least not yet. Real books conform to the private curriculum of each author, not to the invisible curriculum of a corporate bureaucracy. Real books transport us to an inner realm of solitude and unmonitored mental reflection in a way schoolbooks and computer programs can’t. If they were not devoid of such capacity, they would jeopardize school routines devised to control behaviour. Real books conform to the private curriculum of particular authors, not to the demands of bureaucracy.

Intellectual Espionage

At the start of WWII millions of men showed up at registration offices to take low-level academic tests before being inducted.1 The years of maximum mobilization were 1942 to1944; the fighting force had been mostly schooled in the 1930s, both those inducted and those turned away. Of the 18 million men were tested, 17,280,000 of them were judged to have the minimum competence in reading required to be a soldier, a 96 percent literacy rate. Although this was a 2 percent fall-off from the 98 percent rate among voluntary military applicants ten years earlier, the dip was so small it didn’t worry anybody.

WWII was over in 1945. Six years later another war began in Korea. Several million men were tested for military service but this time 600,000 were rejected. Literacy in the draft pool had dropped to 81 percent, even though all that was needed to classify a soldier as literate was fourth- grade reading proficiency. In the few short years from the beginning of WWII to Korea, a terrifying problem of adult illiteracy had appeared. The Korean War group received most of its schooling in the 1940s, and it had more years in school with more professionally trained personnel and more scientifically selected textbooks than the WWII men, yet it could not read, write, count, speak, or think as well as the earlier, less-schooled contingent.

A third American war began in the mid-1960s. By its end in 1973 the number of men found noninductible by reason of inability to read safety instructions, interpret road signs, decipher orders, and so on–in other words, the number found illiterate–had reached 27 percent of the total pool. Vietnam-era young men had been schooled in the 1950s and the 1960s–much better schooled than either of the two earlier groups–but the 4 percent illiteracy of 1941 which had transmuted into the 19 percent illiteracy of 1952 had now had grown into the 27 percent illiteracy of 1970. Not only had the fraction of competent readers dropped to 73 percent but a substantial chunk of even those were only barely adequate; they could not keep abreast of developments by reading a newspaper, they could not read for pleasure, they could not sustain a thought or an argument, they could not write well enough to manage their own affairs without assistance.


Consider how much more compelling this steady progression of intellectual blindness is when we track it through army admissions tests rather than college admissions scores and standardized reading tests, which inflate apparent proficiency by frequently changing the way the tests are scored.

Looking back, abundant data exist from states like Connecticut and Massachusetts to show that by 1840 the incidence of complex literacy in the United States was between 93 and 100 percent wherever such a thing mattered. According to the Connecticut census of 1840, only one citizen out of every 579 was illiterate and you probably don’t want to know, not really, what people in those days considered literate; it’s too embarrassing.

Popular novels of the period give a clue: Last of the Mohicans, published in 1826, sold so well that a contemporary equivalent would have to move 10 million copies to match it. If you pick up an uncut version you find yourself in a dense thicket of philosophy, history, culture, manners, politics, geography, analysis of human motives and actions, all conveyed in data-rich periodic sentences so formidable only a determined and well-educated reader can handle it nowadays. Yet in 1818 we were a small-farm nation without colleges or universities to speak of. Could those simple folk have had more complex minds than our own?

By 1940, the literacy figure for all states stood at 96 percent for whites, 80 percent for blacks. Notice that for all the disadvantages blacks laboured under, four of five were nevertheless literate. Six decades later, at the end of the twentieth century, the National Adult Literacy Survey and the National Assessment of Educational Progress say 40 percent of blacks and 17 percent of whites can’t read at all. Put another way, black illiteracy doubled, white illiteracy quadrupled. Before you think of anything else in regard to these numbers, think of this: we spend three to four times as much real money on schooling as we did sixty years ago, but sixty years ago virtually everyone, black or white, could read.

In their famous bestseller, The Bell Curve, prominent social analysts Charles Murray and Richard Herrnstein say that what we’re seeing are the results of selective breeding in society. Smart people naturally get together with smart people, dumb people with dumb people. As they have children generation after generation, the differences between the groups gets larger and larger. That sounds plausible and the authors produce impressive mathematics to prove their case, but their documentation shows they are entirely ignorant of the military data available to challenge their contention. The terrifying drop in literacy between World War II and Korea happened in a decade, and even the brashest survival-of-the-fittest theorist wouldn’t argue evolution unfolds that way. The Bell Curve writers say black illiteracy (and violence) is genetically programmed, but like many academics they ignore contradictory evidence.

For example, on the matter of violence inscribed in black genes, the inconvenient parallel is to South Africa where 31 million blacks live, the same count living in the United States. Compare numbers of blacks who died by violence in South Africa in civil war conditions during 1989, 1990, and 1991 with our own peacetime mortality statistics and you find that far from exceeding the violent death toll in the United States or even matching it, South Africa had proportionately less than one-quarter the violent death rate of American blacks. If more contemporary comparisons are sought, we need only compare the current black literacy rate in the United States (56 percent) with the rate in Jamaica (98.5 percent)–a figure considerably higher than the American white literacy rate (83 percent).

If not heredity, what then? Well, one change is indisputable, well-documented and easy to track. During WWII, American public schools massively converted to non-phonetic ways of teaching reading. On the matter of violence alone this would seem to have impact: according to the Justice Department, 80 percent of the incarcerated violent criminal population is illiterate or nearly so (and 67 percent of all criminals locked up). There seems to be a direct connection between the humiliation poor readers experience and the life of angry criminals.2 As reading ability plummeted in America after WWII, crime soared, so did out-of-wedlock births, which doubled in the 1950s and doubled again in the ’60s, when bizarre violence for the first time became commonplace in daily life.

When literacy was first abandoned as a primary goal by schools, white people were in a better position than black people because they inherited a three-hundred-year-old American tradition of learning to read at home by matching spoken sound with letters, thus home assistance was able to correct the deficiencies of dumbed-down schools for whites. But black people had been forbidden to learn to read under slavery, and as late as 1930 only averaged three to four years of schooling, so they were helpless when teachers suddenly stopped teaching children to read, since they had no fall-back position. Not helpless because of genetic inferiority but because they had to trust school authorities to a much greater extent than white people.

Back in 1952 the Army quietly began hiring hundreds of psychologists to find out how 600,000 high school graduates had successfully faked illiteracy. Regna Wood sums up the episode this way: After the psychologists told the officers that the graduates weren’t faking, Defence Department administrators knew that something terrible had happened in grade school reading instruction. And they knew it had started in the thirties. Why they remained silent, no one knows.

The switch back to reading instruction that worked for everyone should have been made then. But it wasn’t. In 1882, fifth graders read these authors in their Appleton School Reader: William Shakespeare, Henry Thoreau, George Washington, Sir Walter Scott, Mark Twain, Benjamin Franklin, Oliver Wendell Holmes, John Bunyan, Daniel Webster, Samuel Johnson, Lewis Carroll, Thomas Jefferson, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and others like them.

In 1995, a student teacher of fifth graders in Minneapolis wrote to the local newspaper, “I was told children are not to be expected to spell the following words correctly: back, big, call, came, can, day, did, dog, down, get, good, have, he, home, if, in, is, it, like, little, man, morning, mother, my, night, off, out, over, people, play, ran, said, saw, she, some, soon, their, them, there, time, two, too, up, us, very, water, we, went, where, when, will, would, etc. Is this nuts?”

1 The discussion here is based on Regna Lee Wood’s work as printed in Chester Finn and Diane Ravitch’s Network News and Views (and reprinted many other places). Together with other statistical indictments, from the National Adult Literacy Survey, the Journal of the American Medical Association, and a host of other credible sources, it provides chilling evidence of the disastrous turn in reading methodology. But in a larger sense the author urges every reader to trust personal judgment over “numerical” evidence, whatever the source. During the writer’s 30-year classroom experience, the decline in student ability to comprehend difficult text was marked, while the ability to extract and parrot “information” in the form of “facts” was much less affected. This is a product of deliberate pedagogy, to what end is the burden of my essay.

Looking Behind Appearances

Do you think class size, teacher compensation, and school revenue have much to do with education quality? If so, the conclusion is inescapable that we are living in a golden age. From 1955 to 1991 the U.S. pupil/teacher ratio dropped 40 percent, the average salary of teachers rose 50 percent (in real terms) and the annual expense per pupil, inflation adjusted, soared 350 percent. What other hypothesis, then, might fit the strange data I’m about to present?

Forget the 10 percent drop in SAT and Achievement Test scores the press beats to death with regularity; how do you explain the 37 percent decline since 1972 in students who score above 600 on the SAT? This is an absolute decline, not a relative one. It is not affected by an increase in unsuitable minds taking the test or by an increase in the numbers. The absolute body count of smart students is down drastically with a test not more difficult than yesterday’s but considerably less so.

What should be made of a 50 percent decline among the most rarefied group of test-takers, those who score above 750? In 1972, there were 2,817 American students who reached this pinnacle; only 1,438 did in 1994–when kids took a much easier test. Can a 50 percent decline occur in twenty-two years without signalling that some massive levelling in the public school mind is underway?1

In a real sense where your own child is concerned you might best forget scores on these tests entirely as a reliable measure of what they purport to assess. I wouldn’t deny that mass movements in these scores in one direction or another indicate something is going on, and since the correlation between success in schooling and success on these tests is close, then significant score shifts are certainly measuring changes in understanding. This is a difficult matter for anyone to sort out, since many desirable occupational categories (and desirable university seats even before that) are reserved for those who score well. The resultant linkage of adult income with test scores then creates the illusion these tests are separating cream from milk, but the results are rigged in advance by foreclosing opportunity to those screened out by the test! In a humble illustration, if you only let students with high scores on the language component of the SATs cut hair, eventually it would appear that verbal facility and grooming of tresses had some vital link with each other. Between 1960 and 1998 the nonteaching bureaucracy of public schools grew 500 percent, but oversight was concentrated into fewer and fewer hands. The 40,520 school districts with elected boards this nation had in 1960 shrivelled to 15,000 by 1998.

On the college rung of the school ladder something queer was occurring, too. Between 1960 and 1984 the quality of undergraduate education at America’s fifty best-known colleges and universities altered substantially. According to a 1996 report by the National Association of Scholars, these schools stopped providing “broad and rigorous exposure to major areas of knowledge” for the average student, even at decidedly un-average universities like Yale and Stanford. In 1964, more than half of these institutions required a thesis or comprehensive for the bachelor’s degree; by 1993, 12 percent did; over the same period, the average number of classroom days fell 16 percent, and requirements in math, natural science, philosophy, literature, composition, and history almost vanished. Rhetoric, most potent of the active literacies, completely vanished, and a foreign language, once required at 96 percent of the great colleges, fell to 64 percent.

According to The Journal of the American Medical Association (December 1995), 33 percent of all patients cannot read and understand instructions on how often to take medication, notices about doctor’s appointments, consent forms, labels on prescription bottles, insurance forms, and other simple parts of self-care. They are rendered helpless by inability to read. Concerning those behind the nation’s prison walls (a population that has tripled since 1980), the National Centre for Education Statistics stated in a 1996 report that 80 percent of all prisoners could not interpret a bus schedule, understand a news article or warranty instructions, or read maps, schedules, or payroll forms. Nor could they balance a checkbook. Forty percent could not calculate the cost of a purchase.

Once upon a time we were a new nation that allowed ordinary citizens to learn how to read well and encouraged them to read anything they thought would be useful. Close reading of tough-minded writing is still the best, cheapest, and quickest method known for learning to think for yourself. This invitation to commoners extended by America was the most revolutionary pedagogy of all.

Reading, and rigorous discussion of that reading in a way that obliges you to formulate a position and support it against objections, is an operational definition of education in its most fundamental civilized sense. No one can do this very well without learning ways of paying attention: from a knowledge of diction and syntax, figures of speech, etymology, and so on, to a sharp ability to separate the primary from the subordinate, understand allusion, master a range of modes of presentation, test truth, and penetrate beyond the obvious to the profound messages of text. Reading, analysis, and discussion are the way we develop reliable judgment, the principal way we come to penetrate covert movements behind the facade of public appearances. Without the ability to read and argue we’re just geese to be plucked.

Just as experience is necessary to understand abstraction, so the reverse is true. Experience can only be mastered by extracting general principles out of the mass of details. In the absence of a perfect universal mentor, books and other texts are the best and cheapest stand-ins, always available to those who know where to look. Watching details of an assembly line or a local election unfold isn’t very educational unless you have been led in careful ways to analyze the experience. Reading is the skeleton key for all who lack a personal tutor of quality.2 Reading teaches nothing more important than the state of mind in which you find yourself absolutely alone with the thoughts of another mind, a matchless form of intimate rapport available only to those with the ability to block out distraction and concentrate. Hence the urgency of reading well if you read for power. Once you trust yourself to go mind-to-mind with great intellects, artists, scientists, warriors, and philosophers, you are finally free. In America, before we had forced schooling, an astonishing range of unlikely people knew reading was like Samson’s locks–something that could help make them formidable, that could teach them their rights and how to defend those rights, could lead them toward self-determination, free from intimidation by experts. These same unlikely people knew that the power bestowed through reading could give them insight into the ways of the human heart, so they would not be cheated or fooled so easily, and that it could provide an inexhaustible store of useful knowledge–advice on how to do just about anything.

By 1812, Pierre DuPont was claiming that barely four in a thousand Americans were unable to read well and that the young had skill in argumentation thanks to daily debates at the common breakfast table. By 1820, there was even more evidence of Americans’ avid reading habits, when 5 million copies of James Fenimore Cooper’s complex and allusive novels were sold, along with an equal number of Noah Webster’s didactic Speller–to a population of dirt farmers under 20 million in size.

In 1835, Richard Cobden announced there was six times as much newspaper reading in the United States as in England, and the census figures of 1840 gave fairly exact evidence that a sensational reading revolution had taken place without any exhortation on the part of public moralists and social workers, but because common people had the initiative and freedom to learn. In North Carolina, the worst situation of any state surveyed, eight out of nine could still read and write.

In 1853, Per Siljestromm, a Swedish visitor, wrote, “In no country in the world is the taste for reading so diffuse as among the common people in America.” The American Almanac observed grandly, “Periodical publications, especially newspapers, disseminate knowledge throughout all classes of society and exert an amazing influence in forming and giving effect to public opinion.” It noted the existence of over a thousand newspapers. In this nation of common readers, the spiritual longings of ordinary people shaped the public discourse.

Ordinary people who could read, though not privileged by wealth, power, or position, could see through the fraud of social class or the even grander fraud of official expertise. That was the trouble.

In his book The New Illiterates, author Sam Blumenfeld gives us the best introduction to what went wrong with reading in the United States. He also gives us insight into why learning to read needn’t be frustrating or futile. A typical letter from one of his readers boasts of her success in imparting the alphabet code to four children under the age of five by the simple method of practice with letter sounds. One day she found her three-year-old working his way through a lesson alone at the kitchen table, reading S-am, Sam, m-an, man, and so on. Her verdict on the process: “I had just taught him his letter sounds. He picked [the rest] up and did it himself. That’s how simple it is.”

1 The critics of schooling who concentrate on fluctuations in standardized test scores to ground their case against the institution are committing a gross strategic mistake for several reasons, the most obvious of which is that in doing so they must first implicitly acknowledge the accuracy of such instruments in ranking every member of the youth population against every other member, hence the justice of using such measures to allocate privileges and rewards. An even larger folly occurs because the implicit validation of these tests by the attention of school critics cedes the entire terrain of scientific pedagogy, armouring it against strong counter-measures by recruiting the opposition, in effect, to support teaching to the test. The final folly lies in the ease with which these measures can be rigged to produce whatever public effects are wanted.

2 In a fascinating current illustration of the power of books, black female tennis star Venus Williams’ father acknowledged in a press interview for the Toronto Globe that he had, indeed, set out to create a tennis millionaire from his infant daughter even before her birth. Mr. Williams, who had no knowledge whatsoever of the game of tennis, and who was reared in a poor home in the South by his single mother, had his ambition piqued by witnessing a young woman on television receiving a $48,000 check for playing tennis successfully. At that moment he proposed to his wife that they set out to make their unborn children tennis millionaires. How did he learn the game? By reading books, he says, and renting videos. That, and common sense discipline, was all that Venus and sister Serena needed to become millionaire teenagers.

The Sudbury Valley School

I know a school for kids ages three to eighteen that doesn’t teach anybody to read, yet everyone who goes there learns to do it, most very well. It’s the beautiful Sudbury Valley School, twenty miles west of Boston in the old Nathaniel Bowditch “cottage” (which looks suspiciously like a mansion), a place ringed by handsome outbuildings, a private lake, woods, and acres of magnificent grounds. Sudbury is a private school, but with a tuition under $4,000 a year it’s considerably cheaper than a seat in a New York City public school. At Sudbury kids teach themselves to read; they learn at many different ages, even into the teen years (though that’s rare). When each kid is ready he or she self-instructs, if such a formal label isn’t inappropriate for such a natural undertaking. During this time they are free to request as much adult assistance as needed. That usually isn’t much. In thirty years of operation, Sudbury has never had a single kid who didn’t learn to read. All this is aided by a magnificent school library on open shelves where books are borrowed and returned on the honour system. About 65 percent of Sudbury kids go on to good colleges. The place has never seen a case of dyslexia. (That’s not to say some kids don’t reverse letters and such from time to time, but such conditions are temporary and self-correcting unless institutionalized into a disease.) So Sudbury doesn’t even teach reading yet all its kids learn to read and even like reading. What could be going on there that we don’t understand?

False Premises

The religious purpose of modern schooling was announced clearly by the legendary University of Wisconsin sociologist Edward A. Ross in 1901 in his famous book, Social Control. Your librarian should be able to locate a copy for you without much trouble. In it Ed Ross wrote these words for his prominent following: “Plans are underway to replace community, family, and church with propaganda, education, and mass media….the State shakes loose from Church, reaches out to School…. People are only little plastic lumps of human dough.” Social Control revolutionized the discipline of sociology and had powerful effects on the other human sciences: in social science it guided the direction of political science, economics, and psychology; in biology it influenced genetics, eugenics, and psychobiology. It played a critical role in the conception and design of molecular biology.

There you have it in a nutshell. The whole problem with modern schooling. It rests on a nest of false premises. People are not little plastic lumps of dough. They are not blank tablets as John Locke said they were, they are not machines as de La Mettrie hoped, not vegetables as Friedrich Froebel, inventor of kindergartens, hypothesized, not organic mechanisms as Wilhelm Wundt taught every psychology department in America at the turn of the century, nor are they repertoires of behaviours as Watson and Skinner wanted. They are not, as the new crop of systems thinkers would have it, mystically harmonious microsystems interlocking with grand macrosystems in a dance of atomic forces. I don’t want to be crazy about this; locked in a lecture hall or a bull session there’s probably no more harm in these theories than reading too many Italian sonnets all at one sitting. But when each of these suppositions is sprung free to serve as a foundation for school experiments, it leads to frightfully oppressive practices.

One of the ideas that empty-child thinking led directly to was the notion that human breeding could be enhanced or retarded as plant and animal breeding was–by scientific gardeners and husbandmen. Of course, the time scale over which this was plotted to happen was quite long. Nobody expected it to be like breeding fruit flies, but it was a major academic, governmental, and even military item generously funded until Hitler’s proactive program (following America’s lead) grew so embarrassing by 1939 that our own projects and plans were made more circumspect.

Back at the beginning of the twentieth century, the monstrously influential Edward Thorndike of Columbia Teachers College said that school would establish conditions for “selective breeding before the masses take things into their own hands.” The religious purpose of modern schooling was embarrassingly evident back when Ross and Thorndike were on centre stage, but they were surrounded by many like-minded friends. Another major architect of standardized testing, H.H. Goddard, said in his book Human Efficiency (1920) that government schooling was about “the perfect organization of the hive.” He said standardized testing was a way to make lower classes recognize their own inferiority. Like wearing a dunce cap, it would discourage them from breeding and having ambition. Goddard was head of the Psychology Department at Princeton, so imagine the effect he had on the minds of the doctoral candidates he coached, and there were hundreds. We didn’t leave the religious purpose of modern schooling back in the early years of the century. In April of 1996, Al Shanker of the AFT said in his regular New York Times split-page advertisement that every teacher was really a priest.

A System Of State Propaganda

 Something strange is going on in schools and has been going on for quite some time. Whatever it is does not arise from the main American traditions. As closely as I can track the thing through the attitudes, practices, and stated goals of the shadowy crew who make a good living skulking around educational “laboratories,” think tanks, and foundations, we are experiencing an attempt, successful so far, to reimpose the strong-state, strong social class attitudes of England and Germany on the United States–the very attitudes we threw off in the American Revolution.

And in this counter-revolution the state churches of England and Germany have been replaced by the secular church of forced government schooling.

Advertising, public relations, and stronger forms of quasi-religious propaganda are so pervasive in our schools, even in “alternative” schools, that independent judgment is suffocated in mass-produced secondary experiences and market-tested initiatives. Lifetime Learning Systems, one of the many new corporations formed to dig gold from our conditions of schooling, announced to its corporate clients, “School is the ideal time to influence attitudes, build long-term loyalties, introduce new products, test-market, promote sampling and trial usage–and above all–to generate immediate sales.

Arnold Toynbee, the establishment’s favourite historian in mid-twentieth-century America, said in his monumental Study of History that the original promise of universal education had been destroyed as soon as the school laws were passed, a destruction caused by “the possibility of turning education to account as a means of amusement for the masses” and a means of “profit for the enterprising persons by whom the amusement is purveyed.” This opportunistic conversion quickly followed mass schooling’s introduction when fantastic profit potential set powerful forces in motion:

The bread of universal education is no sooner cast upon the water than a shoal of sharks arises from the depths and devours the children’s bread under the educator’s very eyes.

In Toynbee’s analysis “the dates speak for themselves”:

The edifice of universal education was, roughly speaking, completed… in 1870; and the Yellow Press was invented twenty years later–as soon, that is, as the first generation of children from the national schools had acquired sufficient purchasing power–by a stroke of irresponsible genius which had divined that the educational labour of love could be made to yield a royal profit.

But vultures attending the inception of forced compulsion schooling attracted more ferocious predators:

[The commercial institutions that set about at once to prey on forced mass schooling] attracted the attention of the rulers of modern…national states. If press lords could make millions by providing idle amusement for the half-educated, serious statesman could draw, not money perhaps, but power from the same source. The modern dictators have deposed the press lords and substituted for crude and debased private entertainment an equally crude and debased system of state propaganda.

The Ideology Of The Text

Looking back on the original period of school formation in her study of American history textbooks, America Revised, Frances Fitzgerald remarked on the profound changes that emerged following suggestions issued by sociologists and social thinkers in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century’s. The original history of our institutions and the documents which protect our unique liberties gradually began to be effaced. Fitzgerald raises the puzzle of textbook alteration:

The ideology that lies behind these texts is rather difficult to define…. it does not fit usual political patterns….the texts never indicate any line of action….authors avoid what they choose to and some of them avoid main issues….they fail to develop any original ideas….they confuse social sciences with science….clouds of jargon….leave out ideas….historical names are given no character, they are cipher people….there are no conflicts, only “problems”. [emphasis added]

Indeed, the texts may be unfathomable, and that may be the editorial intent.

The National Adult Literacy Survey

In 1982, Anthony Oettinger, a member of the private discussion group called the Council on Foreign Relations, asked an audience of communications executives this question: “Do we really have to have everybody literate–writing and reading in the traditional sense–when we have means through our technology to achieve a new flowering of oral communication?”  Oettinger suggested “our idea of literacy” is “obsolete.” Eighty-three years earlier John Dewey had written in “The Primary Education Fetish” that “the plea for the predominance of learning to read in early school life because of the great importance attaching to literature seems to be a perversion.”

For the balance of this discussion I’m going to step into deeper water, first reviewing what reading in a Western alphabet really means and what makes it a reasonably easy skill to transmit or to self-teach, and then tackling what happened to deprive the ordinary person of the ability to manage it very well. I want to first show you how, then answer the more speculative question why.

The National Adult Literacy Survey represents 190 million U.S. adults over age sixteen with an average school attendance of 12.4 years. The survey is conducted by the Educational Testing Service of Princeton, New Jersey. It ranks adult Americans into five levels. Here is its 1993 analysis:

Forty-two million Americans over the age of sixteen can’t read. Some of this group can write their names on Social Security cards and fill in height, weight, and birth spaces on application forms.

Fifty million can recognize printed words on a fourth- and fifth-grade level. They cannot write simple messages or letters.

Fifty-five to sixty million are limited to sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade reading. A majority of this group could not figure out the price per ounce of peanut butter in a 20-ounce jar costing $1.99 when told they could round the answer off to a whole number.

Thirty million have ninth- and tenth-grade reading proficiency. This group (and all preceding) cannot understand a simplified written explanation of the procedures used by attorneys and judges in selecting juries.

About 3.5 percent of the 26,000-member sample demonstrated literacy skills adequate to do traditional college study, a level 30 percent of all U.S. high school students reached in 1940, and which 30 percent of secondary students in other developed countries can reach today. This last fact alone should warn you how misleading comparisons drawn from international student competitions really are, since the samples each country sends are small elite ones, unrepresentative of the entire student population. But behind the bogus superiority a real one is concealed.

Ninety-six and a half percent of the American population is mediocre to illiterate where deciphering print is concerned. This is no commentary on their intelligence, but without ability to take in primary information from print and to interpret it they are at the mercy of commentators who tell them what things mean. A working definition of immaturity might include an excessive need for other people to interpret information for us. HINT NUDGE WINK WALLOP – READ THAT AND RE-READ THAT LAST SENTENCE GURU FOLLOWERS.

Certainly it’s possible to argue that bad readers aren’t victims at all but perpetrators, cursed by inferior biology to possess only shadows of intellect. That’s what bell-curve theory, evolutionary theory, aristocratic social theory, eugenics theory, strong-state political theory, and some kinds of theology are about. All agree most of us are inferior, if not downright dangerous. The integrity of such theoretical outlooks– at least where reading was concerned–took a stiff shot on the chin from America. Here, democratic practice allowed a revolutionary generation to learn how to read. Those granted the opportunity took advantage of it brilliantly.

Name Sounds, Not Things

So how was the murder of American reading ability pulled off? I’ll tell you in a second, but come back first to classical Greece where the stupendous invention of the alphabet by Phoenicians was initially understood. The Phoenicians had an alphabetic language used to keep accounts, but the Greeks were the first to guess correctly that revolutionary power could be unleashed by transcending mere lists, using written language for the permanent storage of analysis, exhortation, visions, and other things. After a period of experiment the Greeks came up with a series of letters to represent sounds of their language. Like the Phoenicians, they recognized the value of naming each letter in a way distinct from its sound value–as every human being has a name distinct from his or her personality, as numbers have names for reference.

Naming sounds rather than things was the breakthrough! While the number of things to be pictured is impossibly large, the number of sounds is strictly limited. In English, for example, most people recognize only forty-four.

The problem, which American families once largely solved for themselves, is this: in English, a Latin alphabet has been imposed on a Germanic language with multiple non-Germanic borrowings, and it doesn’t quite fit. Our 44 sounds are spelled 400+ different ways. That sounds horrible, but in reality in the hands of even a mediocre teacher, it’s only annoying; in the hands of a good one, a thrilling challenge. Actually, 85 percent of the vast word stock of English can be read with knowledge of only 70 of the phonograms. A large number of the remaining irregularities seldom occur and can be remastered on an as-needed basis. Meanwhile a whole armoury of mnemonic tricks like “If a ‘c’ I chance to spy, place the ‘e’ before the ‘i”‘ exists to get new readers over the common humps. Inexpensive dictionaries, spell-check typewriters, computers, and other technology are readily available these days to silently coach the fearful, but in my experience, that “fear” is neither warranted nor natural. Instead, it is engendered. Call it good business practice.

Also, communicating abstractions in picture language is a subtlety requiring more time and training to master than is available for most of us. Greeks now could organize ambitious concepts abstractly in written language, communicating accurately with each other over space and time much more readily than their competitors.

According to Mitford Mathews:

The secret of their phenomenal advance was in their conception of the nature of a word. They reasoned that words were sounds or combinations of ascertainable sounds, and they held inexorably to the basic proposition that writing, properly executed, was a guide to sound reading. A number of other good treatments are available for the newcomer.

Learning sound-sight correspondences comes first in an alphabetic language. Competence with the entire package of sounds corresponding to alphabet symbols comes quickly. After that anything can be read and its meaning inquired after. The substantial speaking vocabulary kids bring to school (6,000–10,000 words) can now be read at once, and understood.

When the Romans got the alphabet through the Etruscans they lost the old letter names so they invented new ones making them closer to the letter sounds. That was a significant mistake which causes confusion in novice readers even today. Through conquest the Latin alphabet spread to the languages of Europe; Rome’s later mutation into the Universal Christian Church caused Latin, the language of church liturgy, to flow into every nook and cranny of the former empire.

The Latin alphabet was applied to the English language by Christian missionaries in the seventh century. While it fused with spoken English this was far from a perfect fit. There were no single letters to stand for certain sounds.

Scribes had to scramble to combine letters to approximate sounds that had no companion letter. This matching process was complicated over centuries by repeated borrowings from other languages and by certain massive sound shifts which still occupy scholars in trying to explain.

Before the spread of printing in the sixteenth century, not being able to read wasn’t much of a big deal. There wasn’t much to read. The principal volume available was the Bible, from which appropriate bits were read aloud by religious authorities during worship and on ceremonial occasions. Available texts were in Latin or Greek, but persistent attempts to provide translations was a practice thought to contain much potential for schism. An official

English Bible, the Authorized King James Version, appeared in 1611, pre-empting all competitors in a bold stroke which changed popular destiny.

Instantly, the Bible became a universal textbook, offering insights both delicate and powerful, a vibrant cast of characters, brilliant verbal pyrotechnics and more to the humblest rascal who could read. Talk about a revolutionary awakening for ordinary people! The Bible was it, thanks to the dazzling range of models it provided in the areas of exegesis, drama, politics, psychology, characterization, plus the formidable reading skills it took to grapple with the Bible. A little more than three decades after this translation, the English king was deposed and beheaded. The connection was direct. Nothing would ever be the same again because too many good readers had acquired the proclivity of thinking for themselves.

The magnificent enlargement of imagination and voice that the Bible’s exceptional catalogue of language and ideas made available awakened in ordinary people a powerful desire to read in order to read the Holy Book without a priest’s mediation. Strenuous efforts were made to discourage this, but the Puritan Revolution and Cromwell’s interregnum sent literacy surging. Nowhere was it so accelerated as in the British colonies in North America, a place already far removed from the royal voice.

Printing technology emerged. Like the computer in our own day, it was quickly incorporated into every corner of daily life. But there were still frequent jailings, whippings, and confiscations for seditious reading as people of substance came to realize how dangerous literacy could be.

Reading offered many delights. Cravings to satisfy curiosity about this Shakespeare fellow or to dabble in the musings of Lord Bacon or John Locke were now not difficult to satisfy. Spelling and layout were made consistent.

Before long, prices of books dropped. All this activity intensified pressure on illiterate individuals to become literate. The net result of printing (and Protestantism, which urged communicants to go directly to the Word, eliminating the priestly middleman), stimulated the spread of roving teachers and small proprietary and church schools. A profession arose to satisfy demand for a popular way to understand what uses to make of books, and from this a demand to understand many things.

Why the United States Is Destroying Its Education System

Posted on Apr 10, 2011 By Chris Hedges

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A nation that destroys its systems of education, degrades its public information, guts its public libraries and turns its airwaves into vehicles for cheap, mindless amusement becomes deaf, dumb and blind. It prizes test scores above critical thinking and literacy. It celebrates rote vocational training and the singular, amoral skill of making money. It churns out stunted human products, lacking the capacity and vocabulary to challenge the assumptions and structures of the corporate state. It funnels them into a caste system of drones and systems managers. It transforms a democratic state into a feudal system of corporate masters and serfs.

Teachers, their unions under attack, are becoming as replaceable as minimum-wage employees at Burger King. We spurn real teachers—those with the capacity to inspire children to think, those who help the young discover their gifts and potential—and replace them with instructors who teach to narrow, standardized tests. These instructors obey. They teach children to obey. And that is the point. The No Child Left Behind program, modelled on the “Texas Miracle,” is a fraud. It worked no better than our deregulated financial system. But when you shut out debate these dead ideas are self-perpetuating.

Passing bubble tests celebrates and rewards a peculiar form of analytical intelligence. This kind of intelligence is prized by money managers and corporations. They don’t want employees to ask uncomfortable questions or examine existing structures and assumptions. They want them to serve the system. These tests produce men and women who are just literate and numerate enough to perform basic functions and service jobs. The tests elevate those with the financial means to prepare for them. They reward those who obey the rules, memorize the formulas and pay deference to authority. Rebels, artists, independent thinkers, eccentrics and iconoclasts—those who march to the beat of their own drum—are weeded out.

“Imagine,” said a public school teacher in New York City, who asked that I not use his name, “going to work each day knowing a great deal of what you are doing is fraudulent, knowing in no way are you preparing your students for life in an ever more brutal world, knowing that if you don’t continue along your scripted test prep course and indeed get better at it you will be out of a job. Up until very recently, the principal of a school was something like the conductor of an orchestra: a person who had deep experience and knowledge of the part and place of every member and every instrument. In the past 10 years we’ve had the emergence of both [Mayor] Mike Bloomberg’s Leadership Academy and Eli Broad’s Superintendents Academy, both created exclusively to produce instant principals and superintendents who model themselves after CEOs. How is this kind of thing even legal? How are such ‘academies’ accredited? What quality of leader needs a ‘leadership academy’? What kind of society would allow such people to run their children’s schools? The high-stakes tests may be worthless as pedagogy but they are a brilliant mechanism for undermining the school systems, instilling fear and creating a rationale for corporate takeover. There is something grotesque about the fact the education reform is being led not by educators but by financers and speculators and billionaires.”

Teachers, under assault from every direction, are fleeing the profession. Even before the “reform” blitzkrieg we were losing half of all teachers within five years after they started work—and these were people who spent years in school and many thousands of dollars to become teachers. How does the country expect to retain dignified, trained professionals under the hostility of current conditions? I suspect that the hedge fund managers behind our charter schools system—whose primary concern is certainly not with education—are delighted to replace real teachers with nonunionized, poorly trained instructors. To truly teach is to instil the values and knowledge which promote the common good and protect a society from the folly of historical amnesia. The utilitarian, corporate ideology embraced by the system of standardized tests and leadership academies has no time for the nuances and moral ambiguities inherent in a liberal arts education.

Corporatism is about the cult of the self. (I JUST SPOKE OF THE CHURCH OF ONE IN MY LAST ARTICLE ON CIRCE THE CHURCH) It is about personal enrichment and profit as the sole aim of human existence. And those who do not conform are pushed aside

 “It is extremely dispiriting to realize that you are in effect lying to these kids by insinuating that this diet of corporate reading programs and standardized tests are preparing them for anything,” said this teacher, who feared he would suffer reprisals from school administrators if they knew he was speaking out. “It is even more dispiriting to know that your livelihood depends increasingly on maintaining this lie. You have to ask yourself why are hedge fund managers suddenly so interested in the education of the urban poor? The main purpose of the testing craze is not to grade the students but to grade the teacher.”

“I cannot say for certain—not with the certainty of a Bill Gates or a Mike Bloomberg who pontificate with utter certainty over a field in which they know absolutely nothing—but more and more I suspect that a major goal of the reform campaign is to make the work of a teacher so degrading and insulting that the dignified and the truly educated teachers will simply leave while they still retain a modicum of self-respect,” he added. “In less than a decade we been stripped of autonomy and are increasingly micromanaged. Students have been given the power to fire us by failing their tests. Teachers have been likened to pigs at a trough and blamed for the economic collapse of the United States. In New York, principals have been given every incentive, both financial and in terms of control, to replace experienced teachers with 22-year-old untenured rookies. They cost less. They know nothing. They are malleable and they are vulnerable to termination.”

The demonizing of teachers is another public relations feint, a way for corporations to deflect attention from the theft of some $17 billion in wages, savings and earnings among American workers and a landscape where one in six workers is without employment. The speculators on Wall Street looted the U.S. Treasury. They stymied any kind of regulation. They have avoided criminal charges. They are stripping basic social services. And now they are demanding to run our schools and universities.

“Not only have the reformers removed poverty as a factor, they’ve removed students’ aptitude and motivation as factors,” said this teacher, who is in a teachers union. “They seem to believe that students are something like plants where you just add water and place them in the sun of your teaching and everything blooms. This is a fantasy that insults both student and teacher. The reformers have come up with a variety of insidious schemes pushed as steps to professionalize the profession of teaching. As they are all businessmen who know nothing of the field, it goes without saying that you do not do this by giving teachers autonomy and respect. They use merit pay in which teachers whose students do well on bubble tests will receive more money and teachers whose students do not do so well on bubble tests will receive less money. Of course, the only way this could conceivably be fair is to have an identical group of students in each class—an impossibility. The real purposes of merit pay are to divide teachers against themselves as they scramble for the brighter and more motivated students and to further institutionalize the idiot notion of standardized tests. There is a certain diabolical intelligence at work in both of these.”

“If the Bloomberg administration can be said to have succeeded in anything,” he said, “they have succeeded in turning schools into stress factories where teachers are running around wondering if it’s possible to please their principals and if their school will be open a year from now, if their union will still be there to offer some kind of protection, if they will still have jobs next year. This is not how you run a school system. It’s how you destroy one. The reformers and their friends in the media have created a Manichean world of bad teachers and effective teachers. In this alternative universe there are no other factors. Or, all other factors—poverty, depraved parents, mental illness and malnutrition—are all excuses of the Bad Teacher that can be overcome by hard work and the Effective Teacher.”

The truly educated become conscious. They become self-aware. They do not lie to themselves. They do not pretend that fraud is moral or that corporate greed is good. They do not claim that the demands of the marketplace can morally justify the hunger of children or denial of medical care to the sick. They do not throw 6 million families from their homes as the cost of doing business. Thought is a dialogue with one’s inner self. Those who think ask questions, questions those in authority do not want asked. They remember who we are, where we come from and where we should go. They remain eternally sceptical and distrustful of power. And they know that this moral independence is the only protection from the radical evil that results from collective unconsciousness. The capacity to think is the only bulwark against any centralized authority that seeks to impose mindless obedience. There is a huge difference, as Socrates understood, between teaching people what to think and teaching them how to think. Those who are endowed with a moral conscience refuse to commit crimes, even those sanctioned by the corporate state, because they do not in the end want to live with criminals—themselves.

 “It is better to be at odds with the whole world than, being one, to be at odds with myself,” Socrates said.

Those who can ask the right questions are armed with the capacity to make a moral choice, to defend the good in the face of outside pressure. And this is why the philosopher Immanuel Kant puts the duties we have to ourselves before the duties we have to others. The standard for Kant is not the biblical idea of self-love—love thy neighbour as thyself, do unto others as you would have them do unto you—but self-respect. What brings us meaning and worth as human beings is our ability to stand up and pit ourselves against injustice and the vast, moral indifference of the universe. Once justice perishes, as Kant knew, life loses all meaning. Those who meekly obey laws and rules imposed from the outside—including religious laws—are not moral human beings. The fulfilment of an imposed law is morally neutral. The truly educated make their own wills serve the higher call of justice, empathy and reason. Socrates made the same argument when he said it is better to suffer wrong than to do wrong.

“The greatest evil perpetrated,” Hannah Arendt wrote, “is the evil committed by nobodies, that is, by human beings who refuse to be persons.”

As Arendt pointed out, we must trust only those who have this self-awareness. This self-awareness comes only through consciousness. It comes with the ability to look at a crime being committed and say “I can’t.” We must fear, Arendt warned, those whose moral system is built around the flimsy structure of blind obedience. We must fear those who cannot think. Unconscious civilizations become totalitarian wastelands.

“The greatest evildoers are those who don’t remember because they have never given thought to the matter, and, without remembrance, nothing can hold them back,” Arendt writes. “For human beings, thinking of past matters means moving in the dimension of depth, striking roots and thus stabilizing themselves, so as not to be swept away by whatever may occur—the Zeitgeist or History or simple temptation. The greatest evil is not radical, it has no roots, and because it has no roots it has no limitations, it can go to unthinkable extremes and sweep over the whole world.”

Advice for Anyone Still In School The Horrors of Public Education

How the Public Education System is Designed to Turn Individuals Into Automatons

by Montalk 28 June 2004 from Montalk Website

 “School sucks”

Most students will agree, and many have voiced their disgust concerning this abomination we call public education. They spite the good students who obey like little sheep, frown at imposed conformity, and laugh at the hypocritical nature of the system.

The same will be done here, but there is a big difference between these defiant students and me, the author. I was one of those good little sheep. I graduated high school with a 4.0, perfect attendance record, two years of student council under my belt, and a host of top scholarships to get me through college. Teachers loved me, students both feared and respected me, and the principal knew me better than I knew him.

It’s enough to make you sick. I know it made me sick. So here I am, biting the hand that feeds because it’s been feeding nothing but propaganda and sour grapes.

I’m not writing this article because of envy or spite against system-indoctrinated valedictorians, nor am I trying to put blame on my school for all my academic failures. In fact, I cannot because I was that valedictorian and had few if any academic failures.

I’m writing this article because the system itself is messed up. Having been to many different public school systems over the past 15 years, I have more than adequate credibility to make this claim.

What is taught is random, useless, and meaningless In class, too much time is wasted on useless topics.

The quality of education has been sacrificed for quantity, and as a result, academic inflation and the devaluation of information has turned intellectual ambition into apathy and bright minds into gray mush.

In an effort to be multicultural and eclectic, class curricula have become shallow and disorganized in their effort to teach students a global viewpoint. Topics are taught piecemeal, and never do teachers spend time to help students integrate the pieces into a coherent picture that can be used or built upon. And even if within a class the ideas are put together, between classes the grand education still remains compartmentalized.

For example, both geometry and physics can be mastered by the average student, but the connection and communication between the two often are not. When physics is taught in a junior high or high school physics class, it involves only the most elementary of geometry concepts, and vice versa. Without synthesis of the two, each remains without purpose or effectiveness.

Such synthesis between topics is neglected in the school curriculum, and consequently one’s experience in the public education system becomes a vague memory of random, meaningless, and useless facts, just as a disassembled engine is just a junk heap of random metal parts.

Most school subjects themselves aren’t even real knowledge. History books are full of purposely engineered inaccuracies and distortions for the sake of corporate gain and political correctness.

Much of school is wasted time

The purpose of education is to make one an independent, competent thinker, one who can make a difference in the world for the better, and one who has the best chance for survival and success in the world.

So what the hell are we doing with such profundity of pep rallies, football and basketball games, proms, crazy hair days, sex education, death education, quiz bowls, and student council meetings?

Sure, without them, school would be dull.

But, school is supposed to be an incubator of young humans to prepare them for excitement in the real world. School is doing more than it’s supposed to and has instead become a surrogate provider of such excitement, turning it artificial and socially harmful. Is your vacuum cleaner also supposed to do the dishes, trim your hair, balance your checkbook, and be your Friday night date?

So much in school concerns extracurricular activities that time which could be spent on real world activities is instead being wasted in these trivialities. The effect is the amassing of students dependent upon the system and isolated from the real world. Social, financial, and academic dysfunction result. Once again, quantity over quality has prevailed, because there is no profit for the supplier in quality. Quality only helps those in the demand, but when consumers of education have themselves been dumbed down to primal levels, discernment and appreciation of quality disappear.

Despite these problems, almost everyone is happy.

Parents are happy. Moms get to watch their soap operas and dads get to work while their kids are being babysat. They don’t have to worry about teaching morality or ethics to their children because it’s being done for them in school. They don’t have to entertain them or spend genuine time with them because these children are too busy being entertained in school functions. Moms just have to drive their girls to soccer practice, and dads toss the football a few times. Perfectionist parents keep their child competitive not by guiding them and helping them on a daily basis, but by yelling them once a school quarter when report cards come out.

Teachers are happy, as they have a secure job from 8 to 5, and the more they work, the more they get paid. The more school programs there are with federal or state funding, the more money they get. The more schools have the programs, the more funding and perks they receive from federal benefactors.

Everyone is happy, that is, except for the students.

But who cares? Who are they to complain?

Those with the gold make the rules, and all students have is some pocket change for cookies and milk. As is well known, in school, you spend more time learning how to obey and what to think, instead of and how to think and think for yourself.

Fact of the matter is that at least 3/4 of the time spent in school is waste.

Students are not at fault

But that’s not the worst part.

The worst part is that public schools not only have a crappy curriculum, they actually oppress their students by forcing them to participate in it. It is one thing to offer a profundity of shallow assignments, and quite another to make students do them.

Simply put, students are forcefully occupied with junk to prevent them from learning something useful.

Almost everything important I have learned, I learned on my own time outside school. During junior high, the assignments given to me were few, and I often completed them in class. This left me with enough time to go to the library to begin my study of metaphysics and the paranormal, to learn truth on my own and experiment with what I had learned to confirm the nature of absolute truth.

But as I progressed through high school, increasingly useless assignments were given to me which taught me nothing (and believe me, I searched for something useful in them), but occupied my time nonetheless. What was being taught to me was compartmentalized, full of holes and errors, shallow, and politically correct to the point of nonsense. Was it my duty to integrate the parts and learn the material well enough to be applied? Sure, but the sheer quantity of homework prevented me from finding time to do just that.

Quantity over quality once again.

Now I am in a state college, and it’s no different. The oppression continues, except now I’m getting wiser and have caught onto their tricky scheme to graduate robots instead of humans.

I wish I had more time to do research related to this site, to learn true physics and history, to continue writing music, and make a difference. But this time is eroded by the wasteful components of the school curriculum.

Students, except for a few genuine slackers, are not at fault when lagging in critical thinking skills.

They are not being held back by their own laziness, but by direct oppression from a system with the power to punish them or put a bad mark on their transcripts if they don’t give up their individual pursuits of knowledge in favour of hollow schoolwork.

 Overloading creates dysfunction

There are multiple consequences to this program of quantity over quality. Children are under a lot of stress nowadays in schools due to this, and as a consequence they shift into a survival mode.

This survival mode consists of taking shortcuts and getting by with the least amount of effort possible, but even this small amount of effort is too much and applied toward futile ends. Grades become an ends to a means, and the true goal of education is detached from daily work. Studying is only applied toward taking the test, but not for retention thereafter. Escapism takes hold and watching television, taking drugs, engaging in delinquent behaviour, and over-socialization result. This further detracts a student from learning what’s truly needed.

Under such stress, the student body splits into two groups: those who conform and those who fail.

The ones who conform learn the rules of the game, no matter how illogical they are and play the game to the satisfaction of faculty. They become detached from reality, from what truly matters, and are stifled in their potential as they are stripped of their inspiration, creativity, and originality. Quantity over quality matters as part of the survival mode, and there is no profit in overdoing quality when the profits of doing so are decades away in the reaping. Due to this survival mentality, thinking that far into the future is neglected.

The ones who conform become robotized and are respected for how well they fit the mould. What was once innate curiosity to discover the world is turned into neurotic attempts to escape punishment.

The ones who do not conform fall behind unless they are clever enough to find another source of education that befits them. Their grades are mediocre as they are disillusioned with the system and no longer care about pleasing it. Chances of graduation and pursuing higher education is slim, and most of these either drop out or graduate and immediately acquire low paying jobs. The price of refusal to conform is rejection into substandard wage earning.

Either way, those entering public education leave either as robots or peasants, hyperbolically speaking.

The system itself

Teachers are not to blame either. They are like soldiers in the trenches fighting a war to educate the public, taking orders from their superiors who have no idea what the current conditions are on the front lines.

Teachers are overstressed, underpaid, and restricted in their ability to respond to what they perceive in the classroom. Due to political correctness, threat of legal action by parents, and contrite school-boards scared of disapproval by a vocal minority with big political clout, teachers are confined to a tight curriculum they are forced to follow.

They are forced to teach some things, and not allowed to teach others, such guidelines set by a panel of nodding puppets with no clue as to what the truth is, let alone initiative to spread it should they know the truth. These puppets are those who design the school curriculum, who despite once being teachers themselves, are for the majority removed from the classroom feedback mechanism.

It’s the little things that contribute to an oppressive atmosphere in schools. Notwithstanding the social atmosphere, teachers on a strained school budget worry about saving paper, staples, or tape. When my high school received thousands of dollars of funding from the community, it used that money to expand its inventory of computers that weren’t even needed just to keep up with the politically correct trend for schools to be technologically current. That money should have been used for the little things, such as office supplies.

Disruptive students are put in the same class with well behaving ones, creating academic socialism whereby equality is maintained by dragging up the idiots at the expense of the smart ones. Separating students on the wrong criteria leads to incongruities and a breakdown of the system and its components. Putting them into grades by age, when they should be instead separated by level of knowledge and skill, results in academic entropy whereby the smart become dumb and the dumb learn how to waste other’s time.

Teachers spend more of this time teaching children how to shut up and sit still than to pay attention and think. Because they are very limited in their methods of discipline, teachers and students suffer as the idiotic and delinquent minority ruins it all for the rest.

Friction within the system from misplacement of resources induces hatred among its components, as each is suffering and blaming one another instead of blaming the system itself. In fact, the system is set up such that the components feed off one another in a long term downward spiral.

Teachers have contempt for the students, and often make an effort to take out aggression upon them, seeing them as the enemy and cause of their own stress. Students see authority as something to be defied, unless they are already broken by it. Teachers make up illogical rules to test how well students obey, such as making them walk a certain way through the library, or not enter or leave certain exits at certain times, and other minor things which irritate students and allow faculty to feel good when they exert their powers.

This tension between student and teacher shatters trust between them, and any teaching and learning between them enters the domain of negative reinforcement. Instead of them loving and respecting one another, they hate each other but do what they are supposed to, to avoid consequences if they do otherwise.

When you see a student, what you’re really seeing is someone low on ambition and initiative, but starving for recognition and self-esteem. This is a symptom of a system that is anti-life, anti-individualism, and anti-spirit. Compressing a wonderful human into a precise block to fit perfectly into cubicle induces the survival mode of life. Knowledge, having been made into the source of his distress, is put at the bottom of his list of priorities, as he has to do whatever is possible to regain his self esteem, recognition, and peace of mind.

However, he must do so within the confines of the system.

Dysfunction results. Instead of individualism meaning thinking for oneself and seeking one’s own truth and sense of morality, individualism becomes wearing freaky clothing, having funny hair, and garnering attention via infantile vulgarity no matter if it is for fame or infamy. These superficial methods are all that are still legal within the system. The true human spirit, however, is suppressed.

Those who are broken follow the teacher’s illogical rules and learn to trust authority over their own potentials. In this, they become a cog in the wheel. Breaking orders is taboo to them, something they get very nervous about when it happens, and they certainly don’t do it willingly. They become neurotics and unstable perfectionists who stand high on shaky foundations.

Once their individuality is broken, they become robots very good at their tasks. Many go on to college, absorb what’s fed to them well, and become academicians with a groovy little niche and nice income in their fields of research. But however wonderful that sounds, they are robots and nothing more. Or to make another analogy, they are cows.

They don’t know that being the best cow still doesn’t make you a cowboy.

The straight track

We hear stories of entrepreneurs who strike it rich after dropping out of college and pursuing their dreams. We hear stories of those who go from rags to riches, of those who defied convention and revolutionized the world.

But what do we hear in school?

We hear that these people are the exception not the rule. That is certainly true, but what the system is implying is that you are the rule, not the exception, so don’t even try to deviate from the straight track.

The straight track is what students are being taught by the system, concerning the course of their lives. The straight track told to high school students goes as follows:

You need to do your assignment to get a good grade. When you get good grades, your transcript will be favoured by employers and colleges. You might even get scholarships to go to a good college.

If you’re good in college, you’ll get a degree and have good chances of getting a good job. And with a good job you’ll have a good wife, good kids, and a good life.

What they’re really saying is this:

Don’t worry about changing the world, just concentrate on getting good grades because that is the only measure of what you’re worth in the eyes of those you’ll serve. Go to college and find your quiet niche in the world, where you’ll be secure in your job because you’re so specialized, there’s no one else in the world who can take your place.

You’ll be working to maintain the system as you’re seen fit. Focus all your energy into this specialized area and don’t worry about making an impact on the world because as long as you stay specialized and compartmentalized, we’ll clothe you, feed you, give you a good family, and bury you in a good plot of land.

Deviating from the track is abhorred by the system. If you show initiative and take risks, you become a statistical outlier, an anomaly in their statistical models, someone who poses a threat to the system because you are a seed with the potential to overturn the mirrors and reveal the truth behind this silent war.


In this lies the point of the article. You cannot be successful, recognized, or a true human being unless you defy the system. If you only do what you’re told, you’ll be no better than average.

The system has been designed by the biggest corporation of all, the state.

Public schools either turn out worker drones who serve the state and its partnering greedy corporations, or else they turn out welfare recipients who are an excuse for the state to maintain its colossal parasitic size and an idiotic consumer base to buy these corporations useless toys and poisons.

So many students are under this illusion, the illusion being that they either follow the straight track, try to be the best cow in the herd to maintain financial and social security, or else defy the system and fail miserably, ending up as a bum on the street.

You are seen as a social failure if you defy the system. If you measure your success by what the system deems is successful, then you fear deviating from the straight track because that is a sign of failure.

However, you must therefore redesign your standards of success.

Would dropping out of a state college make you a failure? In the eyes of other cows, maybe, but pursuing a better education elsewhere be it independently or real world experience would more than make up for it.

How many famous people do you know who did everything they were told and nothing more, who never took risks for fear of defying the status quo?

Not very many.


The lesson is that not only must you take risks and utilize your innate initiative, you must also get over your fear of defying the system and do so to get ahead of the herd.

You are the exception, not the rule, because you have the power to be.

Now, the robots in the system are definitely needed. We still need employees, soldiers, and scientists who are specialized in what they do, but presently there is an overabundance among these. Therefore, the emergence of individualists, generalists, and entrepreneurs is encouraged.

And the only way for them to increase in numbers is for people like you to break out of the mould and fulfil your destiny as a human, not a machine.

Destroying Public Education in America

by Stephen Lendman

Diogenes called education “the foundation of every state.” Education reformer and “father of American education” Horace Mann went even further. He said: “The common school (meaning public ones) is the greatest discovery ever made by man.” He called it the “great equalizer” that was “common” to all, and as Massachusetts Secretary of Education founded the first board of education and teacher training college in the state where the first (1635) public school was established. Throughout the country today, privatization schemes target them and threaten to end a 373 year tradition.

It’s part of Chicago’s Renaissance 2010 Turnaround strategy for 100 new “high-performing” elementary and high schools in the city by that date. Under five year contracts, they’ll “be held accountable….to create innovative learning environments” under one of three “governance structures:”

— charter schools under the 1996 Illinois Charter Schools Law; they’re called “public schools of choice, selected by students and parents….to take responsible risks and create new, innovative and more flexible ways of educating children within the public school system;” in 1997, the Illinois General Assembly approved 60 state charter schools; Chicago was authorized 30, the suburbs 15 more, and 15 others downstate. The city bends the rules by operating about 53 charter “campuses” and lots more are planned.
Charter schools aren’t magnet ones that require students in some cases to have special skills or pass admissions tests. However, they have specific organizing themes and educational philosophies and may target certain learning problems, development needs, or educational possibilities. In all states, they’re legislatively authorized; near-autonomous in their operations; free to choose their students and exclude unwanted ones; and up to now are quasi-public with no religious affiliation. Administration and corporate schemes assure they won’t stay that way because that’s the sinister plan. More on that below.

George Bush praised these schools last April when he declared April 29 through May 5 National Charter Schools Week. He said they provide more “choice,” are a “valuable educational alternative,” and he thanked “educational entrepreneurs for supporting” these schools around the country.

Here’s what the president praised. Lisa Delpit is executive director of the Centre for Urban Education & Innovation. In her capacity, she studies charter school performance and cited evidence from a 2005 Department of Education report. Her conclusion: “charter schools….are less likely than public schools to meet state education goals.” Case study examples in five states showed they underperform, and are “less likely than traditional public (ones) to employ teachers meeting state certification standards.”

Other underperformance evidence came from an unexpected source – an October 1994 Money magazine report on 70 public and private schools. It concluded that “students who attend the best public schools outperform most private school students, that the best public schools offer a more challenging curriculum than most private schools, and that the private school advantage in test scores is due to their selective admission policies.”

Clearly a failing grade on what’s spreading across the country en route to total privatization and the triumph of the market over educating the nation’s youths.

In 1991, Minnesota passed the first charter school law. California followed in 1992, and it’s been off to the races since. By 1995 19 states had them, and in 2007 there were over 4000 charter schools in 40 states and the District of Columbia with more than one million students in them and growing.

Chicago’s two other “governance structures” are:

— contract (privatized) schools run by “independent nonprofit organizations;” they operate under a Performance Agreement between the “organization” and the Board of Education; and

— performance schools under Chicago Public Schools (CPS) management “with freedom and flexibility on many district initiatives and policies;” unmentioned is the Democrat mayor’s close ties to the Bush administration and their preference for marketplace education; the idea isn’t new, but it accelerated rapidly in recent years.

Another part of the scheme is in play as well, in Chicago and throughout the country. Inner city schools are being closed, remaining ones are neglected and decrepit, classroom sizes are increasing, and children and parents are being sacrificed on the altar of marketplace triumphalism.

Consider recent events under Mayor Richard Daley in Chicago. On February 27, the city’s Board of Education unanimously and without discussion voted to close, relocate or otherwise target 19 public schools, fire teachers, and leave students out in the cold. Thousands of parents protested, were ignored and denied access to the Board of Ed meeting where the decision came down pro forma and quick. And it wasn’t the first time. For years under the current mayor, Chicago has closed or privatized more schools than anywhere else in the country, and the trend is accelerating. Since July 2001, the city closed 59 elementary and secondary schools and replaced many of them with charter or contract ones.

Nationwide Education “Reform”

Throughout the country, various type schemes follow the administration’s “education reform” blueprint. It began with the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) that became law on January 8, 2002. It succeeded the 1994 Goals 2000: Educate America Act that set eight outcomes-based goals for the year 2000 but failed on all counts to meet them. Goals 2000, in turn, goes back to the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) and specifically its Title I provisions for funding schools and districts with a high percentage of low-income family students.

NCLB is outrageous. It’s long on testing, school choice, and market-based “reforms” but short on real achievement. It’s built around rote learning, standardized tests, requiring teachers to “teach to the test,” assessing results by Average Yearly Progress (AYP) scores, and punishing failure harshly – firing teachers and principals, closing schools and transforming them from public to charter or for-profit ones.

Critics denounce the plan as “an endless regimen of test-preparation drills” for poor children. Others call it underfunded and a thinly veiled scheme to privatize education and transfer its costs and responsibilities from the federal government to individuals and impoverished school districts. Mostly, it reflects current era thinking that anything government does business does better, so let it. And Democrats are as complicit as Republicans.

So far, NCLB renewal bills remain stalled in both Houses, election year politics have intervened, and final resolution may be for the 111th Congress to decide. For critics, that’s positive because the law failed to deliver as promised. Its sponsors claimed it would close the achievement gap between inner city and rural schools and more affluent suburban ones. It’s real aim, however, is to commodify education, end government responsibility for it, and make it another business profit centre.

Last October, the New York Times cited Los Angeles as a vision of the future. It said “more than 1000 of California’s 9500 schools are branded chronic failures, and the numbers are growing.” Under NCLB, “state officials predict that all 6063” poor district schools will fail and will have to be “restructured” by 2014, when the law requires universal proficiency in math and reading.” It’s happening throughout the country, and The Times cited examples in New York, Florida and Maryland. Schools get five years to deliver or be declared irredeemable, in which case they must “restructure” with new teachers and principals.

In Los Angeles and around the country, “the promised land of universal high achievement seems more distant than ever,” and one parent expressed her frustration. Weeks into the new school year, she said teachers focus solely on what’s likely to appear on exams. “Maybe the system is not designed for people like us,” she complained. Indeed it’s not.

New Millennium Education

That’s the theme of Time magazine’s December 9, 2006 article on the National Centre on Education and the Economy (NCEE). It’s on NCEE’s New Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce. Time called it “a high-powered, bipartisan assembly of Education Secretaries, business leaders and a former Governor” and the pre-K to 12 education blueprint they released. It’s called “Tough Choices or Tough Times,” was funded by the (Bill) Gates Foundation, and below is its corporate wish list:

— moving beyond charter schools to privatized contract ones; charter schools are just stalking horses for what business really wants – privatizing all public schools for their huge profit potential;
— ending high school for many poor and minority students after the 10th grade – for those who score poorly on standardized tests intended for high school seniors; those who do well can finish high school and go on to college; others who barely pass can go to community colleges or technical schools after high school;

— ending remediation and special education aid for low-performance students to cut costs;

— ending teacher pensions and reducing their health and other benefits;

— ending seniority and introducing merit pay and other teacher differentials based on student performance and questionable standards;

— eliminating school board powers, all regulations, and empowering private companies;

— effectively destroying teacher unions; and

— ending public education and creating a nationwide profit centre with every incentive to cut costs and cheat students for bottom line gains; this follows an earlier decades-long corporate – public higher education trend that one educator calls a “subtle yet significant change toward (university) privatization, meaning that private entities are gradually replacing taxpayers as the dominant funding source as state appropriations account for a lower and lower percentage of schools’ operating resources;” corporations now want elementary and secondary education control for the huge new market they represent.

The Skills Commission’s earlier 1990s work advanced the scheme and laid the groundwork for NCLB. It came out of its “America’s Choice: High Skills or Low Wages” report on non-college-bound students. It called them “ill-equipped to meet employer’s current needs and ill-prepared for the rapidly approaching, high-technology, service-oriented future.” It recommended ending an “outmoded model” and adopting a standards-based learning and testing approach to enforce student – teacher accountability.

Both Commission reports reflect a corporate wish list to commodify education, benefit the well-off, and consign underprivileged kids to low-wage, no benefit service jobs. It’s a continuing trend to shift higher-paying ones abroad, downsize the nation, and end the American dream for millions. So why educate them.

School Vouchers

They didn’t make it into NCLB, but they’re very much on the table with a sinister added twist. First some background.

It’s an old idea dating back to the hard right’s favourite economist and man the UK Financial Times called “the last of the great (ones)” when he died in November 2006. Milton Friedman promoted school choice in 1955, then kick-started it in the 1980s under Ronald Reagan. He opposed public education, supported school vouchers for privately-run ones, and believed marketplace competition improves performance even though voucher amounts are inadequate and mostly go to religious schools in violation of the First Amendment discussed below.

Here’s how the Friedman Foundation for Education Choice currently describes the voucher scheme: it’s the way to let “every parent send their child to the school of their choice regardless of where they live or income.” In fact, it’s a thinly veiled plot to end public education and use lesser government funding amounts for well-off parents who can make up the difference and send their children to private-for-profit schools. Others are on their own under various programs with “additional restrictions” the Foundation lists without explanation:

— Universal Voucher Programs for all children;

— Means-Tested Voucher Programs for families below a defined income level;

— Failing Schools, Failing Students Voucher Programs for poor students or “failed” schools;

— Special Needs Voucher Programs for children with special educational needs;

— Pre-kindergarten Voucher Programs; and

— Town Tuitioning Programs for communities without operating public schools for some students’ grade levels.

What else is behind school choice and vouchers? Privatization mostly, but it’s also thinly-veiled aid for parochial schools, mainly Christian fundamentalist ones, and the frightening ideology they embrace – racial hatred, male gender dominance, white Christian supremacy, militarism, free market everything, and ending public education and replacing it with private Christian fundamentalist schools.

In March 1971, the Supreme Court ruled in Lemon v. Kurtzman against parochial funding in what became known as the “Lemon Test.” In a unanimous 7 – 0 decision, the Court decided that government assistance for religious schools was unconstitutional because it violates the First Amendment’s Establishment Clause. It prohibits the federal government from declaring and financially supporting a national religion, and the First Amendment states: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof;….”

That changed in June 2002 when the Court ruled 5 – 4 in Zelman v. Simmons-Harris that Cleveland’s religious school funding didn’t violate the Establishment Clause. The decision used convoluted reasoning that the city’s program was for secular, not religious purposes in spite of some glaring facts. In 1999 and 2000, 82% of funding went to religious schools, and 96% of students benefitting were enrolled in them.

The Court harmed democracy and the Constitution’s letter and spirit. It also contradicted Thomas Jefferson’s 1802 affirmation that there should be “a wall of separation between church and state.” No longer for the nation’s schools.

Nationwide Efforts to Privatize Education

In recent years, privatization efforts have expanded beyond urban inner cities and are surfacing everywhere with large amounts of corporate funding and government support backing them. One effort among many is frightening. It’s called “Strong American Schools – ED in ’08” and states the following: it’s “a nonpartisan public awareness campaign aimed at elevating education to (the nation’s top priority).” It says “America’s students are losing out,” and the “campaign seeks to unite all Americans around the crucial mission of improving our public schools (by using an election year to elevate) the discussion to a national stage.”

Billionaires Bill Gates and Eli Broad put up $60 million for the effort for the big returns they expect. Former Colorado governor and (from 2001 – 2006) superintendent of the Los Angeles Unified School District Roy Romer is the chairman. The Rockefeller (family) Philanthropy Advisors are also involved as one of their efforts “to bring the entire world under their sway” in the words of one analyst. Other steering committee members include former IBM CEO and current Carlyle Group chairman Lou Gerstner; former Michigan governor and current National Association of Manufacturers president John Engler; and Gates Foundation head Allan Golston.

“Ed in ’08” has a three-point agenda:
— ending seniority and substituting merit pay for teachers based on student test scores;

— national education standards based on rote learning; standards are to be uniformly based on “what (business thinks) ought to be taught, grade by grade;” it’s to prepare some students for college and the majority for workplace low-skill, low-paid, no-benefit jobs; and

— longer school days and school year; unmentioned but key is eliminating unions or making them weak and ineffective.

In addition, the plan involves putting big money behind transforming public and charter schools to private-for-profit ones. It’s spreading everywhere, and consider California’s “Program Improvement” initiative. Under it, “All schools and local educational agencies (LEAs) (must make) Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)” under NCLB provisions nearly impossible to achieve. Those that fail must divert public money from classrooms to private-for-profit remediating programs. It’s part of a continuing effort to defund inner city schools and place them in private hands, then on to the suburbs with other “innovative” schemes to transform them as well.

Under the governor’s proposed 2008 $4.8 billion education budget cut, transformation got easier. As of mid-March, 20,000 California teachers got layoff notices with State Superintendent of Public Instruction Jack O’Connell saying this action puts student performance “in grave jeopardy.” Likely by design.

Plundering New Orleans

Nowhere is planned makeover greater than in post-Katrina New Orleans, and last June 28 the Supreme Court made it easier. Its ruling in Meredith v. Jefferson County (KY) and Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District effectively gutted the landmark 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision that affirmed: segregated public schools deny “Negro children the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the 14th Amendment.”

In two troubling 5 – 4 decisions, the Roberts Court changed the law. They said public schools can’t seek to achieve or maintain integration through measures taking explicit account of a student’s race. They rewrote history, so cities henceforth may have separate and unequal education. Then it’s on to George Wallace-style racism with policies like: “segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever” with the High Court believing what was good for 1960s Alabama is now right for the country.

The Court also made it easy for New Orleans to become a corporate predator’s dream, and it didn’t take long to exploit it. Consider public schools alone. The storm destroyed over half their buildings and scattered tens of thousands of students and teachers across the country. Within days of the calamity, Governor Kathleen Blanco held a special legislative session. Subject – taking over New Orleans Public Schools (NOPS) that serve about 63,000 mostly low-income almost entirely African-American children. Here’s what followed:

— two weeks after the hurricane, US Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings cited charter schools as “uniquely equipped” to serve Katrina-displaced students;

— two weeks later, she announced the first of two $20 million grants to the state, solely for these schools;

— then in October 2005, the governor issued an executive order waiving key portions of the state’s charter school law allowing public schools to be converted to charter ones with no debate, input or even knowledge of parents and teachers;

— a month later in November, the state legislature voted to take over 107 (84%) of the city’s 128 public schools and place them under the state-controlled “Recovery School District (RSD);” and

— in February 2006, all unionized city school employees were fired, then selectively rehired at less pay and fewer or no benefits; it affected 7500 teachers as well as custodians, cafeteria workers and others.

Within six months of Katrina, the city was largely ethnically cleansed, the public schools infrastructure mostly gutted, and a new framework was in place. It put NOPS into three categories – public, charter and the Recovery School District with the latter ones run by the state as charter or for-profit schools.

New Orleans Loyola University law professor Bill Quigley described the plunder and called it “a massive (new) experiment….on thousands of (mostly) African American children….” It’s in two halves.

The first half based on Recovery School District’s estimated 30,000 returning students in January 2007:
— “Half of (these children were) enrolled (in) charter schools.” They got “tens of millions of dollars” in federal money, but aren’t “open to every child….Some charter schools have special selective academic criteria (and can) exclude children in need of special academic help.” Others “have special administrative policies (that) effectively screen out many children.” This latter category has “accredited teachers in manageable size classes (in schools with) enrollment caps….These schools also educate far fewer students with academic or emotional disabilities (and) are in better facilities than the other half of the children….”

“The other half:”

These students were “assigned to a one-year-old experiment in public education run by the State of Louisiana called the ‘Recovery School District (RSD)’ program.” Their education “will be compared” to what first half children get in charter schools. “These children are effectively….called the ‘control group’ of an experiment – those against whom the others will be evaluated.”

RSD “other half” schools got no federal funds. Its leadership is inexperienced. It’s critically understaffed. Many of its teachers are uncertified. There aren’t enough of them, and schools assigned students hadn’t been built for their scheduled fall 2007 opening. In addition, some schools reported a “prison atmosphere,” and in others, children spent long hours in gymnasiums because teachers hadn’t arrived. In addition, there was little academic counselling; college-preparatory math; or science and languages; and class sizes are too large because returning students are assigned to too few of them.

Many RSD schools also have no “working kitchens or water fountains (and their) bathroom facilities are scandalous….Hardly any white children attend this half of the school experiment.” RSD schools are for poor black students getting short-changed and denied a real education by an uncaring state and nation and corporations in it for profit.

Quigley described a system for “Haves (and) Have-Nots,” and race defines it. He also exposed the lie that charter schools are public ones. Across the country, but especially in New Orleans, school officials are unaccountable, can pick and choose their students, and can decide who gets educated and who doesn’t.

Separate and Unequal

In his 2005 book “The Shame of the Nation: The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America,” Jonathan Kozol explains a problem getting worse, not better. Using data from state and local education agencies, interviews with researchers and policy makers, and the Harvard Civil Rights Project, his account is disturbing at a time of NCLB and other destructive initiatives.

Harvard Civil Rights researchers captured the problem in their Brown v. Board of Education 50th anniversary assessment stating: “At the beginning of the twenty-first century, American public schools are now 12 years into the process of continuous resegregation.” Desegregation from the 1950s through the late 1980s “has receded to levels not seen in three decades.” The percent of black students in majority-white schools stands at “a level lower than in any year since 1968” with conditions worst of all in the nation’s four most segregated states – New York, Michigan, Illinois and California. “Martin Luther King’s dream is being celebrated in theory and dishonoured in practice” by what’s happening in inner-city schools. King would be appalled “that the country would renege on its promises,” and the Supreme Court would authorize it in their two above cited decisions and an earlier 1991 one:

— Board of Education of Oklahoma City v. Dowell that ruled for resegregating neighbourhood schools mostly in areas of the South where desegregation was most advanced.

According to recent National Centre for Education Statistics (NCES) data, blacks and Latinos now comprise about 95% of inner-city students in the nation’s 100 largest school systems – accounting for more than one-third of all public school students. Kozol writes about “hypersegregation” with “no more than five or 10 white children (in) a student population of as many as 3000,” and this is the “norm, not the exception, in most northern urban areas today.” It’s “fashionable,” he says, to declare integration “failed” and settle for a new millennium version of “Plessey” and its “separate but equal” doctrine that “Brown” repudiated until now.

Despite high-minded political posturing and programs like NCLB, the truth is these youngsters are forgotten and abused. They’re warehoused in decrepit facilities, curricula offerings ignore their needs, testing is unrelated to learning, teachers don’t teach, the whole scheme is swept under the rug, and “educating” the unwanted is “standardized” to produce good workers with pretty low skill levels for the kinds of jobs awaiting them. Kozol refers to “school reform” as a “business enterprise with goals, action plans, implementation targets, and productivity measures,” and above all what marketplace potential there is.

Separate and unequal is the current inner city school standard. Unless it’s exposed, denounced and reversed, (and there’s no sign of it), millions of poor and minority children will be denied what the “American dream” increasingly only offers the privileged. And no one in Washington cares or they’d be doing something about it.

Disturbing New Dropout Data

A new Editorial Projects in Education (EPE) Research Centre report released April 1 is revealing, disturbing but not surprising. It states only 52% of public high school students in the nation’s 50 largest cities completed the full curriculum and graduated in 2003 – 2004. This compares to the national average of 70%. Below are some of the findings:

— 1.2 million public high school students drop out each year;

— 17 of the 50 troubled cities have graduation rates of 50% or lower; in Detroit it’s 24.9%; Indianapolis is 30.5%; Cleveland at 34.1%; Baltimore – 34.6%; Columbus – 40.9%; Minneapolis – 43.7%; Dallas – 44.4%; New York – 45.2%; Los Angeles – 45.3%; Oakland – 45.6%; Kansas City – 45.7%; Atlanta – 46%; Milwaukee – 46.1%; Denver – 46.3%; Oklahoma City – 47.5%; Miami – 49%; and Philadelphia – 49.6%;

— Chicago barely came in at 51.5%;
— the data show public education in the 50 largest cities’ principal school districts in a virtual state of collapse;

— dropout rates for blacks and Latinos are significantly higher than for white students;

— dropouts are eight times more likely to end up in prison; family income is the main problem; in cities most affected, it goes hand in hand with a lack of good jobs and a sub-standard social infrastructure;

— key to understanding the overall problem nationwide is the gutting of social services, widening income gap between rich and poor, exporting manufacturing and other high-paying jobs abroad, and politicians and business exploiting the needs of the many to benefit the few;

— NCLB “reform” is called the solution; Democrats and Republicans are complicit in promoting it, and no one in government explains the truth – the report reveals a sinister scheme to end public education, say it causes poor student performance, and privatize it so the “market” can provide it to well-off communities and merely exploit the rest for profit.

Why else would the (Bill) Gates Foundation have funded the study and Colin Powell’s America’s Promise Alliance have sponsored it. APA is partnered with business, faith-based (Christian fundamentalist) groups, wealthy funders, and organizations like the American Bankers Association, right wing Aspen Institute, Business Roundtable, Ford Motor, Fannie Mae, Marriott International, National Association of Manufacturers, US Chamber of Commerce and many other for-profit ones and NGOs.

Educational Maintenance Organizations

It’s a new term for an old idea that’s much like their failed HMO counterparts. They’re private-for-profit businesses that contract with local school districts or individual charter schools to “improve the quality of education without significantly raising current spending levels.” They’re still rare, but watch out for them and what they’re up to.

An example is the Edison Project running Edison (for-profit) Schools. It calls itself “the nation’s leading public school partner, working with schools and districts to raise student achievement and help every child reach his or her full potential.” In the 2006-2007 school year, Edison served over 285,000 “public school” students in 19 states, the District of Columbia and the UK through “management partnerships with districts and charter schools; summer, after-school, and Supplemental Educational Service programs; and achievement management solutions for school systems.”

Edison Schools, and its controversial charter schools and EMO projects, hope to cash in on privatizing education and is bankrolled by Microsoft’s co-founder Paul Allen to do it. The company was founded in 1992, its performance record is spotty, and too often deceptive. It cooks the books on its assessments results that unsurprisingly show far more than they achieve. That’s clear when independent evaluations are made.

Kalamazoo’s Western Michigan University’s Evaluation Centre published one of them in December 2000. Miami-Dade County public schools did another in the late 1990s. Both studies agreed. They showed Edison School students didn’t outperform their public school counterparts, and they were kind in their assessment.

Even more disturbing was Edison’s performance in Texas. It took over two Sherman, Texas schools in 1995, then claimed it raised student performance by 5%. But an independent American Institutes for Research (AIR) study couldn’t confirm it because Edison threatened legal action if its results were revealed. It was later learned that AIR’s findings weren’t exactly glowing and were thus suppressed. However, Sherman schools knew them, and when Edison’s contract came up for renewal, the company withdrew before being embarrassed by expulsion.

The city’s school superintendent had this assessment. He said Edison arrived with promises to educate students at the same cost as public schools and would improve performance. In the end, the city spent an extra $4 million, and students test scores were lower than in other schools. The superintendent added: “They were more about money than teaching,” and that’s the problem with privatized education in all its forms – charter, contract or EMOs that place profits over students.

Unless public action stops it, Edison is the future and so is New Orleans in its worst of all forms. It’s spreading fast, and without public knowledge or discussion. It’s the privatization of all public spaces and belief that marketplace everything works best. Indeed for business, but not people who always lose out to profits.

Stephen Lendman lives in Chicago and can be reached at

Also visit his blog site at and listen to The Global Research News Hour on Mondays from 11AM to 1PM for cutting-edge discussions with distinguished guests.

Destroying Public Education In America – Part II
By Stephen Lendman

This writer’s April 2008 article addressed the topic, accessed through the following link:

It covered the sordid scheme to destroy what Diogenes called “the foundation of every state,” and what Horace Mann (the “father of American education”) said was mankind’s “greatest discovery, (the) great equalizer, common” to all.

Established in 1635, the first Massachusetts school began a 375 year tradition, today being incrementally destroyed to commodity education, end government’s responsibility for it, make it another business profit centre, benefit the well-off, revive a separate and unequal nation, consign underprivileged kids to low-wage, no benefit service jobs with no future so why educate them, thus putting the American dream out of reach for millions.

The Obama administration is spearheading the effort to do it, led by its infamous Education Secretary Arne Duncan, who wrecked Chicago schools so well he was chosen to go nationwide. More on his scheme below.

This article updates the earlier one, reflecting a grave problem getting worse under an administration as perverse as its predecessor, using the economic crisis to destroy, not help society’s most vulnerable and disadvantaged when they most need it – one way through improved public education for a better future they’ll be denied by marketplace priorities.

Obama is doing Bush one better, replacing his “No Child Left Behind” (NCLB) scheme with his own “Race to the Top,” using failed NCLB practices, including rote learning, testing, teaching to the test, school choice, and (short on real achievement) market-based reforms.

In an unprecedented assault on public education, he’s pitting one state against another, promoting school closures, mass teacher-staff layoffs, and wage and benefit cuts – arguing for draconian measures and privatizations to qualify for federal funding.

Addressing a Chamber of Commerce audience on March 1, he defended firing the entire Central Falls, Rhode Island High School teaching and support staff for rejecting demands they work overtime without pay – signalling what’s happening nationwide as states deal with budget problems by raising taxes and cutting jobs, including mass teacher-support staff layoffs.

(Note: Central Falls High teachers and staff will keep their jobs under a May 15 union-negotiated agreement, forcing them to accept demands as bad or worse than ones they rejected. Included are a longer school day, a new teacher evaluation process, up to 10 days of mandatory summer “professional development,” elimination of strict seniority guidelines, one weekly hour of provided tutoring, a “streamlined” collective bargaining arrangement, and dropping the lawsuit challenging their February firings. The settlement shows what teachers and staff face nationwide, especially when unions side with school boards, not their members.)

Facing a persistently huge budget deficit (over $26 billion as of April 2010), California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger just announced his latest austerity program after earlier spending and staff cuts, and revenue enhancements. Besides other vital social services, it includes a freeze on public education, including for K-12, community colleges and universities. Earlier measures included layoffs, increased class sizes, University of California voluntary time off without pay and furloughs as an option becoming reality, given the state’s fiscal challenges through mid-decade or longer.

Strapped California cities are as hamstrung with budget shortfalls. For example, the Los Angeles Unified School District, facing a $640 million gap, voted to lay off over 5,200 teachers, support staff and management. Overall, 22,000 state teachers are affected, more likely to follow.

At around $13 billion, Illinois’ per capita budget deficit is worse than California’s, forcing lawmakers to make hard choices as they deal with the FY 2011 state budget. Last winter, payments to multiple state agencies were suspended, including the University of Illinois owed over $436 million in unpaid bills, $125 million owed Southern Illinois University, and $62 million to Northern Illinois University.

As a result, over 11,000 faculty and administrators were furloughed for mandated unpaid 10-day periods through mid-June. Hiring and wage freezes followed, endemic throughout the state that’s effectively bankrupt like California, Michigan and others at a time conditions are worsening, not improving, so more painful measures are coming.

Last March, state schools superintendent Christopher Koch warned Senate appropriation committee members that the proposed FY 2011 Board of Education budget will require another 13,000 layoffs, an estimate he called conservative as one-fourth of state schools hadn’t submitted expected revenue losses, their numbers going up, not down.

For starters, it’s why 17,000 jobs are affected. According to state budget director David Vaught, “This is the reality budget. This is what’s really happening” with no choice but to enact draconian cuts and tax increases, $1.4 billion from education expected, an 11% decrease besides another $1 billion the state owes to schools.

Last March, Voices for Illinois Children, a child advocacy group, called expected FY 2011 budget cuts “doomsday” ones that include:

— $922 million from elementary and high schools, disproportionately harming low and middle income districts;

— $144 million from universities and community colleges;

— $254 million in scholarship awards; and

— $386 million in various services, including alternative education for teen parents, after-school activities for 25,000 at-risk youths, and other children’s programs.

Given a deteriorating economy, these are for starters, much like for other states dealing with intractable budget crises, cuts so far haven’t resolved nor will for the foreseeable future.

Education, of course, will be greatly harmed given the rage for privatizations at the expense of a bedrock public institution on the chopping block to be eliminated, the Obama administration spearheading it by forcing strapped states to go along. In New York, for example, 15,000 teacher and support staff cuts were announced, the same pattern throughout the country.

Last winter, the Kansas City, MO school board endorsed a plan to shut 28 of the city’s 61 schools and cut 700 jobs, including 286 teachers. In Michigan, an “Excellent Schools Detroit” program calls for closing 70 public schools, replacing them with charter ones. The city’s Public Schools Emergency Financial Director, Robert Bobb, wants to charterize the entire system, selling it to profiteers.

In Massachusetts, 35 schools are at risk and their staffs, and in Boston, Superintendent Carol Johnson’s budget proposed painful cuts, including tens of millions of dollars, salary freezes or cuts, school closings, reduced bussing, furloughed days, less heat in winter, and other measures to save $57.7 million. At the same time, charter school expansion continues, to be permanent at the expense of public schools – the system that educated this writer in the 1940s and 50s, headed for extinction.

Today, a shell of its former self, this writer’s grade, junior high and high school no longer exist, a testimony to public education’s destruction. In late 2009, the city closed another six schools. More will follow given the rage to cut costs, privatize, and consign millions of disadvantaged kids to oblivion, on their own and out of luck.

According to Boston Municipal Research Bureau’s Samuel Tyler, school closings are inevitable, a pattern throughout the country in disturbing transition, demanded by Washington, reinforced by refusal to provide emergency funding in deference to other priorities – the usual earmarks for wars, Wall Street, Big Oil, Big Pharma, Big Agriculture, Big Telecom, Big Auto, and other corporate interests, the public be damned.

A new American Association of School Administrators (AASA) study titled, “Cliff Hanger: How America’s Public Schools Continue to Feel the Impact of the Economic Downturn” highlights the problem, based on a March 2010 survey of 453 school administrators.

It showed school districts more strapped than in the previous two years. More than two-thirds cut staff in 2009-10, and 90% plan them in 2010-11. The same holds for benefits, affecting health care, pensions, libraries, and other educational tools and supplies. In addition, class sizes will be increased, and discretionary programs cut or eliminated like music, other arts, physical education and sports. In some districts, consideration is being given for a four-day week, and lower-paid temps replacing full-time teachers.

Further, Washington’s proposed FY 2011 budget has new funding guidelines for low-income concentration schools, based on “performance,” not need, or in other words, obey (bogus on their face) federal mandates, be judged by the results, and lose out if disobey or fair poorly – the idea being to rig the game to assure a new profit-driven, reactionary, class-based system. Poor families needn’t apply, nor unions, teachers wanting good pay, benefits, and job security, and others with progressive ideas about an egalitarian America heading for extinction on the altar of marketplace education replacing an earlier nation now gone.

It’s showing up in expected hundreds of thousands of lost teacher and support staff jobs, a virtual blizzard of pink slips from New York to California with many more in prospect – as many as 300,000 near-term, according to Education Secretary Arne Duncan.

As Chicago Public Schools CEO, he wrecked them by closures, teacher firings, budget cuts, militarizing city high schools, and privatizations, including nearly 100 quasi-private charter schools, many run by for-profit companies. He plans the same for America, why Obama tapped him to destroy a 375 year tradition, replacing it with marketplace inequality.

Stephen Lendman lives in Chicago and can be reached at Also visit his blog site at and listen to cutting-edge discussions with distinguished guests on the Progressive Radio News Hour on the Progressive Radio Network Thursdays at 10AM US Central time and Saturdays and Sundays at noon. All programs are archived for easy listening.

What follows are examples of the process and end product of this carefully crafted dumbing down exercise. Note how so many of your so called experts and establishment organisation’s, that you trust, are mystified, not one of them tells anything even resembling the truth as to the cause of this, – it’s just the way it is, – well how come a Scottish hill-billie can find out the cause in two minutes, why can’t any of these so called experts do so? But you’ll insist there is no conspiracy because they taught you so well! This first article deals with the common sweeping answer to all our problems – screening at a young age.

Two-year-olds ‘to be screened for speech problems’

Toddlers could be screened for speech problems after evidence that many are so addicted to television and video games that they are failing to learn basic communication skills.

The Telegraph By John Bingham Last Updated: 8:55AM GMT 02 Jan 2009

Insufficient stimulation and too little interaction with young children could have an effect on their ability to communicate properly

An ambitious nationwide screening programme for two-year-olds is reportedly being considered to tackle the problem which experts say is now more prevalent than dyslexia or autism.

The decline of the traditional family meal time, the long-hours culture in the parents’ workplaces, poor childcare with little stimulation and social deprivation are also being blamed.

Barely a 10th of children in some areas can repeat even one nursery rhyme and, in extreme cases, some do not even know their own name.

The screening programme is being considered after a review into services for children with speech problems led by the Tory MP John Bercow.

Tests could be carried out by health visitors in a similar way to that in which they check eyesight, hearing and general development.

Mr Bercow concluded that children with untreated speech difficulties are at risk of ending up unemployed, experiencing mental health problems and involved in crime.

“If children are in a home in which they are getting insufficient stimulation, where there is not enough interaction, or where communication through the spoken word is not as common or extensive or imaginative as it might be, that is bound to have an impact,” he told the Daily Mail.

“The reality is that for far too long, speech and language problems have been under-recognised.”

Two in five leave primary school with poor English, maths and science

 Nicola Woolcock from The Times August 5, 2009

Two in every five children are leaving primary school without reaching the required level in English, maths and science, despite government efforts to push up standards.

Figures published yesterday show that more than 225,000 11-year-olds will enter secondary school next month without a proper grounding in these key subjects.

Results in English fell for the first time since the Key Stage tests, known as SATs, were introduced 15 years ago, with a quarter of boys and 15 per cent of girls failing to reach Level 4. Standards also flatlined in maths and science. More than one in five children did not achieve the correct level in maths and one in eight in science.

Ministers insisted that they were still pushing towards their target of getting 78 per cent of pupils up to Level 4 in English and maths, even though only 72 per cent did this year — one per cent down on last year. They appeared to acknowledge, however, that bringing all children up to this standard was unrealistic, emphasising that just because pupils had not reached Level 4 did not mean that they were illiterate or unable to do basic maths.

Diana Johnson, the Schools Minister, said: “As the number of young people achieving Level 4 has increased, it is getting tougher to get the final 20 per cent to the expected level and we need to do more to sustain progress.” She said that there had been great progress, but added: “We should not be complacent about the small drop in English results compared to last year.

“Parents, headteachers and governing bodies will be rightly concerned that we have not seen an improvement this year, and we are too. This year’s results demonstrate loud and clear that we are going to have to ask some hard questions and redouble our efforts if we are to make further progress in national curriculum tests next year.”

Schools are to be encouraged to devote more time to one-on-one tuition for children falling behind in English and maths, in an attempt to improve the results. The Government is also introducing programmes such as Every Child a Reader and Every Child Counts, in which teachers with specialist training adapt their teaching techniques with the aim of bringing out the best in each individual child.

The gender gap was particularly pronounced this year in English and head teachers’ complaints about inaccurate and variable marking were borne out by the noticeable difference between achievement in writing and reading.

Whereas 82 per cent of boys reached the required level in reading, only 60 per cent did so in writing. For girls the results were 86 per cent and 67 per cent respectively. The proportion of children reaching a higher standard than that expected for their age — Level 5 — rose in maths, but fell in English and science.

The Tories said the figures were proof that Labour had broken its promise to raise standards in education. Michael Gove, the Shadow Schools Secretary, said: “This is the final proof that Labour, elected on a platform to raise standards in education, has failed to deliver. We have seen a historic drop in English results, the brightest students are not being stretched and the weakest are being failed the most. It is also concerning that the number securing the highest grades is declining.”

David Laws, the Liberal Democrat schools spokesman, said: “Progress in primary schools has clearly stalled and in some cases has even slipped backwards. The yawning gap between girls and boys in literacy is also very worrying. The Government has failed to get a grip on the basics.”

Teaching unions said that the Key Stage tests should be scrapped. Martin Johnson, the deputy general secretary of the Association of Teachers and Lecturers, said: “These results are further evidence that we have reached a ceiling for primary pupils’ performance within the current assessment and curriculum regime. Primary staff have again worked themselves into the ground to achieve the best results for their pupils. We know test-dominated learning leads to children forgetting much of what they have been taught.”

A spokesman for the National Association of Head Teachers, which says it could boycott the Key Stage 2 tests next year if they are not abolished, said: “We believe that the system is simply being maintained through political obduracy and that there are better ways to gain a broad picture of primary education in England. We encourage parents to ignore this meaningless nonsense.”

Tens of thousands of 11-year-olds leave primary school practically illiterate

About 35,000 11-year-olds left primary school this year unable to read and write properly, test results are expected to show today.

Telegraph Aug 3, 2009 By Jon Swaine

The figure will bring to half a million the number of pupils who have left primary school without attaining basic language skills since Labour came to power in 1997.

The pupils are those who have failed to obtain a level three in their national curriculum English tests, meaning that they will enter secondary school with “no useful literacy”.

About 600,000 primary school leavers will today receive their results in the controversial Sats tests in English, maths and science, which are used to compile annual league tables.

Teaching unions said that they expected results to have improved slightly overall. Yet critics said that Labour had failed to lift standards among the worst pupils.

David Laws, the Liberal Democrat schools spokesman, said: “These children are far more likely to fall further behind and be turned off education altogether.

“Ministers need to cut class sizes and ensure schools receive additional funding so that teachers can give struggling children the extra support they desperately need.”

Those awaiting the results face having their records tainted after the tests were condemned by teachers as “unacceptably narrow” and poorly marked.

Thousands of their test papers have already been sent back by schools to be marked again. Teachers, who had already seen their pupils’ results, described some of the marking as “bizarre and petty”.

Some of the most talented pupils were penalised because the formulaic marking did not allow for flair. Others were punished for not dotting the letter i, while some had is dotted for them by markers.

The National Association of Head Teachers (NAHT) said that “considerable numbers” of heads had complained about marking of English writing tests.

Mick Brookes, the general secretary of the NAHT, said: “We need to know whether the complaints we received were the tip of the iceberg.”

Kathleen Tattersall, the chairman of Ofqual, the exams watchdog, said that she was “continuing to monitor the quality control of the marking of this year’s papers”.

Today’s results are expected to show that about one in five of the pupils failed to reach the level four target in English and Maths.

Last year saw a slump in results for the brightest pupils, with the number of top grades suffering its biggest year-on-year drop since Labour came to power in 1997.

Teachers across the country have such little confidence in the tests that they are preparing to refuse to teach the courses in the new school year, which begins next month.

Earlier this year, two of the biggest teaching unions voted to boycott next year’s tests for both 11- and seven-year-olds, which they said have become “unacceptable for the future of children’s education”.

The NAHT and the National Union of Teachers (NUT), which together represent most of the teachers in English schools, both agreed to industrial action.

The unions yesterday declined to comment on when industrial action would commence.

However it has been suggested that it may have to begin soon after the start of the school year, when teachers are asked to start teaching material for the tests.

John Bangs, the NUT’s head of education, said yesterday: “The tests are unacceptably narrow. We are arguing for a completely different approach, in which teachers have a bank of different tests and have the time and space to assess pupils individually.

“What these results will again illustrate is the utterly inappropriate way that they have damaged the curriculum and put enormous pressure on kids, parents and teachers.”

Mr Brookes said: “Children are simply having to rehearse the tests. You can train them to jump through hoops, and they’ll jump through hoops, but that’s training, not education.”

He reiterated that the teachers would “pursue every avenue” in pushing Ed Balls, the Children’s Secretary, to abandon the tests in favour of a new system.

The corresponding tests for 14-year-olds were scrapped last year, after a disastrous marking process.

Hundreds of thousands of pupils’ results were delayed after ETS, an American firm contracted to oversee the tests, failed to deliver.

Diana Johnson, a schools minister, said that many pupils not reaching the literacy level had special educational needs.

“Thousands more children have started secondary school with a firm foundation in the basics” under Labour, she said.

Traditional subjects such as history and geography are disappearing from state schools, according to new research.

Telegraph | Nov 14, 2008

Traditional subjects ‘disappearing’ from school

By Graeme Paton, Education Editor

Many secondary schools are slashing time devoted to the humanities to make more room for “lifestyle” classes, it was claimed.

It follows an overhaul of the secondary curriculum this year.

From September, new “flexible” timetables have been introduced in all state schools, reducing the number of prescribed lessons.

Teachers are given less detailed instructions on subject matter to free up more time to teach issues such as British identity, citizenship and sex and relationships education.

But the Royal Geographical Society said the move has resulted in a drop in exposure to traditional subjects.

It surveyed 200 schools and found 70 per cent had cut the amount of time spent on geography.

Rita Gardner, society director, said the picture was similar with history.

“We worry about the maintenance of a broad and balanced curriculum as we go forward, and as increasing pressures continue to be placed on it,” she said.

Rebecca Sullivan, chief executive of the Historical Association, told the Times Educational Supplement: “There is some indication that there may be a drop in the time spent teaching history because of the way some schools are adopting the new curriculum and going for a cross curricular approach.”

GCSE pupils asked to name illegal drug: New dumbing-down row over this year’s exams

By Laura Clark the Daily Mail Last updated at 6:09 PM on 24th August 2009

Pupils taking this year’s GCSE science exams were awarded marks for simply being able to name an illegal drug.

And those taking languages were allowed to take a cue card to prompt them in their oral tests.

The latest revelations are sure to intensify the debate over the ‘dumbing down’ of the exam system.

Watchdog Ofqual revealed in March that rigorous science standards had been compromised by reforms to the exams.

But it warned improvements towards a more acceptable standard will be gradual and that this year’s results will still be tainted.

Science exams were changed to make the subject more ‘relevant’ to teenagers, but Ofqual said some questions were no longer challenging enough.

Now an analysis of this year’s papers has renewed criticism that some questions are not a sufficient test of pupils’ knowledge, particularly in the sciences.

One chemistry question asked candidates, for two marks, to give an example of ‘a legal recreational drug’ and ‘an illegal recreational drug’.

Meanwhile, a physics question asked what uses there were for microwave energy, other than in mobile phones

It comes just days before more than 500,000 teenagers across the country discover their GCSE results.

The Conservative schools spokesman Michael Gove said: ‘Since the last curriculum changed, experts have warned that science GCSE is no longer as rigorous as it should be.


‘We have seen questions that are not a proper test of scientific reasoning crop up in exam paper after exam paper.

‘It’s important we keep up with other nations that are pulling ahead in maths and science and making sure that our students sit exams that properly stretch and test them.’

The Mail revealed last month that eminent scientific bodies which investigated science GCSEs had found there are questions that have ‘no relation to science’ and that vital maths is ‘woefully represented’ in question papers.

The questions emerged in an analysis by the Tories as they announced plans to create an online library of exam papers from past years.

Their findings also reveal how pupils are not required to commit key scientific formulae to memory. This year’s GCSE physics paper supplied a list of basic equations to help pupils with calculations, whereas those taking the International GCSE were expected to have learned the formulae by heart.

Elsewhere, candidates were allowed to take a cue card with up to five headings into modern language oral examinations.

There was no literature or extensive translation in modern language GCSEs to test the extent of their fluency. The archive also shows that the 2009 biology exam contains papers as short as 45 minutes.

By contrast, the IGCSEs, which are increasingly offered by private schools, are typically one hour and 15 minutes long.

Multiple choice questions appear in the physics GCSE, but not in the IGCSE.

Only one in four students passes ‘core subjects’. Almost half a million 16-year-olds a year fail to achieve five GCSE passes that include the core subjects of English, maths, science and a language, it has emerged.

Fewer than a quarter finish compulsory schooling with the basic set of qualifications – down from nearly a third in 2001.

Tory spokesman Nick Gibb said: ‘These are the core academic subjects that are highly valued by universities and employers. The fact that the number of children-attaining these GCSEs has fallen year on year since 2001 is a terrible indictment of the Government’s record.’

The figures, obtained by the Conservatives, showed the proportion with five passes fell from 30.4 per cent in 2001 to 23.7 per cent last year.

GCSE results released on Thursday are expected to show yet another set of record-breaking performances. Pupils are predicted to pass one in five exams at A* or A.

‘Dismal picture’ of adult literacy in UK

Despite Labour’s £5bn programme, numbers are unacceptably high, says watchdog

Peter Kingston, Thursday 29 January 2009 10.45 GMT

The number of adults unable to read or count remains unacceptably high in England despite £5bn spent by Labour trying to improve the situation, according to an influential parliamentary spending watchdog.

Even if the government, which has made greater efforts than previous administrations to tackle this problem, hits its targets, the country’s basic skills will still not match the best in the world, concludes the Public Accounts Committee (PAC).

Progress on numeracy has been particularly disappointing. The government’s Skills for Life programme has helped barely one in 10 people with maths skills below the level of a good GCSE.

Even among the captive prison population progress has been relatively slow, the committee notes. Only one in five offenders with an identified literacy or numeracy problem has enrolled on a basic skills course.

The committee’s chair, Edward Leigh MP, said: “This is a dismal picture, both for the many who face diminished prospects in what they can achieve in life and for the competitiveness of our country in the world economy,”

The prison service should provide more incentives to get more offenders on to courses to improve their reading, writing and arithmetic, it recommends in its report Skills for Life: Progress in Improving Adult Literacy and Numeracy.

In 2001, the former Department for Education and Skills launched the Skills for Life strategy with the aim of helping 2.25 million adults by 2010. Two years later, it established by survey that 75% of the working-age adult population had numeracy skills below the level of a good pass at GCSE and 56% had similar literacy skills. At that time, the OECD ranked the UK 14th in international literacy and numeracy league tables.

In 2007, the government set a new target, to help 95% of the adult population achieve enough literacy and numeracy to get by in life by 2020. “Achieving this ambition would, however, only raise England to the standards currently achieved by the top 25% of OECD member countries,” says the PAC report.

An estimated 550,000 benefit claimants have poor literacy, language and numeracy skills and, despite their contact with different public services, very few start courses, it says.

The Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills (Dius), which took over the programme in 2007, is working closely with other departments to try to make sure that Jobcentre Plus applicants take up basic skills courses. This situation should improve, the report says, in 2010 when all new benefits claimants will have their skills assessed.

The government must follow up its 2003 survey to get an accurate picture of current levels of illiteracy and innumeracy, said Leigh. Without up-to-date figures, ministers cannot be sure that the programme is giving people the skills that the economy needs.

Dius has promised to boost the numbers of numeracy teachers, but the PAC suggests it adopt better recruitment methods. Latest figures show that the programme has fewer than 6,100 teachers, compared with 9,300 literacy teachers.

A Dius spokesman said the report acknowledged significant progress although there was more to do. “No government has done more to tackle improving the nation’s literacy and numeracy skills, despite the scale of the challenge being so large and historic. “We have revolutionised the way in which basic skills are dealt with, and through the Skills for Life strategy, have helped more than 5.7 million adults to improve their numeracy and literacy skills.”

Here are a few choice quotes and my opinion on the matter to end this part on education.

In school we were encouraged not to think, but merely to memorize. We were pressured to submit unquestioningly to the materialist-capitalist worldview and absorb so-called “facts” which were not facts at all, but outright lies and political propaganda.

There is no place for independent, free-thinking individuals within the American or British school systems. From the first year or grade all the way through university post-graduate work, American and British schools reward you for mental obedience, above all else. Intellectual conformity is valued above real intelligence. Intelligence is rewarded only if it is applied within approved boundaries. For those with independent, creative minds, school curriculum is a mental coffin.

“How is it that little children are so intelligent and men so stupid? It must be education that does it.” — Alexandre Dumas

All those impressionable, critically important years of children’s lives — wasted in school. Innocent souls are mutated into apathetic, immoral citizens in an assembly-line of mass-produced minds. Day after day, year after year they are steadily conformed to an evil, decaying system. Children are trained to become obedient taxpayers, flag-saluting sheep, while their corporate and government rulers, wolves in sheep’s clothing, feed upon their labour. A mind is a terrible thing to waste, indeed. 

“You must adjust… This is the legend imprinted in every schoolbook, the invisible message on every blackboard. Our schools have become vast factories for the manufacture of robots.”  — Robert Lindner

“My schooling did me a great deal of harm and no good whatever; it was simply dragging a child’s soul through the dirt.” — George Bernard Shaw

“And what is a good citizen? Simply one who never says, does or thinks anything that is “unusual”.

Schools are maintained in order to bring this uniformity up to the highest possible point. A school is a hopper into which children are heaved while they are still young and tender; therein they are pressed into certain standard shapes and covered from head to heels with official rubber-stamps.” — H. L. Mencken

A bell began the school day, a bell told you when you could escape for recess, a bell told you to come back from recess, a bell told you when you could eat lunch, a bell told you to come back from lunch. When the final blasted bell rang it was always a magic moment. All the little robots were permitted to come alive again and flee into the waiting arms of life outside. But whatever other “extracurricular” activities there might be, upon returning home our impressionable minds were further programmed by hours of tacky televised twaddle until it was time to go to sleep.

All that these people want is a compliant and docile workforce who never question their masters, in that respect I feel they have been unbelievably successful, you will fight for these people, you will die for them, you never question their motives , and even if you do, all it takes is a couple of TV shows or Newspaper articles to reassure you that it was just a one off mistake, by the end of this media examination of the “facts” once again you are 100% sure that your government is still reliable, and that the system still works just fine.

Quite frankly the vast majority of you are no more articulate or intelligent than zombie´s.

Zombie´s who get up every day, get ready, and then drive for a few hours just to get to your slave plantation – (sorry meant to say place of work) – A place where you allow yourself to be treated like dirt constantly. And all so that you can earn just enough money to keep your head above water. Don´t worry about that though, you will be offered so much credit that debt will allow you to pretend to the Jones´s that you can keep up with them. – Because we all know how important this is don’t we? In the next chapter we end this work by proving that mental illness is not hereditary. One last point to ponder: Imgine if Dyslexia was an excuse for not teaching your kid to read. I don’t remember dyslexia in my time in school.




An iconospastic man muses on why the word “priest” means “leader of the herd (of cattle)” and why the root word for “church” comes from a greek name, (Circe) a name that is describing a naughty wee lady who invites people into her home by beguiling them, where then she hypnotises them, turning them into dumb stupid animals, which she then lives off of or consumes until they’re dead.

An iconospastic man muses on why the word “priest” means “leader of the herd (of cattle)” and why the root word for “church” comes from a greek name, (Circe) a name that is describing a naughty wee lady who invites people into her home by beguiling them, where then she hypnotises them, turning them into dumb stupid animals, which she then lives off of or consumes until they’re dead.

Let´s all be honest for one second, what do you truly understand in any tangible manner about God or even spirituality?

Manly P Hall summed it up quite nicely, I will paraphrase him – “If any man can tell you anything about the Divine, in words and terms that you can understand, all that has been proved is that this man is a fraud and knows nothing, as our pea- sized brains do not have the capability to understand anything in a true sense about God or the Divine”.

What are we thinking when we send our children to Sunday school for example? (Or whatever variation for the denomination or religion you belong to).  We ourselves truly understand nothing of what is being really taught at these establishments, yet we still send our children off to be indoctrinated by these people, and if it isn´t confusing and horrible enough, then we also, by our negligence and ignorance, allow some of our children to be introduced at these establishments to some bizarre and evil concepts like homophobic homosexuals, or patriarch paedophiles!!  If you think this is a trivial matter, look around you FFS. I questioned everything at Sunday School myself, but was open to hearing almost everything. -Who went to heaven, a good guy who behaved impeccably throughout his whole life THAT DIDN’T BELIEVE, or a serial murdering, thieving cunt paedophile who said sorry on his deathbed? That was the sort of question that I asked at Sunday school – (don´t think I had mentioned paedophilia mind you because it was a relatively unknown thing in my youth tbh), paradoxically it was the church who truly educated me on this matter too when the revelations started coming out about their priests.

Incidentally and to get back on point, do you know what the word priest means?

Here´s another nugget from that fountain of wisdom that is Mr Jordan Maxwell, this was taken from his website:


As you can see “head of cattle” or “leader of a herd” denotes to me at least that we are some sort of lower beast, as you will find out, quite a lot of the institutions I will refer to in my later and already in my previous efforts describe us (the people) in these derogatory terms. Like our leaders, our laws and our religions. Quote taken from Webster´s dictionary.

Currently the people brought up as Christian, and the people who were raised as Muslims, and also including those who are Jewish, are for all intensive purposes, ALL involved in a conflict,- one that began with what you were first taught at a Sunday school (or derivative thereof depending on circumstances) that has collectively affected our beliefs so much, that the idea sending your sons and daughters to die fighting these people, not only doesn’t sound ludicrous, to many it will seem like the Christian thing to do (or your own derivative). Don´t you think the Jihadist´s family is thinking the same thing? Or the Zionists? It boils down to whose God is “more” right, and low and behold, as it turns out in this case, they ALL have the same God! – Logic alone tells me (surely you too?) that something is SERIOUSLY wrong with this state of affairs.

Where do we get the word “Church?” from?

In ancient Greece there was the legend an old women known as mother Circe, she would entice people into her home, once inside she would beguile and hypnotise them, turning them into farm animals like pigs, then she would feed on them. According to my good friend Jordan, mother Circe became mother Kirk, which in turn became mother Church. Now it is mother church who hypnotizes people, then brings them into her house, and who then feeds off of them, – just as mother Circe used to do before.


In Scotland it is just as ridiculous; we argue and fight over Protestant or Catholic supremacy (Scotland’s secret shame as it is called).  Thousands of these morons are more than willing to harm one another over a religious belief, what gets me really wound up about it, is this, when was the last time most of these people actually set foot inside a church or chapel, where it wasn´t for (as my dad used to say) Hatches, Matches or Despatches?  (Births, Marriages, and Deaths) – It is madness of the highest calibre, these braying morons will fight over a man who supposedly preached in such situations to turn the other cheek, yet it is always the last thing any of these people will do, surely no matter what your beliefs are you can see the sheer lunacy of this behaviour. Why would we ever knowingly introduce an innocent wee soul to this ideology of hatred and filth?

Two more points, has no-one else noticed apart from me that God only speaks to nutcases and fanatics anyway?

And also, if God is an environmentalist why doesn´t he just shout “I´m here. FUCKING Behave!” – Think of all the trees that wouldn´t need to be chopped down for Bibles, Korans, Torahs, etc. 

My view on this matter was thus, (though admittedly not so well formed) – If I am expected to understand concepts like religion enough that one day I may choose to lay my life down for these beliefs, surely that must mean that my fragile mind can grasp other things too? It was like so many aspects of my formative years, on one hand I was expected to understand complex ideas or issues, next thing I am treated like a noisy nobody who can´t understand anything.

Shouldn´t you or I either go the whole hog with the “truth” or not at all? Otherwise all you’re really learning is, – tell the truth – unless it doesn´t suit your needs. 

Not one of the first lessons we should be teaching our children, (or yourself) wouldn´t you agree?

I can imagine a few religious type people screaming at a page over that statement, look I am not talking about making any child grow up too quickly, or robbing children of their innocence before they have enjoyed it; in fact listening to children discussing matters makes me genuinely happy.  Their honesty and innocence gives them absolutely no fear in tackling any subject, which is like music to hear, no matter how old the lips who uttered the words.  They carry no baggage and rarely choose opinions to suit agendas (unless of course that opinion allows them to have a wee bit more chocolate, a few more pushes on a swing, or has anything to do with staying up a little later to watch TV, in these circumstances even children will learn quite young how to lie a little in order to get what they want, though they are hardly convincing at it, even if they are endearing).

Ultimately we get back only what we have dished out all that time. Initially though it was YOU and I who taught them how to lie, they didn´t know how to, – remember that fact.

I certainly don´t wish to make them old before their time. I´d lay down my life to protect that.  – My point is this;

WE need to understand things a lot more than WE do by the time WE reach adulthood in order to better communicate things to children. Only when we have truly been honest to ourselves can we ever hope to be honest with them, if we break this cycle, which I personally believe is easier to accomplish than people realise, only then can we begin to pass on the truth to our children. No money, not that much effort, and most importantly no one is harmed, if you know one, please tell me an easier way that you can imagine for changing everything for the better without need for another war?

If you truly understood that which you were explaining to them, then your answer would never be “That´s the way it is” or “Because I say so”. This switching on and off your relationship with your offspring cannot be good, on the other hand if the child understands the real reasons why (even if you do have to take a little more time in order to explain it in a way that they understand) not only do they learn a lesson they will implement in their own lives, but pretty soon they will also learn to think for themselves, which in case you´re not aware is the best start ANY parent can give to their offspring.  Note – (They will also leave home quicker too, if you don´t give them the facts and then allow them to work other things out for themselves, you´ll never teach them to be independent, which means they´ll always be reliant on you or someone else for everything.)

That´s probably the first thing I have said that will mean anything to many of you who are reading this I bet, simply because it is a truism that affects their purses or wallets.

You’d best go and lean on whatever church you’re being sucked dry by for some solace –













“One of the few things on which all scholars are agreed concerning New Age is that it is difficult to define. Often, the definition given actually reflects the background of the scholar giving the definition.

Thus, the New Ager views New Age as a revolutionary period of history dictated by the stars; the Christian apologist has often defined new age as a cult; the historian of ideas understands it as a manifestation of the perennial tradition; the philosopher sees New Age as a monistic or holistic worldview; the sociologist describes New Age as a new religious movement (NRM); while the psychologist describes it as a form of narcissism.” – Religious studies scholar Daren Kemp, 2004.

Also from the same wiki article on the new age – “According to scholar Nevill Drury, the New Age has a “tangible history”,[28] although Hanegraaff expressed the view that most New Agers were “surprisingly ignorant about the actual historical roots of their beliefs”.

[29] As a form of Western esotericism,[30] the New Age has antecedents that stretch back to southern Europe in Late Antiquity.[31]Following the Age of Enlightenment in 18th century Europe, new esoteric ideas developed in response to the development of scientific rationality.

This new esoteric trend is termed occultism by scholars, and it was this occultism which would be a key factor in the development of the worldview from which the New Age emerged.[32]

One of the earliest influences on the New Age was the Swedish 18th century Christian mystic Emanuel Swedenborg, who professed the ability to communicate with angels, demons, and spirits.

Swedenborg’s attempt to unite science and religion and his prediction of a coming era in particular have been cited as ways in which he prefigured the New Age movement.


Another early influence was the late 17th and early 18th century German physician and hypnotist Franz Mesmer, who claimed the existence of a force known as “animal magnetism” running through the human body.[34]

The establishment of Spiritualism, an occult religion influenced by both Swedenborgianism and Mesmerism, in the U.S. during the 1840s has also been identified as a precursor to the New Age movement, in particular through its rejection of established Christianity, its claims to representing a scientific approach to religion, and its emphasis on channeling spirit entities.[35]

A further major influence on the New Age was the Theosophical Society, an occult group co-founded by the Russian Helena Blavatsky in the late 19th century. In her books Isis Unveiled (1877) and The Secret Doctrine (1888), Blavatsky claimed that her Society was conveying the essence of all world religions, and it thus emphasized a focus on comparative religion.[36]

Another was New Thought, which developed in late nineteenth century New England as a Christian-oriented healing movement before spreading throughout the United States.[37] Drury also identified as an important influence upon the New Age movement the Indian Swami Vivekananda, an adherent of the philosophy of Vedanta who first brought Hinduism to the West in the late 19th century.[38]

Most of the beliefs which characterise the New Age were already present by the end of the 19th century, even to such an extent that one may legitimately wonder whether the New Age brings anything new at all.” — Scholar of esotericism Wouter Hanegraaff, 1996.[39]

Popularisation behind these ideas has roots in the work of early 20th century writers such as D. H. Lawrence and William Butler Yeats. In the early- to mid-1900s, American mystic, theologian, and founder of the Association for Research and Enlightenment Edgar Cayce was a seminal influence on what later would be termed the New Age movement; he was known in particular for the practice some refer to as channeling.[40]

Another prominent influence was the psychologist Carl Jung,[41] who was a proponent of the concept of the Age of Aquarius.[42][43][44]

Hanegraaff believed that the New Age movement’s direct antecedents could be found in the UFO religions of the 1950s, which he termed a “proto-New Age movement”.[45]

Many of these new religious movements had strong apocalyptic beliefs regarding a coming new age, which they typically asserted would be brought about by contact with extraterrestrials.[46]   


Examples of such groups included the Aetherius Society, founded in the UK in 1955, and the Heralds of the New Age, established in New Zealand in 1956.[47]

From a historical perspective, the New Age phenomenon is rooted in the counterculture of the 1960s.[48]

Although not common throughout the counterculture, usage of the terms “New Age” and “Age of Aquarius” – used in reference to a coming era – were found within it,[49] for instance appearing on adverts for the Woodstock festival of 1969,[50] and in the lyrics of “Aquarius”, the opening song of the 1967 musical Hair: The American Tribal Love-Rock Musical.[51] This decade also witnessed the emergence of a variety of new religious movements and newly established religions in the United States, creating a spiritual milieu from which the New Age drew upon; these included the San Francisco Zen Center, Transcendental Meditation, Soka Gakkai, the Inner Peace Movement, the Church of All Worlds, and  (AHEM) – the Church of Satan.[52] Although there had been an established interest in Asian religious ideas in the U.S. from at least the eighteenth-century,[53] many of these new developments were variants of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sufism which had been imported to the West from Asia following the U.S. government’s decision to rescind the Asian Exclusion Act in 1965.[54] In 1962 the Esalen Institute was established in Big Sur, California.[55] It was from Esalen and other similar personal growth centers which had developed links to humanistic psychology that the human potential movement emerged, which would also come to exert a strong influence on the New Age movement.[56]

In Britain, a number of small religious groups that came to be identified as the “light” movement had begun declaring the existence of a coming new age, influenced strongly by the Theosophical ideas of Blavatsky and Bailey.[57]


….and further on in the same article…New Age theology exhibiting an inclusivist and universalistic approach which accepts all personal perspectives on the divine as being equally valid.[92] This intentional vagueness as to the nature of divinity also reflects the New Age idea that divinity cannot be comprehended by the human mind or language.[93] There are nevertheless a number of traits that are repeatedly associated with divinity in New Age literature, the first of which is the idea that it is holistic, thus frequently being described with such terms as an “Ocean of Oneness”, “Infinite Spirit”, “Primal Stream”, “One Essence”, and “Universal Principle”.[93] A second common trait is the characterisation of divinity as “Mind”, “Consciousness”, and “Intelligence”,[94] while a third is the description of divinity as a form of “energy”.[95] A fourth trait is the characterisation of divinity as a “life force”, the essence of which is creativity,[95] while a fifth is the concept that divinity consists of love.[96]


Most New Age groups subscribe to the view that there is an Ultimate Source from which all things originate, which is usually conflated with the divine.[97] Various creation myths have been articulated in New Age publications outlining how this Ultimate Source came to create the universe and everything in it.[98] In contrast, some other New Agers have emphasised the idea of a universal inter-relatedness that is not always emanating from a single source.[99] The New Age worldview emphasises holism and the idea that everything in existence is intricately connected as part of a single whole,[100] in doing so rejecting both the dualism of Judeo-Christian thought and the reductionism of Cartesian science.[101]

A number of New Agers have linked this holistic interpretation of the universe to the Gaia hypothesis of James Lovelock.[102] 

The idea of holistic divinity results in a common New Age belief that humans themselves are divine in essence, a concept described using such terms as “droplet of divinity”, “inner Godhead”, and “divine self”.[103] Influenced by Theosophical and Anthroposophical ideas regarding ‘subtle bodies’,[104] a common New Age idea holds to the existence of a “Higher Self” which is a part of the human but which connects with the divine essence of the universe, and which can advise the human mind through intuition.[105] (MY NOTE HAVEN’T INCLUDED REFERNCES BUT NUMBERED HYPERLINKS DURING THE ARTICLE SHOULD STILL WORK, OR JUST GO LOOK AT THE ENTIRE THING YOURSELF).













The global warming lie exposed in two simple graphs and less than 400 words….

The global warming lie exposed in two simple graphs and less than 400 words….

Martin P. Keerns.

The fact that these people are manipulating graphs, both with vaccines as shown in an article I put out a few days ago, and here in such a childish and pathetic manner should indicate to you that it is not an error, but rather intentional spin to try and sell you an utterly fraudulent lie. And both of these lies kill….GLOBAL WARMING IS THE CLUB BEING USED TO BEAT THE DEVELOPING WORLD INTO PERMANENT ARRESTED DEVELOPMENT, STAGNATION, AND DE-INDUSTRIALISATION. – PERMA-POVERTY.



Extend the graph mind you and, Hey Presto, the lie is revealed. Look at the temperature rise from circa 500 AD to 1000AD, there weren´t any cars about then, so why the temperature rise green boffins? As you can see by simply extending a simple graph the global warming fairytale becomes nothing more than hot air, our planet´s temperature is at one of its lowest points for thousands of years and is only heading back up to the average range that it has stayed between for the last 10000 years. The proof is before you, – look at it.

C´mon people do you seriously expect me to believe that these so called fucking scientists haven´t seen the same graphs? Will ANYONE like to seriously propose that these “great” men haven´t seen ANY of this stuff?

What caused the spike in 1200 BC? Perhaps the Flintstones were real?

As you can see, the temperature has been very LOW compared to the past couple of thousand years, of course it is creeping up, but that is part of a natural cycle, and has nothing to do with us. The rest of the solar system is heating up too. How can our use of hydrocarbons be raising the temperature on other planets? – Quite simply, it can´t.

Why would they be using lies to try and convince you about vaccines and global warming if they were both true? Why use a child´s trick to prove your point? Why are no reputable scientists picking up on this most incredible of whoppers! It´s embarrassingly obvious.

If you ever want to understand commerce you must look at the law, if you ever want to understand the law you must look at religion, and if you ever want to understand religion you must first understand one subject that was the basis and root ideology behind all religions; astrotheology.

Before I say another word I must first of all thank the great man who was the inspiration in both factual and ideological terms for the entirety of this old chapter from the original draft of the first part of my second section of work. As a consequence of, or to be more deferential perhaps I really should have said “consequently”, ha ha, – Because of the thousands of hours of hard work put in by Mr Jordan Maxwell, I now present a decent bit of work that has been gathering dust on my hard drive for 6 years. This next subject is the roots of most modern religions, which are the roots of all law, which unfortunately governs all commerce, which presently controls us all with the compassion, decency and ruthlessness of Ronald McDonald, smiling like Pennywise, with his big fuck off stun gun and clever in hand “tending the herd” of soon to be big mac’s. And all of us are tended over by PRIESTS – (HUMAN ONES, UNFORTUNATELY FOR ALL THE FAIRY CHASERS).

Astro-Theology, the “Religion of the Stars,”

If you ever hope to understand the roots of religious thought and dogma then there are a couple on concepts that you must get to grips with beforehand. The first is that in the ancient world there were priesthoods that had great power in their respective communities; these priesthoods were venerated in much the same way as we worship our religious and political leaders today. (i.e. Don´t ask us questions about what we are doing, and as Cartman from Southpark says “Respect my Authority!”)

The Stellar Cult was the first of the four you must learn about. Knowledge of the stars and their cycles has been absolutely necessary for such crucial and important issues as agriculture and navigation. Because of this the priesthoods who first mapped and studied the motions of the heavens became incredibly powerful. (I’LL SHOW YOU HOW MUCH IN MY NEXT BOOK. – THIS EARTH HAS BEEN EXTENSIVELY SURVEYED AND MAPPED A LONG, LONG TIME BEFORE OUR MODERN HISTORY BOOKS SAY IT HAPPENED.

The modern Stellar cult originated in Egypt, though it is the opinion of many great and learned men that the stars have been worshipped and mapped for many, many thousands of years before this time. Much of the beliefs of this cult were to merge later with what we know today as Christianity. The Stellar cults were the first groups to keep track of time in any sophisticated sort of way. Before the Stellar cult there was no record of time except night and day, and the wet season and dry season. With the advent of the stellar cult they began working on astronomical and mathematical knowledge and they worked it out to an extremely high level of accuracy.

Out of the four cults — Stellar, Lunar, Solar and Saturnian — the stellar cult forms the basis of many of the three later forms of worship. Even so, the rankings of importance are all similar, since each has provided what we now know today as being important parts of our entire religious systems throughout the world. We cannot know our religions of the world today without knowing of each of these four separate cults. They all provide separate and important parts of what we know today. Although they functioned separately during each time that they were exhibiting their power over the world, they work collectively today and function more as a unit, although that was never what was originally intended.

It seems to many scholars that the reason the stellar cult may have evolved from the Lunar cult was simply human error. In the Stellar cult there developed a failure in keeping time so there was needed a new heaven, the lunar heaven, which followed in order for people to keep track of time better. For the Lunar cults this was a new creation. The first creation of time was stellar time. The second creation was lunar time. The third creation was the solar cult that had not yet come into being. Moses was a follower of this lunar cult, this is why he is always depicted with horns which are commonly known to denote this fact, it is also why to this day all Jewish festivals begin at sun-down – when the moon comes out. Here on the left is his famous statue by Michelangelo from the Vatican.


In Genesis of our Bible the sun is created before the moon. In the Babylonian account of creation the moon is produced before the sun. This is because of the order of these timekeeping cults. This proves that the lunar cult was known in Babylonia before the Hebrew Solar version came into existence. In the Lunar cult it was clear that the imagery was different from that of the stellar cult, but their beliefs and religious ideas were basically the same. The Stellar, followed by the lunar cult, offers us a very clear vision of the origin and evolution of religious ideas. It is now time to see how the lunar cult evolved into the solar cult. The Solar cult, as it emerged, formed the strongest foundations to our modern belief systems.

If we were discussing physics it couldn´t realistically be done without reference to Albert Einstein, just as if we were discussing baked beans it would almost be impossible to do so without mentioning Mr Heinz. Any modern discussion on the subject of astrotheology would be a ridiculous proposition without referencing the great, studious and gentle man that is Jordan Maxwell. Most of the work in this chapter is copied directly from much of Mr Maxwell´s work on the matter; I make no apologies for that fact. I could have just re-written some of his excellent work and claimed it as my own as his one-time prodigy Mr Icke did. I won´t be doing this as I feel this would be a gross insult to a uniquely intuitive and brilliant man. For this section of the chapter I will instead be quoting directly from Jordan himself, this was taken from his book (co-authored by Paul Tice who will be able to recognise his own words from the brief summations on the stellar and lunar cults). The book is titled as “That Old Time Religion – The Story of Religious Foundations”.


In that old-time religion, the Judaic-Christian Bible tells a wonderful story. It is, in fact, often referred to as “The Greatest Story Ever Told” — and so it is! You are now about to find out why!

In the New Testament of the Christian Bible a provocative and most serious challenge is laid on the whole of Christianity. Since it bears directly on our subject, we will quote it:

. . . If Christ be not risen, then our preaching is in vain, and your faith is also in vain. Yea, and we are found false witnesses of God… And if Christ be not raised, your faith is vain; ye are yet in your sins.” I Cor 15:14-15, & 17 

Well let’s closely examine the original, conceptual foundations of the faith, and then decide. But in order to do that, we must go back not 2000 years to the birth of Christ, but 10 to 15,000 years to the birth of modern man. For when one seeks to establish foundations, one must begin at the beginning.

Many thousands of years ago in what we refer to as the “primordial world” of the ancients, human life was a far different experience to that which we enjoy today. While it is true that we have less documentation on that prehistoric world than we have on our own age, ample enough is known from the ancient writings to paint a rather clear picture of our primitive ancestry. If we have learned anything at all, it is this: “That the more we change, the more we stay the same.” And nowhere is this more clearly demonstrated than in the history of man’s quest for “God,” and the ancient religion we still keep holy today.

According to the best understanding we have gleaned from the available records, life for our ancient forefathers was a mixture of wonder and fear. Each day, just finding food for one’s family without becoming a meal yourself, for the roaming predatory animals, was a life and death struggle. But… if you have ever found yourself out on a dark, cold night with insufficient clothing and without friend or family near, you could quickly see how fearful the dark, cold primordial nights could be. And then came winter!

It was from these meagre, distressful conditions of the human race that our long history of the search for God and meaning has come.

Any evolution, at its most accelerated rate, is always agonizingly slow. But from the beginning, man’s profound questions demanded answers. When no clear answers were forthcoming from the universe, man turned inward and developed his own.

The study of this subject is properly called “ASTRO-THEOLOGY” or The Worship of the Heavens.

This is the first and only, original, and therefore the oldest and most RESPECTED “STORY” on Earth!

It did not take ancient man very long to decide that in this world the single greatest enemy to be feared was the darkness of night, and all the unknown dangers that came with it. Simply stated “MAN’S FIRST ENEMY WAS DARKNESS.”

Understanding this one fact alone, one can readily see why the greatest and most trustworthy friend the human race could ever have was, by far, heaven’s greatest gift to the world . . . that Glorious Rising Orb of Day . . .THE SUN.

With this simple truth understood, we can now begin to unravel an ancient and wonderful story. Today, as in all of mankind’s history, it has once again been told anew. This is the story of CHRISTIANITY The Greatest Story Ever Told  – (MY NOTE – EVER SOLD YOU MEAN SURELY JORDAN?)

Modern-day Christianity has often belittled our ancient ancestors who are not here to defend themselves. They falsely accuse that they were nothing more than ignorant worshippers of the sun. Therefore we can, with assurance, summarily dismiss 15,000 years of human spirituality as ignominious myth believed by well-meaning but gullible primitives. Too much of this kind of spiritual arrogance and religious pride has continued without challenge . . . until now! The time has come to set matters straight. First, no people of the ancient world believed the Sun to be God. That belongs in the “disinformation file.”

In point of fact, every ancient culture and nation on Earth have all used the Sun as the most logically appropriate symbol to represent the Glory of the unseen Creator of the heavens.

Old Testament: “The heavens are declaring the Glory of God.”Ps 19:1

  New Testament: “Jesus is the Glory of God.” 2 Cor 4:6

 Old Testament: “The SUN of Righteousness will arise!” Mal 4:2

  New Testament: “God’s Son … he is risen!”Matt 4:16

 The “Greatest Story” went something like this…The ancient peoples reasoned that no one

on Earth could ever lay claim of ownership to the Great Orb of Day. It must belong to the unseen Creator of the universe. It became, figuratively speaking, not man’s, but “GOD’S SUN.” Truly, “God’s Sun was … THE “LIGHT OF THE WORLD.”

As stated before, in the dark cold of night man realized his utter vulnerability to the elements. Each night, mankind was forced to wait for the “RISING of THE SUN” to chase away the physical and mental insecurity brought on by the darkness. Therefore, the morning Sun focused man’s attention on heavenly dependents for his frail, short existence on Earth. And in doing so, it became the appropriate symbol of divine benevolence from heaven.

So just as a small fire brought limited light into man’s own little world of darkness, likewise, the Great Fire of Day served the whole Earth with its heavenly presence. For this reason, it was said at Deuteronomy 4:24 and Hebrews 12:29 that the God of the Bible was a “Consuming Fire” in heaven. And so He was!

For the LORD thy God is a consuming fire, even a jealous God. Deut 4:24                         

For our God is a consuming fire. Heb 12:29

 It was accepted by all that man was bound to a life on Earth, but the sky was the abode of God’s Sun. He resides “up there” in “HEAVEN.”

Ancient man saw in his male offspring his own image and likeness, and his own existence as a father was proved by the person of his son. It was assumed that “God’s Sun” was but a visible representative of the unseen Creator in heaven. So it was said, “When you have seen the Sun, you have seen the Father.” Said another way, “THE FATHER IS GLORIFIED IN HIS SUN.”

Ancient man had no problem understanding that all life on Earth depended directly on life-giving energy from the Sun. Consequently, all life was lost without the Sun. It followed that “God’s Sun” was nothing less than “OUR VERY SAVIOR.”

Since energy from the Sun gave life and we sustained our very existence by taking energy in from our food — which came directly from God’s Sun — the Sun must give up its life-supporting energy so that we may continue to live. “GOD’S SUN MUST GIVE HIS LIFE FOR US TO LIVE.”

While it was plainly true that our life came from and was sustained each day by “Our Saviour . . . God’s Sun,” it was and would be true only as long as the Sun would return each morning. Our hope of salvation would be secure only in a “RISEN SAVIOR.” For if he did not rise from his grave of darkness, all would be lost. All the world waited for His “IMMINENT RETURN” . . . each morning! The Father would never leave us at the mercy of this world of darkness. The Heavenly promise was surely that. . . “HE WOULD COME AGAIN” … to light our path and save those lost in the darkness.

Logically, even if man himself died, as long as the Sun comes up each day, life on Earth will continue forever. Therefore, it was said in the ancient texts that everlasting life was “the gift” that the Father gives through his Sun. For . . .”GOD SO LOVED THE WORLD, THAT HE GAVE HIS ONLY BEGOTTEN SUN, THAT WE MAY HAVE LIFE EVERLASTING” … on Earth! Not for you personally — but ON EARTH . . . everlasting life!

Since evil and harm lurked at every turn in the fearful dark of night, all evil or harmful deeds were naturally the . . .”WORKS OF DARKNESS.”

With the return of the Sun each morning, man felt more secure in his world and therefore, was at peace. Therefore, “God’s Sun” was, with his warm rays of hope…the Great “PRINCE OF PEACE.”

And of course the reverse was equally true. The evil of night was ruled over by none other than . . .”THE PRINCE OF DARKNESS.” Hence, evil is of the Dark or: Devil

 It was only a short step to see “The Light of God’s Sun” equated with righteousness and truth — and evil with darkness. From then on, it was simple to understand …”LIGHT was GOOD — DARK was BAD.”

That being true, then the Great Orb of Day (God’s Sun) could rightly say of “itself” that “I AM THE LIGHT AND THE TRUTH.”

We should all “give thanks” to the Father for sending us His “Sun.” For the peace and tranquillity he brings to our life is even called “Solace” — from “Solar” = Sun.

We now have before us two (2) cosmic brothers — one very good, and one very bad. One brings the “truth to light” with the “light of truth.” The other is the opposite, or in opposition to the light — “The Opposer” . . . Prince of the World of Darkness.

It is at this point we come to Egypt. More than three thousand years before Christianity began, the early morning “Sun/Saviour” was pictured in Egypt as the “NEW BORN BABE.” The infant saviour’s name was “HORUS.”


Here is the dual god Horus/Set, Horus is white (Light) and Set is black (Dark or Darkness).

The early morning Sun, or “New Born Babe,” was pictured in two ways:

(1) The Dove —Bringer of Peace,

(2) The Hawk— God of War (who punishes the enemies of God!).

Today in government, we still use these terms — Doves and Hawks.

At daybreak, this wonderful, new born child is of course “Born Again” (hallelujah). Horus is risen. Even today, when the Sun comes up, we see it on the “Horus-Risen, or “HORIZON.” His life was also divided into 12 parts or 12 “Horus = hours.”

But now, what about the evil brother of God’s Sun, that old “Prince of Darkness” himself?  We know from a passage in the 17th Chapter of the Egyptian Book of the Dead (line 66) that in very early times a combat took place between Horus and Set, wherein the former ruined the virility of Set, and the latter cast filth in the face of Horus. In the Egyptian belief system he was called “SET.” We are told in the Bible that when God’s Sun died, the world was left in the hands of the Prince of Darkness at…SUN-SET.

It was generally observed that “God’s Sun” could be depended upon to return in the same manner that he left — namely, “On a Cloud” … and “Every eye will see Him” . . . (unless, of course, you’re blind or dead).

Keeping in mind that “God’s Sun” not only represented the light of truth, but was put to death by His enemies who could not endure the light of truth in their life, it was taught by the ancients that the very act of opposing or denying the light of truth to the point of killing it, happened in one’s own mind!

When we are confronted with harsh realities of life, the light of truth, which we do not wish to face, and which runs counter to our views, such truth is put to death by your mind, and in your head! Therefore, “God’s Sun — The Truth and The Light — are put to death at “GOLGOTHA” – literally the “PLACE OF THE SKULL,” or “SKULL PLACE.” Normally located somewhere between your ears! This putting to death of the light of hope in your mind is always accompanied by the two thieves: Regret for the past and Fear of the future.


And of course “God’s Sun” goes to His death wearing a “corona” — Latin for “CROWN OF THORNS.” Remember the Statue of Liberty? To this day, kings still wear a round crown of thorns, symbolizing the corona.

“God’s Sun” brought His wonderful light to the world, equally distributed over 12 months. So it was said, “God’s Sun” had 12 companions, or helpers, that assisted in His life-saving work. So it was, “God’s Sun” had 12 apostles (or months) who followed Him religiously through His life. Incidentally, now you know why the jury system has 12 jurors who help bring the truth to light, before the “Great Judge.” (MY NOTE – IN HIS SATURN GARB AND DEAD SHEEP ON HIS HEAD, SECRET MEMBERSHIP CARD TO THE CULT OF SATURN IN HIS BLACK ROBES, RIGHT NEXT TO HIS BLACK SQUARE IN CASE HE GETS TO PASS THE DEATH SENTENCE, JUST BESIDE HIS ARCHON CLUB DISCOUNT CARD.

As far back as we can go into the ancient world, we find that all known cultures had a “THREE-IN-ONE” TRIUNE GOD. The very first trinity was simply the three stages of life of the Sun.


The Egyptians knew that the Sun was at its highest point in the sky (or high noon) when no shadow was cast by the pyramid. At that point, all Egypt offered prayers to the “Most High” God! As stated before, to the ancients, the sky was the abode, or heavenly temple, of the “MOST HIGH.” Therefore, “God’s Sun” was doing His heavenly Father’s work in the temple at 12 …noon that is!

The world of ancient man kept track of times and seasons by the movement of the Sun — daily, monthly, yearly. For this, the sundial was devised. Not only the daily movement of the Sun was tracked on the round dial, but the whole year was charted on a round calendar dial. Examples: Ancient Mexican, Mayan, Inca, Aztec, Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Egyptian, Celtic, Aryan, etc. With this method, certain new concepts emerged in the mind of ancient man.

Since the Earth experienced four (4) different seasons, all the same and equal (in time) each year, the round calendar was divided into four (4) equal parts. This represented the complete story of the life of “God’s Sun.” This is also why we have, in the Bible, only four (4) Gospels. Of this point, there can be no doubt. Tertullian and many early church fathers stated this themselves. This is why the famous painting of “The Last Supper” pictures the 12 followers of the Sun in four groups (of 3) . . . the seasons!


On the round surface of the yearly calendar, you draw a straight line directly across the middle, cutting the circle in half — one end being the point of the winter solstice; the other end being the point of the summer solstice. Then draw another straight line (crossing the first one). One end of the new line being the spring equinox; the other end being the autumn equinox. You now have the starting points for each of the four (4) seasons.


This is referred to by all major encyclopaedias and reference works, both ancient and modern, as “The Cross of the Zodiac.” Thus, the life of God’s “Sun” is on “the Cross.” This is why we see the round circle of the Sun on the crosses of Christian churches. The next time you pass a Christian church, look for the circle (Sun) on the cross. On December 22, the Sun, going south, reaches its lowest point in the sky (our winter solstice). At that lowest point, the Sun stops moving on the sundial for three days, Dec. 22, 23, & 24th, in the Southern Constellation known as “The Southern Cross.” Hence, our Saviour (dead for three days) died on THE CROSS THE “SOUTHERN CROSS CONSTELLATION,” that is. This is the only time in the year that the Sun actually stops its movement in our sky. On the morning of Dec. 25th the Sun begins its annual journey back to us in the northern hemisphere, bringing, of course, our spring. Therefore, on Dec. 25th the Sun is BORN AGAIN. And to this day, His worshippers still celebrate His BIRTHDAY!

People wonder what a coincidence theorist is, Xmas day itself is a useful example, a coincidence theorist believes Xmas is merely coincidentally both the birthday of the son of god, and also the sun.

The sun reached its lowest point in relation to the Northern hemisphere on the 21st of December, then, it doesn’t rise a degree North or South every day as it normally does, EVERY other day of the year, – the sun rises at this exact same low point for the next three days – (the sun has in effect “lain in a tomb” for 3 days after symbolically “dying” first on the 21st). – Hmm that also sounds coincidentally familiar doesn’t it?

Then DOUBLY COINCIDENTALLY on the 25th the sun is “resurrected” or “reborn” on the same day jesus was apparently born too, – the sun now rises a degree higher every day for us in the Northern hemisphere from Dec. 25th to take us from the shortest day (the winter solstice) Dec. 21st through the never ending (6 months up six month down) cycle to the longest day (the summer solstice) exactly six months later Jun 21st.

This cycle has been rigorously observed and celebrated by pagans for easily the last 10,000 years.

– What a sheer coincidence it is (ONLY to a coincidence theorist) that both jesus (god’s son) and the sun (or their “god’s sun” to these pagans) both have their annual “birthday” celebrated on Xmas day.

It is at this point we should look at the significance of the reoccurring number 12 in the Bible. First, 13 is said to be unlucky for humans. It is a heavenly number and represents . . . The Sun + “the 12″= 13!

It would be well to get a Bible Concordance and look to see how many times the number 12 is used in the entire Bible. The following are but a few examples:

  1. The 12 Months of the Year
  2. The 12 Apostles of the Sun
  3. The 12 Tribes of Israel
  4. The 12 Brothers of Joseph
  5. The 12 Judges of Israel 10. God’s Sun in Temple at 12
  6. The 12 Great Patriarchs
  7. The 12 (O.T.) Prophets
  8. The 12 Kings of Israel
  9. The 12 Princes of Israel
  10. God’s Sun in Temple at 12

All these examples and countless more derived directly from the ancient world’s fascination with the 12 Signs of the Zodiac. “Houses” of the Heavenly Zodiac the astronomers of Babylon divided the sky into twelve “houses.” They assumed each sign of the zodiac extended its influence through a fixed “slice” of the sky, which they thought of as a house. The Sun, the great god of the day, had his house in Leo, where he ruled at the height of his splendour; the Moon ruled in Cancer, at the right hand of the Sun. The planets, or wandering stars, circled and returned when they completed one of their journeys about the sky. The other planets were given two houses, one for day and one for night. And since the zodiac divided the sky into twelve equal parts, each of these houses was also equal, comprising 30°, one-twelfth of the 360° circle.

As noted before, the year was divided into 12 equal parts, or months. And to each month was appointed a heavenly symbol or astrological “SIGN.” Each of the 12 monthly signs was called . . .“HOUSES” OF THE HEAVENLY ZODIAC. The HOUSES / SIGNS OF THE ZODIAC were as follows:

1) Aries (THE RAM or LAMB of God)

2) Taurus (THE BULL/ GOLDEN CALF or SACRED COW of India)

3) Gemini (THE TWINS / Cain-Abel, Jacob-Esau, Jesus-Satan, etc.)

4) Cancer (THE CRAB)

5) Leo (THE LION / of the tribe of Judah — Rev 5:5)

6) Virgo (THE VIRGIN / spring birth of God‘s Sun)

7) Libra (THE SCALES / Third of the “4 Horsemen” of Rev. 6)

8) Scorpio (THE SCORPION / The back-biting traitor = Judas)

9) Sagittarius (THE ARCHER / The first of the “4 Horsemen” Rev. 6)

10) Capricorn (THE SEA-GOAT)

11) Aquarius (MAN WITH THE WATER PITCHER / Luke 22:10)

12) Pisces (THE TWO FISH / Matthew 14:17 & 19)

Today we have expressions when someone dies. We say things like, “They Passed” or “They Passed On” or “They Passed Away.” The ancients said “They Passed Over” (from one life to another). And so it was with the coming of spring, as God’s Sun is “Resurrected” from the Death of Winter to His New Life (in spring). This is why Christians celebrate “The Resurrection” with a Sun-Rise service at…”EASTER” . . . and the Jews, who knew “the greatest story” first, celebrate the same with their…”PASSOVER”

With this knowledge, we now add the fact that the first decan of the astrological sign of Virgo is “Coma” — or the “desired one” — of the nations. This was pictured by the ancient astrologers as a virgin girl holding a new born babe. Hence, our “Madonna and Child” motif. So in the spring, or Virgo. God’s Sun is “Born of a Virgin.” Incidentally, the astrological symbol for Virgo is the letter “M.” “Marie” means “pure,” hence, “M”-ary … the pure virgin!

We are told at Matthew 14:17 & 19 that God’s Sun tends to His people’s needs with “Two Fishes.” The two fishes being the astrological sign all astrologers know as Pisces. Thus, we have had for almost 2000 years God’s Sun ruling in His “kingdom” or sign of Pisces/Two Fishes. As stated before, these signs are called houses. Therefore, Pisces is the “Lord’s House” at this time. Truly, The Greatest “Fish” Story Ever Told!



If you are christian today you may well drive around with the sign of the fish on your car, the picture beside it is of a pope displaying his fish-head hat, but that´s for later just be aware something fishy is definitely going on.

According to Astrology, sometime after the year 2010 the Sun will enter into His new Sign, or His new Kingdom, as it was called by the ancients. This next coming Sign/Kingdom, soon to be upon us, will be, according to the Zodiac, the House or Sign of Aquarius. So when we read at Luke 22:10, we now understand why God’s Sun states that He and His followers, at the last Passover, are to go into “the house of the man with the water pitcher.” So we see that in the coming millennium. God’s Sun will bring us into His new Kingdom or House of Aquarius (the man with the water pitcher).

Once we realize that in Astrology, each month is assigned one of the so-called “Houses” of the Zodiac and in heaven are 12 houses (12 monthly signs), then the words we read of God’s Sun saying “In my Father’s House are many mansions,” makes sense (when translated correctly). The proper translation is as follows:

Father’s House = Heavenly Abode.

Mansions = Houses.

So, correctly read in the original text, we read:

“In my Father’s heavenly abode are many houses. Yes, 12 to be exact!”

Signs measure your inherent qualities, the Planets influence those qualities, and the Houses indicate direction for them. In other words, the Houses indicate certain things, and a Planet in a House influences or activates the things indicated.

Anyone familiar with modern-day Christianity must surely know we are said to be living in the “Last Days.” This teaching is, in part, based on the idea expressed in Matthew 28:20 of The King James Bible. Where God’s Sun says, “I will be with you even to the End of the World.” End of the World??!! Yet another simple mistranslation to clarify with a proper understanding of the actual words used. This “end of the world” is translated differently in various Bibles. Some say “End of Time,” “End of the Days,” and still others say “Conclusion of this system of things.” So what does all this talk of the “End Times/Last Days” really mean?

Here is the simple answer. When the scriptures speak of “the end of the world,” the actual word used is not, I repeat, not end of the world. The actual word in Greek is “Aeon,” which, when correctly translated, means “Age,” that’s spelled A -G -E! Any library will have Bible Concordances. Strong’s Bible Concordance is a good reference work to use here. Look up the word “age” in any secular dictionary or Bible Concordance. There you will find the word for “age” is from the Greek “Aeon.”

Remembering that in Astrology each of the 12 houses (or signs) of the Zodiac corresponds to a 2000 year period of time, called an “age,” we now know we are 1992 years into the House or Age of Pisces. Now, correctly understood, it can rightly be said that we today, in fact, are living in the “LAST DAYS.”


If you study the Houses, you will be able to interpret horoscopes. Remember, just as the influence of one Planet in one Sign may be affected for good or ill by another Planet in another Sign, so the influence of Planets in Signs in general may be changed by the influence of Planets in houses

Signs measure your inherent qualities, the Planets influence those qualities, and the Houses indicate direction for them. In other words, the Houses indicate certain things, and a Planet in a House influences or activates the things indicated.


Yes, we are in the last days of the old “Age of Pisces.” Soon, God’s Sun will come again into His New Kingdom or “New Age” of Aquarius (man with the water pitcher —Luke 22:10).

THAT’S RIGHT, “THE NEW AEON”. .. “THE NEW AGE!” This is the theme of the Bible — God’s Sun and his coming Kingdom/AGE. “THE NEW AGE OF AQUARIUS.”

The Sun enters each heavenly Sign or House of the Zodiac in what is called the 30th degree and leaves at the 33rd degree. Thus, God’s Sun is said by the ancients to begin his ministry at 30 and dies at 33. This is why the highest degree in Freemasonry is the 33rd — for no one can rise higher than the Sun!

When viewing the shimmering rays of sunlight on a body of water at dawn or sunset, one can still see today how God’s Sun “walks on water.”

It was well understood by ancient man that our weather was caused and controlled by the Sun. It was a simple fact that God’s Sun had the power to control storms at will. The ancient Egyptians taught that He did this as He rested in His heavenly boat while crossing the sky. Thus, we read that God’s Sun quieted the tempest, or great storm on the sea, while in His boat.

When we stop to realize that every single king, prince, lord, governor, dictator, despotic ruler, civil and social institution, national flag, coat of arms, educational institution, military medal, award, organizational insignia, medallion, badge, emblem, citation, trophy, banner, pendant, political standard or ensign, agency of government or religion, uses the Sun as a primary symbol, then it can truly be said that God’s Sun is. .”King of Kings, and Lord of Lords.” MY NOTE – RE-READ THAT LAST STATEMENT BY A TRUE GIANT IN THIS FIELD BELIEVERS IN SHAPE SHIFTING NEWTS, RENTAGHOSTS, AND ARCHON-SATURNITES.

Here we note another cleverly disguised part of the whole, misunderstood story. In the ancient world, months were counted according to the phases of the moon. They were called the “lunar months” on the “lunar calendar.” Since Scorpio/the Scorpion is the astrological sign starting in late October, the first month of autumn, it follows that October/the Scorpion, with his deadly, back-biting “tale” (or tail), betrays the Sun in autumn, leading directly to His death in winter! And the 30 pieces of silver were, as the North American Indians would say, 30 moons of silver needed for the month to “betray” the Sun and cause His unhappy death! In relation to this, another interesting point: Factually speaking, when a person is bitten by a deadly scorpion the wound appears to be, or looks like, two human lips. The ancients called this “The Kiss of Death!” This is why we read that Judas (October) gives God’s Sun “the kiss” — leading to His death in winter!

The next point to be made requires first, a little background. Christians have always referred to God as “The Father.” But viewing God as a father didn’t start here — it goes back far into the ancient world. The reason is: Our planet was always viewed as our “Mother Earth or Mother Nature.” And since rain (the life bringing fluid), falling from heaven, impregnated and brought life to Mother Earth, it was therefore believed that our Father was in Heaven. All this life-bringing intercourse between God the Father and Mother Earth would be after a proper marriage ceremony at a spring wedding. In the area today called Israel, anciently called “The Land of Canaan,” the (sexual/fertility) rites of spring were celebrated each year in what was called…”The Marriage Feast of Canaan.” It also spells out the true meaning of turning water into wine. The Mother (Earth) asks the Sun to turn the water into wine, he draws the water up through evaporation from the sea (as the Sun does). The Sun then drops this water onto the vines which grow into grapes, they are always being watered by the rain until they are harvested and pressed, then they become wine, literally the Sun has turned water into wine, just as the Sun returns from its rebirth on the 25th Dec, passes over the equator and now starts the cycle of growth and regeneration again.

And so the New Testament story was . . . Mother Earth asked God’s Sun to draw water (from the sea) for the grapes to make fine wine for the wedding feast. This marriage feast story is over 5000 years old — 3000 years before the New Testament story was retold! Just one more case of pious plagiarism.

It is at this point we need to go back to the ancient Egyptians to further understand “The Greatest Story Ever Told.” Though all of the essential pieces of the Christian story were long in existence before Egypt, it was with the coming of the Pharaohs that the story was finally codified and became religious dogma. Though the story varied in some details from place to place in Egypt, the essence was always the same: God’s Sun/our risen Saviour was the “Light of the World,” who gave His life for us.

From the Egyptian records we learn that the new born Sun, Horus, was given the title “The Logos,” which means “The Word.” Egyptians further said “The Word” was made flesh and dwelt among us. (MY NOTE – COUGH, COUGH, CONTROL BY WORDS, HINT HINT) And since we enjoy only one Sun in heaven, He was said to be “The Only Begotten” (of the Father). Another interesting point not to be missed concerning Horus: Later in Egyptian history He was given a second name — Iesos, or Iesus, meaning “holder of the light.” Still later, in Roman Latin, “I” became interchangeable with “J.” So from Iesus, we get Jesus. All of this can be read by anyone in a public library!!

In ancient Egypt it was said that if you wanted to follow the life of God’s Sun and thereby “live in the light of God’s Word” (Logos), one would first have to leave his old ways of life to “Follow the Sun.” But before beginning this new life in “The Word,” one must die to the old way of life and be “BORN AGAIN.” Your first birth was “out of the water” your mother formed you in. Because her water broke and your new life began, rebirth is symbolized by coming out of total immersion in water — baptism — or being born again.

These points here mentioned are just some of hundreds, if not thousands, of direct connections that can be made between the Judaic-Christian Bible Story and the far more ancient, original Story. My purpose for drawing your attention to this literary plagiarism is best stated by Alfred North Whitehead who said, “No lie can live forever.” And Egyptologist Gerald Massey, “They must find it difficult, those who have taken authority as the truth, rather than truth as the authority.” Now for a few thoughts on the “Old Testament” Word of God.

At Malachi 4:2 the God of Heaven is described as the “SUN of Righteousness with healing in His wings.” The Sun with healing in His wings?? In the New Testament at Matt 23:37 and Luke 13:34 we see God’s Sun wanting to gather all under “His wings.” This is most appropriate for, in Egypt, the Sun was always pictured with His wings.


In the most ancient Egyptian understanding of things, mankind was called “the sheep of God.” And the great Orb of Day, God’s Sun, was the overseer or, in the exact words from the ancient Egyptian manuscript, “The Good Shepherd” — and we are His flock. (My note – remember the meaning of priest, leader of the flock) All ancient kings thought of their people as sheep to be pastured, with themselves as “the shepherd.” Sheep are ideal followers, you see, for they do not think for themselves but will blindly follow anyone without question. Truly admirable behaviour for animals, but unwise for humans. Sheep were born to be fleeced, and have “The wool pulled over their eyes.” Lastly, they end up as a tasty meal, eaten by their masters.

Keeping all of the foregoing in mind, we read again from the Old Testament Book of Psalms. At Psalms 23:4 we read that old, dog-eared, tired exhausted and equally misunderstood chestnut, used by every “man of the cloth” to put the sheep to sleep, we quote it here: “Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for thou art with me.”Thy Rod and thy Staff, they comfort me.”

“Thy Rod and thy Staff”!??? Here in the Book of Psalms the Old Testament God is pictured with His . . . Rod and Staff.

The rod here mentioned is the king’s “Rod of Discipline.” And the staff is the “Shepherd’s Staff,” or crook. Now for the correct understanding of this old verse. Any good library book on the Egyptian religion will tell you that the ancient Pharaohs were said to be ruling for God’s Sun on Earth. He was called “King of the Kingdom” and “The Great Shepherd of His Sheep.” In the hands of the Pharaoh/God (who’s arms form the “sign of the cross” on his chest), were placed the royal symbols of heavenly power . . . the Rod and Staff.

The Lord is my shepherd;

I shall not want He maketh me to lie down in green pastures:

He leadeth me beside the still waters. He restoreth my soul;

He leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his name’s sake.

Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death,

I will fear no evil; for thou art with me;

Thy rod and thy staff they comfort me. Psalm 23:1-4

In Egypt the crook and the flail were the insignia of the beneficent god Osiris, and were carried on some ceremonial occasions by the pharaoh. “Thy rod and thy staff they comfort me.”

Incidentally, Jesus is pictured not only with His shepherd’s staff but, at Rev 12:5 & Rev 19:15, is also said to. ..”Rule with a rod of iron.” And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations; And he shall rule them with “a rod of iron.” Rev 19:15 And she brought forth a man child, who was to rule all nations with “a rod of iron:” And he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of almighty God. Rev 12:5


Here is where the concept was stolen from:


All reference books on Egypt will tell you that Pharaoh was referred to as “The Good Shepherd,” who ruled with a Rod of Iron.

In Jer 18:2-6 and Isa 64:8 we see the God of the Old Testament portrayed in a different way. Here He is said to be The “Great Potter” who fashions man on a potter’s wheel. All Mighty God . . . The Great Potter???


The god Khnemu fashioning the body of one of the Ptolemies on his “potter’s wheel.”

The word which came to Jeremiah from the “Lord.” saying, Arise, and go down to the potter’s house, and there I will cause thee to hear my words. Then I went down to the potter’s house, and, behold, he wrought a work on the wheels. And the vessel that he made of the clay was marred in the hand of the potter: So he made it again another vessel, as it seemed good to the potter to make it. Then the word of the “Lord” came to me, saying, “O house of Israel, cannot I do with you as this potter?


The god Khnemu fashioning a Man upon a “Potter’s Table,” behind him stands Thoth marking his Span of Life. 

Behold, as the clay is in the potter’s hand. So are ye in mine hand, O house of Israel.” Jeremiah 18:1-6

But now, O Lord, thou art our father; we are the clay, and thou “our potter”: And we all are the work of thy hand. Isaiah 64:8

 In Egypt, God’s Risen Sun was Horus. At 12 noon he became the “Most High.” In this exalted position, He became the mediator between God and man. His name was Amen-Ra.

Ra = ray (of the sun). His shepherds on Earth were called “Priests of Amen.” (COUGH COUGH) They would direct their prayers to the invisible God — The Father — through His mediator, Amen-Ra. God’s Sun was “The Great Amen” with His Rays. In the New Testament He — The Sun — is still called (at 2 Cor 1:20 & Rev 1:7 & Rev 3:14) “THE AMEN.” At the end of prayers in the temples of Egypt they would say “Amen.”

Next, we read at I Peter 5:4 that God’s Sun is the “Chief shepherd. This word “chief is very important. For at I Peter 2:6 and again at Eph 2:20 God’s Sun is called The “Chief Cornerstone.” The word in Greek for “Chief Cornerstone” simply meant The “Peak of a Pyramid.” The prefix akro- (topmost) was added by the Jews to the already existing Greek adjective, goniaios (at the corner). In that way the translators of Isaiah rendered the Hebrew word tor ‘corner’ (pinna Isa 28:14), describing the stone which was a ‘sure foundation’ and which probably had reference to the future Messiah. … well understood by the Christian writers, was that of an important Stone which was both akro- (a Peak) and a goniaios (a cornerstone). But there are four or more corners to a building, and a stone at a comer cannot be uniquely significant — unless the stone is at the apex of a pyramid where all corners meet and bond together.

Just as the great pyramid near Mexico City is called …The Pyramid of the Sun,” so also the

Great Pyramid of Egypt was dedicated to Horus, “The Sun.” A picture of this you may see on the back of any one-dollar bill. Above the pyramid is The Eye / The Sun —The Eye of Horus / The Sun (of God)/OR IS IT GODZILLA-SHAPESHIFTER, OR ARCHIE ARCHON? lol


The New Testament tells us three different times that God’s Sun was taught by and learned all things from the Father. He was . . .The PUPIL.


Here we come to that most venerated, sacred, divinely blessed of all holy of holies, the hallowed, spiritually pure essence of God’s dealing with His “Chosen People.” That fear-inspiring presence of the All-Mighty God called …’The Ark of the Covenant.” If you will recall, in the movie “Raiders of the Lost Ark,” we found both Indiana Jones and Adolf Hitler frantically searching for the “Lost Ark of the Hebrews.” The search took place not in Israel, but in EGYPT! Why Egypt?? Simple … Hundreds of years before the Hebrew religion existed; the Egyptians had as part of their worship what they called their “ARK of the Law.” (Hinterama there’s that word again, in their most holy place was kept ONE THING the LAW – GUARDED BY – THE PRIESTS….HMMM)

Another glaring example. Smith Bible Dictionary, page 23: ARK. “A word adopted from the Egyptian.” The word for Noah’s ark is tebah, the same as used for that of Moses (Gen 6; 7; Ex 2). Ark of the Covenant. An oblong chest of acacia wood, gilded, 45 inches long, 27 inches wide.





Source: The Woman’s Dictionary of Symbols and Sacred Objects by Barbara Walker.

The word ark is Egyptian and means a chest or box for preserving things. Here, in its symbolic sense, the sacred things are the planetary genes and archetypal ideas that only the earth is capable of holding. The idea is by no means original; the Hindus had their Argha, the Greeks, their Cista, also the Argo of the Argonauts. In another myth it is Pandora’s Box. The numbers here are also symbolic. As in Revelation, the constant use of seven can have no other meaning than the septenate creative process. This is “the mystic number” in all cosmologies.

As Jordan often points out:

This is why in the movies, Indiana Jones finds the Holy Ark in EGYPT, and not the so-called “Holy Land” of Israel.”

There are hundreds more of such blatantly obvious examples of early religious thievery purposely hidden from view.

At Exodus 16:13-15 we are told that God fed Moses and His chosen people with manna from heaven, “when the morning dew that lay on the ground was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a small round thing. And when the children of Israel saw it they said ‘it is manna from heaven.”‘Upon further investigation, we find that “small round thing” was, in fact, hallucinogenic mushrooms — the psychedelic drug commonly found and used to this day in the middle-east.

In Genesis 17:10-11 we are told that God demanded circumcision of all males as a symbol of His covenant with His people. However, circumcision was practiced by almost all ancient cultures thousands of years before Genesis was written. The actual historical purpose for the ancient ritual of circumcision was to promote sex worship. There was never anything holy about circumcising the male penis. It was purely sex worship!


In Genesis 6:14—8:22 is the story of the. .. Ark of Noah. This “story,” like so many others in the Bible, was “borrowed” from more ancient sources. Originally, the far more ancient Sanskrit story predates it by thousands of years. The original Sanskrit word was “argha-noa,” which meant “the wet moon” or “the moon at the lower quarter.” This foretold the coming monsoons, or rainy season, in northern India. There was no man named Noah or an ark. The word is “Argha-noa,” not “Ark of Noah.” Heavy rains in India normally brought floods. One has only to spend a few minutes in a library to research the words and the ancient stories themselves to demonstrate this.

Saturnian Cult

The planet Saturn was worshipped by many nations and peoples all throughout the middle-east. He is associated with the six-pointed star, the colour black, the black cube and the black square. (Which according to Jordan is why judges and priests wear black robes and you wear a black square mortarboard and robes when you graduate.) He was regarded as the great inhibitor. This is why he is associated with law, death and religion.

He famously presided over time and agriculture ancient Roman farmers prayed to Saturn when planting seeds.  This mysterious god was the potent force of life present in the combination of seed, water and fertile earth. He was known as Kronos to the Greeks, and most of us will know him as old father time carrying his scythe. Saturday is named after him. Astrological Saturn has always been associated with the letter of the law and Gnostics have identified Saturn with the god of Early Scripture, whom they regarded as a tyrannical father, obsessed with rigid enforcement of the law. (TAKE NOTE SATURNITES) There is a symbolic link between Saturn and the God of Early Scripture through the use of Saturday – Saturn’s Day, the seventh day of Scripture, the holy day of rest. I doubt many will know this but this is really why the Jewish today go to Synagogue on a Saturday, this is because he was regarded as their chief Deity back when they were still considered a Henotheistic society. His sign was the six-pointed star which is the real reason why it was adopted for the flag for the state of Israel. Now many of you will no-doubt disagree with this saying that it is in fact the Star of David. Here is a short excerpt from a book entitled “The Satanic Rothschild Dynasty” with some interesting facts concerning both the symbol and planet.

The Rothschild’s are an important part of the history of the Seal of Solomon (also known as hexagram, Magen David, six-pointed star, Star of David.) The Seal of Solomon, the hexagram, was not considered a Jewish symbol before the Rothschild’s began using it (1).

Most Jewish people do not concern themselves with learning the occultic significance to their treasured Magen David (Star of David). King David did not have anything to do with the hexagram, although his son Solomon did when he began worshipping Ashtoreth (star, also known as Astarte, Chiun, Kaiwan, Remphan, and Saturn) (2).

Solomon built altars to Star (Astarte, aka Ashtoreth). The god Saturn is associated with the Star but both Saturn and Astarte also been identified with a number of other names. Saturn is an important key to understanding the long heritage this conspiracy has back to antiquity. The city of Rome was originally known as Saturnia or City of Saturn. The Roman Catholic church retains much of the Saturn worship in its ritual. Saturn also relates to Lucifer.’(3)  In various occult dictionaries Saturn is associated with evil. Saturn was important to the religion of Mithra, and also the Druids. The hexagram (also known as the Seal of Solomon, the Magden David, or the Star of David) is very occultic. It is used today as the symbol of Israel, but it is not “Jewish.” In his excellent book THE SIX-POINTED STAR, O.J. Graham explains that the hexagram was used in the ancient mystery religions. It was the symbol of Moloch, Ashtoreth, and others. In fact, the hexagram was used to represent Saturn. The six-pointed star is considered the equivalent of the Oriental Yin-and-Yang symbol, which is the Luciferian concept of balancing good and evil. The symbol appears to have been used by King Solomon when he apostatized, and was thereafter called the Seal of Solomon. Later on, Jewish Cabalism (or Occultism -different name, same game) picked it up as a magic symbol. Through the promotion of the Cabalists and the Zionists it has become the symbol of Jewish identity, although the occult circles know better. (OR ASK MY GOOD FRIEND NEIL SIMPSON) 

An excellently researched book by a Christian journalist of Jewish ancestry is The Six-Pointed Star by O.J. Graham. New Puritan Library, 1984. This book covers the satanic/ magic history of the Seal of Solomon before its modern Jewish use. The book shows how the symbol was not a Jewish symbol until recent times.

The Satanic star is referred to in Acts 7:43, in Amos 5:25-26. “The shield carried by King David…was traditionally believed to be engraved either with the name of God or the Menorah, or Psalm 67.” Siegel, Richard and Carl Rheins. “Metamorphoses of a Tree; 10 Jewish Symbols and Their Meanings,” Jewish 44 Almanac. New York: Bantam Books, 1980, p. 515.

  1. Hall, Manly P., 33°. Masonic, Hermetic, Qabbalistic & Rosicrucian Symbolical

Philosophy. l7ed., L.A.,CA: The Philosophical Research Soc., 1971, p. CXLV.

Here´s what Wikipedia has to say concerning the astrological side of this planet: “Saturn’s connection with agriculture suggests the nature of time. Seeds must be sown at their proper times and harvest can only occur when their time of fruition has occurred. Chronos is derived from the Greek word Cronus meaning “time”. Cronus/Saturn represents limitations. He is the symbol for Father Time, for he brought all things to an end that have a beginning. Saturn’s domain is patience, stability, maturity and realism. Saturn affects us by delaying rewards until they are earned. Saturn has been regarded only as miserable and attributed to despair and darkness, lending to the thought that there is no way to escape its confines. Feelings of shame, fear, guilt and humiliation shackle us and keep us confined to the pit of darkness. The way to get out of the pit is to stop placing blame on others and take personal responsibility for our situation in life”. (SO NOT JOINING TOGETHER TO SORT OUR COLLECTIVE ISSUES AND INSTEAD SORTING IT OUT INDIVIDUALLY IS SATURNALIAN IN IDEOLOGY HMM. I’VE ALWAYS WONDERED ABOUT THE SORT YOURSELF OUT CROWD, TAKE CARE OF YOUR OWN INNER ISSUES ETC. FIRST TIME I’VE READ THIS SOLITARY STATE IS AN IDEOLOGY USED TO COUNTER SATURN’S INFLUENCE, SOUNDS A TAD DIVIDE AND CONQUER TO ME, KINDA SATURNY TBH. 

The ancient name of Saturn was, EL. It is the reason why those that were chosen by EL, were called Elites. In fact the words, Elect, Elder, Elevated, Elohim, Temple, Circle, Gospel, Apostle, Disciple, Evangelists, etc., all derive from the Cult of EL. Angels are messengers of god. But god was EL, which is why we have the names of the Archangels bearing the “el,” suffix – Raphael, Michael, Uriel, Gabriel, etc. It is where the idea came from to ring a bell in order to summon people to worship. Many place names contain the prefix or suffix EL (see Elstree, meaning EL’s Tree). Understanding of modern religion can never be complete without a comprehension of this great cult as its symbols permeate all areas of religious and even secular life. A look at corporate logos symbols makes it clear that this cult is not at all extinct. El also gives Bel, Bael, Baal and Belial. – “Astrotheology and Sidereal Mythology” by Michael Tsarion page 24

May 25th, 2009 | By Vigilant © 2009 The Vigilant Citizen from

You might not know it, but the entire world has been worshiping Saturn for thousands of years. The cult has never stopped and its rites are still present to this day. Saturn, dubbed the  “Lord of the Rings”, is the reason why we exchange rings at weddings or put halos on the heads of godly people. This article exposes the attributes of the god Saturn and the perpetuation of his cult through corporate logos.

Since ancient times, sages gazed at the stars, admiring their heavenly glow and attributing them godly powers, based on their effect on humans. Before the Great Flood, Saturn was regarded by all mankind as the supreme god and ruler of the kings. Occult researchers affirm that Saturn ruled the kingdom of Atlantis and became the divine ancestor of all earthly patriarchs and kings. The cult has been perpetuated through numerous gods (COUGH COUGH HINT HINT, – N-U-M-E-R-O-U-S) during Antiquity:

“Chronos, or Saturn, Dionysos, Hyperion, Atlas, Hercules, were all connected with ‘a great Saturnian continent;’ they were kings that ruled over countries on the western shores of the Mediterranean, Africa and Spain. ” Baldwin, Prehistoric Nations

In Egyptian mythology Isis is considered Saturn’s eldest daughter:

“I am Isis, Queen of this country. I was instructed by Mercury. No one can destroy the laws which I have established. I am the eldest daughter of Saturn, most ancient of the Gods”

Saturn in Semitic Civilizations

Semitic civilizations referred to the god Saturn as  “El”. The supreme deity was represented by a black cube. We can find instances of the cube across the world MOST ARE ON NEIL (THE HUFF) SIMPSON’S THREAD ON THIS SUBJECT  ON FACEBOOK.




Ancient Hebrews represented Saturn with the six pointed star, which later became the Star of David (it also had many other esoteric meanings). The symbol is still found on Israel’s flag.


Saturn in Western Civilizations

The Greeks and the Romans also worshiped Saturn as a cruel deity. Here’s a brief summary of the mythology of Saturn in the western world:

“With the deposing of his father, Saturn became the ruler of the Universe for untold ages and he reigned with his sister, Ops, who also became his wife. It was prophesied that one day Saturn would lose power when one of his children would depose him. To prevent this from happening, each time Ops delivered a child Saturn would immediately swallow it. When her sixth child, Jupiter(Zeus), was born, Ops had him spirited away to the island of Crete. She then wrapped a stone in his swaddling clothes. Her deception was complete when Saturn swallowed it, thinking it was the child. When Jupiter was grown, he secured the job of cup-bearer to his father. With the help of Gaia, his grandmother, Jupiter fed his father a potion that caused him to vomit up Jupiter’s five siblings, Vesta (Hestia), Ceres (Demeter), Juno (Hera), Pluto (Hades), and Neptune (Poseidon).”
-Wikipedia, Saturn (mythology)


Saturn always had a negative, if not evil significance. In ancient times, it has been called “The Greater Malefic” which was opposed to Jupiter, “The Greater Benefic”. Saturn is esoterically associated with man’s limitations, restrictions, death and decay. His Greek name was “Kronos”, the ruler of time, time being the main factore inevitably leading to the death of  mortals.Traditional representations of the “grim reaper” originate from the attributes of the god Saturn, who held the sickle with which he slain his father.


Saturn and Satan

Saturn has also been associated with Satan and this, for numerous reasons. First, many authors argue that the word Satan is derived from the word Saturn. Second, Saturn is associated with the color black as well as Satan. Third, Saturn is the farthest planet from the sun, the latter being associated with the principle of Good. (Note that Pluto never was considered a planet). Saturn is consequently the celestial body that is the less exposed to the sun’s divine light and thus associated with the coldness of the principle of Evil. Finally, the “great god Pan”, the horned deity, represented Saturn in ancient paganism. This half-man half-goat creature is considered the ancestor of our modern depictions of Satan.


“Pan was a composite creature, the upper part–with the exception of his horns–being human, and the lower part in the form of a goat. (…) The pipes of Pan signify the natural harmony of the spheres, and the god himself is a symbol of Saturn because this planet is enthroned in Capricorn, whose emblem is a goat” – Manly P. Hall, Secret Teachings of All Ages

Pan was the controlling spirit of the lower worlds. He was portrayed roaming through the forests, penis erect, drunk and lascivious, frolicking with nymphs and piping his way through the wild. We might say he ruled the lower nature of man, its animal side, not unlike Satan.

Despite acknowledging its association with Evil, secret societies find the veneration of Saturn necessary to obtain illumination. It is the necessary counterpart of the principle of Good. Masonic authors clearly associate Saturn with Satan:

“Saturn is the opposite to Jupiter; his symbol is the cross above the sign of Luna ( ). He is the Satan, the Tempter, or rather the Tester. His function is to chastise and tame the unruly passions in the primitive man.” -J.S. Ward, Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods

Probably the most extreme example of a secret society worshiping Saturn’s Evil principle is the “Fraternitas Saturni”. This occult organization is based in Germany and openly embodies the hidden side of Saturn worship.

“The Fraternitas Saturni (FS), the Brotherhood of Saturn, has become known to English readers through fragmentary descriptions which emphasize the sensational, sex-magical aspects of this lodge’s work or else its darker, more Satanic, side. This is understandable in light of the fact that the FS is (or was) the most unabashedly Luciferian organization in the modern Western occult revival, and its practice of sexual occultism perhaps the most elaborately detailed of any such lodge. The FS represents a unique blend of astrological cosmology, neo-Gnostic daemonology, sexual occultism, and Freemasonic organizational principles. This grand synthesis was originally the vision of one man, the long-time Grand Master of the FS, Gregor A. Gregorius.” -Stephen E. Flowers, Fire & Ice: The History, Structure, and Rituals of Germany’s Most Influential Modern Magical Order: The Brotherhood of Saturn.

My note – (This organization had a large part both ideologically, financially, and with the full co-operation of their extensive networks of fellow worshippers and adherants, they also contributed in an organizational respect in the formation and promotion of both Communism and Nazism. The Hammer of Thor and the Sickle of Saturn combine after all to form the corporate logo of Communism. This book quoted from above is available for free on Mr Maxwell´s site, it is indeed an interesting read.)

To Conclude on Saturn –

This article presented SOME of the ways humanity represented Saturn through the ages. The great amount of symbols associated with this obscure deity only emphasize its importance in human history. The advent of the monotheistic religions of Christianity, Judaism and Islam confined the worship of Saturn to occult circles. As we saw here, the Lord of the Rings is still omnipresent in popular culture  but only recognized by those who have eyes to see and ears to hear.

Black Cap

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In English law, the Black Cap was worn by a judge when passing a sentence of death. The death penalty has now been abolished in England and Wales, but the black cap is still part of a judge’s regalia, and is still carried into the High Court by each sitting judge. It is worn every year on 9 November when the new Lord Mayor of the City of London is presented to the Law Courts.


As a side note:

… The death sentence was mandatory for persons found guilty of murder up to 1957 and of capital murder from 1957-1964. Before they were sentenced, the prisoner would be asked if they had anything to say why sentence of death should not be pronounced upon them. A woman might “plead her belly,” i.e. that she was pregnant and up to 1827, men could demand “benefit of clergy” which was a wonderful excuse cooked up by the church to ensure that clerics could not be executed for most offences. However, if neither of these excuses were available, the judge (or his chaplain) would place the “black cap” – a 9 inch square of black silk, on his head and proceed to pronounce sentence. Up to 1947, the judge would say “(full name of prisoner) you are sentenced to be taken hence to the prison in which you were last confined and from there to a place of execution where you will be hanged by the neck until dead and thereafter your body buried within the precincts of the prison and may the Lord have mercy upon your soul”.

The full sentence passed upon those convicted of High Treason up to 1870 was as follows – That you be drawn on a hurdle to the place of execution where you shall be hanged by the neck and being alive cut down, your privy members shall be cut off and your bowels taken out and burned before you, your head severed from your body and your body divided into four quarters to be disposed of at the Kings pleasure.

As you will see from the sentence it should properly be called drawing, hanging and quartering as the condemned was drawn to the place of execution tied to the hurdle which was dragged by a horse. This is confirmed by contemporary law books. Drawing does not refer to the removal of the intestines in this context and remained part of the sentence for High Treason long after the disembowelling and dismemberment had ceased. The hurdle was similar to a piece of fencing made from thin branches interwoven to form a panel to which the prisoner was tied to be dragged behind a horse to the place of execution. Once there, the prisoner(s) were hanged in the normal way (i.e. without a drop to ensure that the neck was not broken) but cut down whilst still conscious. The penis and testicles were cut off and the stomach was slit open. The intestines and heart were removed and burned before them. The other organs were torn out and finally the head was cut off and the body divided into four quarters. The head and quarters were parboiled to prevent them rotting too quickly and then displayed upon the city gates as a grim warning to all.

At some point in this agonising process the prisoner inevitably died of strangulation and/or haemorrhage and/or shock and damage to vital organs.

It has to be one of the most sadistic forms of execution ever invented.


A fascinating composite word, ISIS, RA and EL. These are three gods of the ancient Cults. There were 4 major Cults, one replacing the other through time. Finally these Cults joined up and became one. The earliest cult is the Stellar, next came the Lunar, then the Saturnian and then the Solar. The illusion that their where voluminous pantheons of gods is a result of these cults. – “Astrotheology and Sidereal Mythology” by Michael Tsarion page 43 

At the head of the pantheon stood El. the great god who from remote times was honoured among all the western Semites. He governed the entire land of Canaan. He made the rivers flow into the abyss of the ocean and thus assured the fertility of the earth. As ‘father of years’, for he regulated their course, and as ‘the king’, El dwelt in a pavilion near the shore where rivers flow into the sea. He was honoured under various titles. The most important of these seems to have been ‘Bull’ or ‘Bull-El’; not that he was identified with an animal, though in certain cases he was thus represented. But the idea of power and strength was symbolised among the Canaanites by the bull, which was also the symbol or animal-attribute of other divinities”. – Larouse Encyclopaedia of Mythology page 84.

The original name of Rome itself was Saturnia, “the city of Saturn.”

This is vouched alike by Ovid, by Pliny, and by Aurelius Victor. The Phoenicians regarded El-Saturn as their chief deity; Eusebius informs us that El, a name used also in the Bible as a name for God, was the name of Saturn (1).

(1)  Praeparatio Evangelica IV.xvi: “Kronos [El] was deified in the star Saturn.” This statement is quoted by Eusebius from Philo’s redaction of the lost Phoenician History of Sanchuniathon. Some classical writers, among them Tacitus (Histories V.4) alleged that the Jews were worshippers of Saturn; cf. Augustine’s refutation in Contra Faustum Manichaeum XX. 13.

Saturn, the planetary body which presides over criminals, beggars, cripples and those afflicted with acedia, sometimes translated as sloth

As early as the fourth century, St. Augustine considered Saturn a god of the Jews, and the idea seems to have become well-fixed in the Christian imagination by the ninth or tenth centuries when a Christian scholar named Alcabitius wrote:

He [i.e., Saturn] is bad, masculine, in daytime cold, dry, melancholy, presides over…hatred, obstinacy, care, grief, lamenting, evil opinion…miserly gains, over old age and impossible things, far travels, long absence, great poverty, avarice…He has the faith of Judaism, black clothing; of days, Saturday and the night of Wednesday.

Remember this in ancient times Israel was a religion not a country, there where loads of different tribes in this area of varying nationalities, the Hyksos invaded Egypt, once expelled they went to Canaan, this puts them in the same place, apparently at the same time as the people we call Israelite, not long after this in the exact same area apparently ran by biblical figures there ruled a tribe of people called the Phoenicians.

Israelites claim they were all totally separate entities, in no way connected, even though the archeological record proves differently. This only happens because reality and facts will change a perceived version of “fact” as promuligated by the church, and whether inadvertently or not, also by mainstream academia. Anything not backing the official story is rejected, marginalised, lost, or destroyed one way or another.

You need to understand what an eclectic mix of people this actually was that were actually all co-inhabiting the same geographical location. God sure picked a busy place to give to his chosen let´s put it that way, the only other things that really connected all these people was; religion, priesthoods, laws, commerce, and basically every other element of a society needed for the sort of control methods explained to you within my work. I freely admit that I certainly don´t know the full story, we need to bring some serious expertise to bear on this area, at this time, bearing in mind the trade and religious aspects as explained by my curious self. Right now I am perfectly happy to be just showing you the varied and plentiful anomalies concerning the true nature things instead of how we have been conditioned to believe how things of the above mentioned nature, either religious, historically, or financially, have evolved. The Star of David was not the star of David, apparently he had the Menorah as his emblem. The six pointed star was a revival of an ancient symbol that was worshipped by some of the people I am trying to explain to you about.  It´s the Law and priests, that´s why they wear black today, they control us with these two tools, they educate us with the third part of this triad, remember you wear a black robe and a black square catholic/freemasonic symbol on your head when you do so, (the mortar-board)


Jordan Maxwell says he believes the word graduate is a composite of gradually and indoctrinate, you also go further by getting more degrees, all very freemasonic, – don´t worry I am not going to go into the freemasons that much at all, they were really only truly useful during the 18th and 19th centuries, today it´s just an excuse to get away from the wife, and a social leg-up club.

The six pointed star is associated with the worship of Saturn. Here are two quotes from the bible about it. The definitions of Remphan and Chiun are supplied by Mr Maxwell and are taken from Strong´s Bible Concordance.

Acts 7:43 – “Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the STAR OF YOUR GOD REMPHAN, figures which ye made to worship them: and I will carry you away beyond Babylon”.

Amos 5:26-27 – “But ye have born the tabernacle of your Moloch, and Chiun (Remphan) your images, the STAR OF YOUR GOD, which ye made to yourselves. Therefore, will I cause you to go into captivity beyond Damascus, saith the Lord…”


Chiun is sometimes called Kaiwan, or spelled Khiun, and means star. The star of Saturn was a god…Sakkuth and Kaiwan or Chiun are objects of idolatrous worship and are Assyrian gods. In Akkadian texts both names mean the planet or star, Saturn” – Graham “The Six-Pointed Star. Page 28-29.

Here is another photo taken from Mr Maxwell´s old website showing  the pope wearing his Saturn hat!


Now something else that has always troubled me since I found this out, it appears that the Romans, Greeks and some other Countries that existed before these two, somehow knew that Saturn had rings! How did the ancient Greeks and Romans know that Saturn is encircled by rings?(1) If the myth did not by mere chance invent these rings, the Greeks or others must have seen them. The last case could be true if the Greeks or some other oriental people possessed lenses adapted for the observation of celestial bodies, or if the rings around Saturn were visible to the naked eye at some time in the past—today they are not visible without magnifying instruments. There are cases of exact observations by the Chaldeans which suggest the use of some accurate technical means.(5) The statue of Saturn on the Roman capitol had bands around its feet,(6) and Macrobius in the fifth century of our era, already ignorant of the meaning of these bands, asked: “But why is the god Saturn in chains?” In the Zend-Avesta it is said that the star Tistrya (Jupiter, later Venus) keeps Pairiko in twofold bonds.(8) Saturn is encircled by two groups of rings—one larger and one smaller, with a space in between. To see this a better telescope than that used by Galilei or that used by Huygens is needed; the twofold structure of the girdle was first observed in 1675.(9)

The rings of Saturn were known also to the aborigines of America before Columbus discovered the land; this means also before the telescope was invented at the beginning of the seventeenth century. An ancient engraved wooden panel from Mexico shows the family of the planets: one of them is Saturn, easily recognizable by its rings.(10)

Nor were the Maoris of New Zealand ignorant of them: “One of the great mysteries connected with Saturn is the still unanswered question of how the ancient Maoris of New Zealand knew about her rings—for there is evidence that they did have a Saturnian ring legend long before the days of Galileo.” (11)

  1. [The rings of Saturn are referred to by Aeschylus, Eumenides 641: “He [Zeus] himself cast into bonds his aged father Cronus” ; cf. Lucian, Astrology, 21: “Moreover, it is not true, neither, that Saturn is in chains.” Neo-Platonist like Proclus In Timaeo, tr. by Festugiere, vol. III, p. 255 and n. 4; In Cratylo 209.3f) and Porphyry (De Antro Nympharum 67.21ff.) sought a philosophical or mystical meaning in the tradition. Cf. also Clemens Alexandrinus, Homilia, VI. xiii in Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca, J.-P. Migne ed., vol. II.207f; Dio Chrysostom, Fourteenth Discourse 21ff: “And yet the King of the Gods, the first and eldest one, is in bonds, they say, if we are to believe Hesiod and Homer and the other wise men who tell this tale about Cronus.” Cf. Hesiod, Works and Days, 169ff. Augustine, refuting those who asserted that the Jewish Sabbath was held in honour of Saturn, wrote: “ita patres nostri longe fuerunt a Saturniacis catenis, quamvis pro tempore propheatiae sabbati vacationem observaverint.” (Contra Faustum Manichaeum XX. 13. in Migne ed., Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Latina, Vol. XLII, p. 379). Cf. also Arnobius, Contra Gentes IV. 24 in ibid., vol. III: “Numquid paricidii causa vinctum esse Saturnum, et suis diebus tantum vinculorum ponderibus revelari?” and Minucius Felix, Octavius XXI, in ibid., vol. III, col. 304: “Quid formae ipsae et habitus? . . . Saturnus compeditis.” An epigram of Martial (III. 29) refers to the bonds of Saturn, comparing them to rings: “Has cum gemina compede dedicat catenas, Saturne, tibi Zoilus anulos priores.” “These chains with their double fetter Zoilus dedicates to you, Saturnus. They were formerly his rings.”—transl. by W. Kerr (London, 1919). The shrines to Saturn in Roman Africa portrayed the god with his head surrounded “by a veil that falls on each of his shoulders,” in a way reminiscent of the planet’s rings. See J. Toutain, De Saturni Dei in Africa Romana Cultu (Paris, 1894), p. 42 and figs. 1 and 2.].
  2. P. Jensen, Die Kosmologie der Babylonier, p.

6.Macrobius, The Saturnalia, I.8.5, transl. by P. V. Davies (New York, 1969): “ Saturn, too, is represented with his feet bound together, and, although Verrius Flaccus says that he does not know the reason . . . Apollodorus says that throughout the year Saturn is bound with a bond of wool but is set free on the day of his festival.” Cf. ibid., I.8.1.

  1. The Zend-Avesta xvi, transl. by J. Darmesteter (1883), p. 107. [The text of the Zend-Avesta reads: “Tistrya, bright star, keeps Pairiko in twofold bonds, in threefold bonds.” A third ring around Saturn was observed in 1980. Velikovsky also thought that Mithraic representations of Kronos with his body encircled by a snake (cf. F. Cumont, The Mysteries of Mithra [1903], figs 21-23) may attest to a memory of the rings of Saturn. Cf. the Hindu Sani (the planet Saturn) shown in an ancient woodcut reproduced in F. Maurice, Indian Antiquities (London, 1800), vol. VII, and described by the author as “encircled with a ring formed of serpents.” Tammuz, who represented the planet Saturn in Babylonia (E. Weidner, Handbuch der Babylonisches Astronomie [Leipzig, 1915], p. 61) was called “he who is bound.” See also Thorkild Jacobsen, Toward the Image of Tammuz (Harvard University Press, 1970), p. 85. and A. E. Thierens, Astrology in Mesopotamian Culture (Leiden, 1935). Ninib, who was also Saturn, was said to hold “the unbreakable bond” or “der maechtigen Schlange”—Jastrow, Die Religion Babyloniens und Assyriens, ch. xvii, p. 463.].
  2. The observation was made by G. D. Cassini.
  3. Kingsborough, Antiquities of Mexico (London, 1830), vol. IV, the fourth plate from the end of the volume. See fig.
  4. Guy Murchie, Music of the Spheres (Boston, 1961), p. 94. [A useful discussion of Maori astronomical ideas is provided in a monograph by E. Best, The Astronomical Knowledge of the Maori, Genuine and Empirical, New Zealand Dominium Museum Monograph no. 3 (Wellington, 1922), p. 35: PAREARAU represents one of the planets. Stowell says that it is Saturn; that Parearau is a descriptive name for that planet, and describes its appearance, surrounded by a ring. The word pare denotes a fillet or headband; arau means “entangled”—or perhaps “surrounded” in this case, if the natives really can see the pare of Saturn with the naked eye. If so, then the name seems a suitable one. . . . Of the origin of this name one says, ‘Her band quite surrounds her, hence she is called Parearau.’” ].

Bizarre don´t you think, how could all these nations from countries so distant to each other have known that the rings of Saturn existed? Another example is the Dogon Tribe.

The Dogon are an ethnic group located mainly in the administrative districts of Bandiagara and Douentza in Mali, West Africa. This area is composed of three distinct topographical regions: the plain, the cliffs, and the plateau. Within these regions the Dogon population of about 300,000 is most heavily concentrated along a 200 kilometer (125 mile) stretch of escarpment called the Cliffs of Bandiagara. These sandstone cliffs run from southwest to northeast, roughly parallel to the Niger River, and attain heights up to 600 meters (2000 feet). The cliffs provide a spectacular physical setting for Dogon villages built on the sides of the escarpment. There are approximately 700 Dogon villages, most with fewer than 500 inhabitants. The precise origin of the Dogon, like those of many other ancient cultures, is undetermined. Their civilization emerged, in much the same manner as ancient Sumer, both sharing tales of their creation by gods who came from the sky in space ships, who allegedly will return one day.

The early histories are informed by oral traditions that differ according to the Dogon clan being consulted and archaeological excavation much more of which needs to be conducted.

Because of these inexact and incomplete sources, there are a number of different versions of the Dogon’s origin myths as well as differing accounts of how they got from their ancestral homelands to the Bandiagara region. The people call themselves ‘Dogon’ or ‘Dogom’, but in the older literature they are most often called ‘Habe’, a Fulbe word meaning ‘stranger’ or ‘pagan’.

The Dogon are famous for their astronomical knowledge taught through oral tradition, dating back thousands of years, referencing the star system, Sirius. Sirius is the dog star. It is linked with the Egyptian goddess Isis. The astronomical information known by the Dogon since that time, was not discovered and verified until the 19th and 20th centuries, making one wonder how the Dogon came by this knowledge. Their oral traditions say it was given to them by the Nommo. The source of their information may date back to the time of the ancient Egyptian priests. As the story goes … in the late 1930s, four Dogon priests shared their most important secret tradition with two French anthropologists, Marcel Griaule and Germain Dieterlen after they had spent an apprenticeship of fifteen years living with the tribe. These were secret myths about the star Sirius, which is 8.6 light years from the Earth. The Dogon priests said that Sirius had a companion star that was invisible to the human eye. They also stated that the star moved in a 50-year elliptical orbit around Sirius, that it was small and incredibly heavy, and that it rotated on its axis.

Initially the anthropologists wrote it off publishing the information in an obscure anthropological journal, because they didn’t appreciate the astronomical importance of the information.

What they didn’t know was that since 1844, astronomers had suspected that Sirius A had a companion star. This was in part determined when it was observed that the path of the star wobbled. In 1862 Alvan Clark discovered the second star making Sirius a binary star system (two stars).

In the 1920’s it was determined that Sirius B, the companion of Sirius, was a white dwarf star. White dwarfs are small, dense stars that burn dimly. The pull of its gravity causes Sirius’ wavy movement. Sirius B is smaller than planet Earth.

The Dogon name for Sirius B is Po Tolo. It means startolo and smallest seed po. Seed refers to creation. In this case, perhaps human creation.

By this name they describe the star’s smallness. It is, they say, the smallest thing there is.

They also claim that it is ‘the heaviest star’ and is white in color.

The Dogon thus attribute to Sirius B its three principal properties as a white dwarf: small, heavy, white.

Dogon oral traditions state that for thousands of years they have known that the Earth revolves around the Sun, and that Jupiter has moons and Saturn has rings. The Dogons calendar is quite non-traditional in that its fifty year cycle is based neither on the Earth’s rotation around the Sun (as is our Julian calendar) nor the cycles of the Moon (a lunar calendar). Instead, the Dogon culture centers around the rotation cycle Sirius B which encircles the primary star Sirius A every 49.9 – or 50 years.

But let´s get back to Saturn, Jordan Maxwell asserts that this is why women wore ear-rings, because they were listening to their god, and wedding rings were worn to show your love not only to your partner, but also to signify their adoration for Saturn. Jordan in fact has much to say about this particularly fascinating subject, if you can download some of his radio shows on the subject – “Men in Black” which he done on the Lou Epstein Radio Show is one I highly recommend if you can get hold of it. Below I have included some more pictures from Jordan´s website, please use a little of your free time to look over his site in your own time. I guarantee you that you will begin living the first day of the rest of your life if you do. Saturn is a whole book worth of startling information in its own right, unfortunately I just don´t have the time or space right now. Here are some more points taken from Jordan´s site on Saturn related issues.


I think the extract on the left is from a freemasonic dictionary. The other entry is contentious if you know your Islam, today it claims only Patriarchial roots, whereas this article says that the Kabba was also the representation of a female Deity. The Kabba in Mecca. Basically the worship of Saturn was ingrained into all our religions, Judaism, Christianity and as you can see below also Islam.



(above) This work seems to imply that the black cube was what was kept in the holy of holies in the mythical Solomon´s Temple. The people who lived here at this time also worshipped Saturn as El, the point I am trying to impress upon you is that I hope you will eventually become open minded enough to realise that modern religious thought could just be an amalgamation of different tribal beliefs? Add to the that fact this one too, the codification of Laws, especially the laws of commerce and trade were happening at the exact same time around the exact same place, am I being a wacky conspiracy theorist when I speculate that these were all the same people? For now we need to diversify further and encompass the priesthoods, don´t underestimate them for they still rule today, – law is a priesthood, you don´t understand and have to take advice from the priest/lawyer, psychiatrists are priests, once again you must trust them because only they can understand the psyche, once again you must heed their advice (or it´s a straightjacket!), priesthoods still kick ass my friend.

Now you´re perhaps wondering what is the significance of this material to the big picture?

My friend this priesthood is incredibly subtle, hidden and world-wide. The separate parts of this priesthood  most times have absolutely no links to each other, there are no secret passwords, lodge meetings or the like because it doesn´t work like that. It´s not a secret society, It´s a system.

The colour black in the uniform or the black square or cube, these are the only hint of its true origins, call it a calling card for those in the know.

As you have seen, priests wear black, judges wear black, when they are going to pronounce a sentence of death, and these same judges wear a black square on their head to do so.

When you graduate from university you wear black robes and a black square on your head!

As I said it´s subtle because you can join it without even knowing what you are really part of. That is because this is a priesthood primarily concerned with hidden control, which is why Saturn was known as the hidden one.

The priests are there to inhibit you spiritually, the hold ho back from being a free spirit.

The law as you will see for yourself is designed to control and manipulate us, common law protects us, everything else is commerce, and that´s why the judge rules from the bench, bench in Italian means bank. “The term BANK is derived from banco, the Italian word for bench, as the Lombard Jews in Italy kept benches in the market place, where they exchanged money and bills, When a banker failed, his bench was broken up by the populace; and from this circumstance sprang the term bankrupt “(Francis, History of the Bank of England, p.15). He rules for the bank, i.e. he gets you to pay money to somebody and a bank gets it at some point. The constant transfer of this currency is the juice that makes their system operate, they need it to thrive and survive, the bank is always the middle man in every transaction you get involved in, you don´t realise that they profit from every single transaction you make.

The priests are the men in black who really keep you under control, now maybe you will see what Stephen Spielberg was really alluding to in those rubbish films. The head of the Jesuits is called the black pope, just as the white pope is the overt controller; the black is the covert, the occult or hidden master.

Muslims walk round a black cube and never realise what it really represents, think about what you have just read; they are making the rings around Saturn.

All of this is hidden, and there is always another explanation, I can accept that.

Can you accept that this is not a joined together organisation; instead it is a way of being.

The men in black are the inhibitors, the hidden controllers of all of us, you are part of this too, and that is how subtle it is my friend.  When you graduate (which I am informed is an amalgamation of two words; gradually and indoctrinate, i.e. slowly brainwash) you are becoming a part of this priesthood, only for the day mind you, it´s not until you become a teacher or professor that you get to wear the black robes, only then are you truly part of this inhibiting priesthood. Education is there to stifle any free thinking individuality amongst any of the poor kids and prepare them for their working life, nothing else. “Do what you are told not what you think”, “go on this bell, stop at the next one”. “Don´t think do” or “Don´t speculate, just memorise”.

Are you starting to see how this works?

The men in black keep you in line they stop you growing as an individual, they play on your fear to keep you believing in a god who seems to do nothing for the poor or weak, but certainly appears that he likes to keep his priests, bishops and popes living in varying degrees of austerity and privilege. The law protects the innocent like wet toilet paper protects you from flame-throwers. The rich are the only ones served by this legal system, the rest of it is to keep the riff-raff in line and to extort as much tax, sorry I meant fines, from them as possible.

The priest says “God says render unto Caesar what is Caesar´s (pay your tax and serve your Govt.) – and render unto my collection plate that which is mine.” (Everything else thank-you) “Sorry did I say mine, what I meant to say was for the greater glory of god.” Perhaps adding “Would you be looking for a babysitter for young Patrick?”

When someone dies we even don the colours of the priesthood ourselves, black is his colour and death is most definetly one of the subjects this priesthood has an influence on. Black is the colour of Death.

Most people in the vocations mentioned have no idea about this, but trust me some people do, they know how the whole system works, how it all fits together. How it always has.


 (Stellar, Lunar, Solar, Saturnian)

The scholars, academes and mass of the world’s populace seem completely unaware of the fact that there were at least four great cults in the ancient world, with one following and supplanting another as the centuries advanced. Each Cult, until the point when they joined together, absorbed the mythologies and beliefs of those antecedent.

The Great Cabal

The great Cults finally decided to unite their forces and, instead of being in constant competition for the minds of men, to make it all so much easier for themselves by consolidating resources and agendas. This event of monumental importance, this forming of the world’s first corporation, occurred in the area today referred to as “Israel.” Though the traditional histories avoid this fact, it is spoken of allegorically, in the Bible and in other tales and fictions.

In fact, it is the reason why Israel has its very name. Israel is made up of the names of the three deities the ancient Cults: Isis, Ra and El (Moon, Sun and Saturn).

The history of astrology, myth and religion, as well as the theories advanced here, cannot be fully understood without a deep study of these cults. Israel is the “Holy Land” and the locale from which, what we know as Judeo-Christianity, arose. We cannot understand much about this until we approach it from the background of Astro-Theology and the great cults. What good is a surgeon who does not know where the heart is? What good is a historian who does not understand the heart of religion, government and culture?

Infernal Pacts

The coming together of the Cults did not happen overnight. It was a long and tedious process. The major denominations, like those of today, were no lovers of each other. It was financial and material incentives which motivated them to combine their resources and intentions. Trade routes, power over the minds of men, and domination of the earth, was all for the taking, and it was too much to resist. Moreover, each Cult’s hierarchy feared that the other Cults may unite against them. So, because of this fear, and because of insatiable greed, each Cult agreed that confederation was expedient. From the time of their infernal pact, they realized that all that was needed for total dominion over minds and lands was the ability to convincingly wave “God” in people’s faces. From that point onward the rest would be easy.

The leaders of the seven great Cults of power (Seven Churches) decided that rather than fighting amongst themselves for supremacy over the ancient world, they should combine forces. Each Cult feared that they could be deposed if the others conspired in concert against it. This conjunction of Cults did not happen immediately or quickly. It took several centuries. The Old Testament contains the story of this coming together. The elite dynasties of these Cults operate, through their descendants, in this world today, and are extremely powerful – Jordan Maxwell (From: Secret Societies and Toxic Religion)

There is no government which is not somewhat religious, and no religion which is not somewhat political…Religion and Politics are two arms serving the same brain – (Jordan Maxwell from: Secret Societies and Toxic Religion)

The Empire (Rome) gradually absorbed and adapted to its own ends the multitude of cults derived from all its parts and over the ensuing centuries coupled them together as one, the Roman universal church. Today, it is called the Roman Catholic church. Henceforth, much of the literature then written was aimed at propagating a fabricated faith to the world and ensuring Roman Emperors were given places as heads of church and state – Tony Bushby (The Bible Fraud)

These same priesthoods introduced our modern concepts of time too, they marked the seasons, solstices and eclipses for thousands of years, imagine the power you have over people if you predict an eclipse? Think about it “Do everything I and my descendents say for the next thousand years or I´ll make the Sun disappear!” I bet those wee South American guys must have pissed themselves laughing the first time they heard it, saying that I bet he was giving his own child as a sacrifice by tea-time the day these guys said “Okay were going to show you unbelievers at lunch-time, just after neighbours. – Think of the power!

A Matter of Time

Time itself was divided to reflect and commemorate the unification of the Cults. The year round was broken down into 12 months to honour the Solar Cult. Their god was the sun and his number was 12. The next division of time was a month and, as the word’s etymology indicates, this was sacred to the Lunar Cult, whose chief tutelary deity was the moon. The next division of time is a week, in which the 7 gods of the Stellar Cult are honoured. These are today’s days of the week. The worshippers of the god Saturn was given Saturday as a feast day, and since their god (planet) moves so gradually, the larger, longer cycles of time where attributed to him. The hands of a physical timepiece have, for generations, concealed and revealed this sectioning of time according to the Cults. The hour hand represents Horus, the sun. The minute hand stands for Min, the moon-god. The fast moving second hand stands for Mercury, the god of the Stellar Cult, as do the 12 divisions.

The Solar Cult

Ernest Busenbark reminds us that it was about 3,000 years ago, in the Age of Taurus that the Solar Cults began gaining power. He writes:

…sun worship does not appear to have existed as a distinct and separate system, but was simply grafted on the older cult; and after the two became fused, the sun eventually became the dominant figure.

The extracts above where taken from pages 12, 13 and 18 of the Michael Tsarion book “Astro-theology and Sidereal Mythology”

The next subject you must have at least a basic understanding of concerns a natural phenomenon. Basically our planet is tilted roughly 23 degrees away from vertical. This tilt is what gives us our seasons. The reason I need you to look at this is because of the nature of precession, This 25,700 year cycle is crucial if you wish to fully come to grips with the history of all our major religious thought for at least the last 6000 years, and possibly much farther back than that.

Before I get onto precession, you will need to understand the seasons.

Here is a simple way for you to understand the Earths yearly cycle around the sun so that you can understand how the seasons work.

Put your elbow down on a table or some other solid surface, (you can even do this lying down in bed as I am doing while writing this), just don´t forget to keep your elbow on the same spot.


Ironically I used a picture from a book on freemasonry to make this diagram above.

Now, (as shown above), make a circle with your forearm and fist, remembering to always keep your elbow on the same point as you move your arm round in a circle.

If you now open your hand and straighten the fingers out, then try keeping it at a constant angle of say 45º or so as you move your arm round, if you can understand what I have said and can replicate this motion, then you will be perfectly emulating the Earth´s inclination during its journey around the Sun each year. To have the whole picture just imagine that the Sun is in the centre of your circle.

Your hand now represents the Earth. The “angle” of your hand represents the tilt of the Earth.

You will observe that if you keep your hand at roughly the same angle during each rotation, for half the circle your palm is closer to the centre, and for the other half the fingertips are closest to the centre. This is the seasons, for half the circle (six months of the year) your fingertips (the northern hemisphere), at the top of your hand (the Earth), are closest to the centre (the Sun) – this is the Spring and Summer months for the Northern hemisphere. The other half of the journey has your palm (the “Southern” or bottom part of your hand being closest, this is the six months of the year when the Southern hemisphere is closer to the Sun, hence it is their Spring and Summer. If you were to change the tilt of the angle made by your hand as you move your arm round, this would perfectly represent the wobble caused by precession as the angle of the Earth to the Sun gets steeper or shallower.


Precession of the Equinoxes

Precession of the equinoxes refers to the precession of Earth’s axis of rotation in inertial space.

It was discovered by Hipparchus that the positions of the equinoxes regress (move westward) along the ecliptic compared to the fixed stars on the celestial sphere. Currently, this annual motion is about 50.3 arc seconds per year or 1 degree in 71.6 years. The process is subtle but cumulative, and over the centuries adds up to many degrees. A complete precession cycle is a period of approximately 25,700 years, (the so called great Platonic year), during which time the equinox regresses over a full circle of 360°.

That probably made as much sense to most of you as drinking petrol and pissing on a bonfire. I have decided to utilise the work of Graham Hancock in explaining this matter, he had to explain it to his readers in his seminal work “Fingerprints of The God´s”. I hope that his explanation of this occurrence helps to clarify the matter:

The wild celestial dance

The earth makes a complete circuit around its own axis once every twenty-four hours and has an equatorial circumference of 24,902.45 miles. It follows, therefore, that a man standing still on the equator is in fact in motion, revolving with the planet at just over 1000 miles per hour.2 Viewed from outer space, looking down on the North Pole, the direction of rotation is anti-clockwise.

While spinning daily on its own axis, the earth also orbits the sun (again in an anti-clockwise direction) on a path which is slightly elliptical rather than completely circular. It pursues this orbit at truly breakneck speed, travelling as far along it in an hour—66,600 miles—as the average motorist will drive in six years. To bring the calculations down in scale, this means that we are hurtling through space much faster than any bullet, at the rate of 18.5 miles every second. In the time that it has taken you to read this paragraph, we have voyaged about 550 miles farther along earth’s path around the sun.3  With a year required to complete a full circuit, the only evidence we have of the tremendous orbital race we are participating in is the slow march of the seasons. And in the operations of the seasons themselves it is possible to see a wondrous and impartial mechanism at work distributing spring, summer, autumn and winter fairly around the globe, across the northern and southern hemispheres, year in and year out, with absolute regularity.

1 Hamlet’s Mill, pp. 57-8.

2 Figures from Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1991, 27:530.


The earth’s axis of rotation is tilted in relation to the plane of its orbit (at about 23.5° to the vertical). This tilt, which causes the seasons, ‘points’ the North Pole, and the entire northern hemisphere away from the sun for six months a year (while the southern hemisphere enjoys its summer) and points the South Pole and the southern hemisphere away from the sun for the remaining six months (while the northern hemisphere enjoys its summer). The seasons result from the annual variation in the angle at which the sun’s rays reach any particular point on the earth’s surface and from the annual variation in the number of hours of sunlight received there at different times of the year.

The earth’s tilt is referred to in technical language as its ‘obliquity’, and the plane of its orbit, extended outwards to form a great circle in the celestial sphere, is known as the ‘ecliptic’. Astronomers also speak of the ‘celestial equator’, which is an extension of the earth’s equator into the celestial sphere. The celestial equator is today inclined at about 23.5° to the ecliptic, because the earth’s axis is inclined at 23.5° to the vertical.


This angle, termed the ‘obliquity of the ecliptic’, is not fixed and immutable for all time. On the contrary it is subject to constant, though very slow, oscillations. These occur across a range of slightly less than 3°, rising closest to the vertical at 22.1° and falling farthest away at 24.5°. A full cycle, from 24.5° to 22.1°, and back again to 24.5°, takes approximately 41,000 years to complete.4 So our fragile planet nods and spins while soaring along its orbital path. The orbit takes a year and the spin takes a day and the nod has a cycle of 41,000 years. A wild celestial dance seems to be going on as we skip and skim and dive through eternity, and we feel the tug of contradictory urges: to fall into the sun on the one hand; to make a break for the outer darkness on the other.


Hopefully this diagram will help you to grasp what is being discussed, the Earth in the centre is slowly “wobbling” as it circles the sun. The “wobble” takes a very long time to complete a circuit (25700 years approx.) The upper circle in the diagram represents the circle created by the wobble in our sky (think of a super-duper torch being placed right on the North Pole pointing straight up, the blue line represents where the light from this torch would shine over the 25000 year cycle).

3 Ibid.

4 J. D. Hays, John Imbrie, N.J. Shackleton, ‘Variations in the Earth’s Orbit, Pacemaker of the Ice Ages’, Science, volume 194, No. 4270, 10 December 1976, p. 1125.

The First Crack in an Ancient Code

The plane of the earth’s orbit, projected outwards to form a great circle in the celestial sphere, is known as the ecliptic. Ringed around the ecliptic, in a starry belt that extends approximately 7° north and south, are the twelve constellations of the zodiac: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces.

These constellations are irregular in size, shape and distribution. Nevertheless (and one assumes by chance!) their spacing around the rim of the ecliptic is sufficiently even to bestow a sense of cosmic order upon the diurnal risings and settings of the sun.

To picture what is involved here, do the following: (1) mark a dot in the centre of a blank sheet of paper; (2) draw a circle around the dot, about half an inch away from it; (3) enclose that circle in a second, larger, circle. The dot represents the sun. The smaller of the two concentric circles represents the earth’s orbit. The larger circle represents the rim of the ecliptic. Around the perimeter of this larger circle, therefore, you should now draw twelve boxes, spacing them evenly, to represent the constellations of the zodiac. Since there are 360° in a circle, each constellation can be considered to occupy a space of 30° along the ecliptic. The dot is the sun. The inner of the two concentric circles is the earth’s orbit. We know that the earth travels on this orbit in an anticlockwise direction, from the west towards the east, and that every twenty-four hours it also makes one complete rotation around its own axis (again from the west towards the east).

From these two movements two illusions result:

1 Each day as the planet turns from west to east, the sun (which is of course a fixed point) appears to ‘move’ across the sky from east to west.

2 Roughly every thirty days, as the spinning earth journeys along its orbital path around the sun, the sun itself slowly appears to ‘pass’ through one after another of the twelve zodiacal constellations (which are also fixed points), and again it appears to be ‘moving’ in an east west direction.

On any particular day of the year, in other words, (corresponding on our diagram to any point we care to choose around the inner concentric circle marking the earth’s orbit), it is obvious that the sun will lie between an observer on the earth and one of the twelve zodiacal constellations. On that day what the observer will see, so long as he or she is up and about well before dawn, is the sun rising in the east in the portion of the sky occupied by that particular constellation.

From Graham Hancock´s FINGERPRINTS OF THE GODS page 233

Beneath the clear and unpolluted heavens of the ancient world, it is easy to understand how human beings might have felt reassured by regular celestial motions such as these. It is equally easy to understand why the four cardinal points of the year—the spring and autumn equinoxes, the winter and summer solstices—should everywhere have been accorded immense significance. Even greater significance was accorded to the conjunction of these cardinal points with the zodiacal constellations. But most significant of all was the constellation in which the sun was observed to rise on the morning of the spring (or vernal) equinox. Because of the earth’s axial precession, the ancients discovered that this constellation was not fixed or permanent for all time but that the honour of ‘housing’ or ‘carrying’ the sun on the day of the vernal equinox circulated—very, very slowly—among all the constellations of the zodiac. In the words of Giorgio de Santillana: ‘The sun’s position amongst the constellations at the vernal equinox was the pointer that indicated the “hours” of the precessional cycle—very long hours indeed, the equinoctial sun occupying each zodiacal constellation for almost 2200 years.1 The direction of the earth’s slow axial precession is clockwise (i.e., east to west) and thus in opposition to the direction of the planet’s annual path around the sun. In relation to the constellations of the zodiac, lying fixed in space, this causes the point at which the spring equinox occurs ‘to move stubbornly along the ecliptic in the opposite direction to the yearly course Direction in which the vernal point shifts as a result of precession of the sun, that is, against the “right” sequence of the zodiacal signs (Taurus ˃Aries˃ Pisces˃ Aquarius, instead of Aquarius˃ Pisces˃ Aries˃ Taurus).’2  – references: 1 Hamlet ‘s Mill, p. 59. 2 Ibid., p. 58.

During the course of each year the earth’s movement along its orbit causes the stellar background against which the sun is seen to rise to change from month to month: Aquarius ˃Pisces ˃Aries˃Taurus˃ Gemini ˃Cancer˃ Leo, etc, etc. At present, on the vernal equinox, the sun rises due east between Pisces and Aquarius. The effect of precession is to cause the ‘vernal point’ to be reached fractionally earlier in the orbit each year with the result that it very gradually shifts through all 12 houses of the zodiac, spending 2160 years ‘in’ each sign and making a complete circuit in 25,920 years. The direction of this ‘processional drift’, in opposition to the annual ‘path of the sun’, is: Leo˃ Cancer˃ Gemini˃ Taurus˃ Aries˃ Pisces˃ Aquarius. To give one example, the ‘Age of Leo’, i.e. the 2160 years during which the sun on the vernal equinox rose against the stellar background of the constellation of Leo, lasted from 10,970 until 8810 BC. We live today in the astrological no man’s land at the end of the ‘Age of Pisces’, on the threshold of the ‘New Age’ of Aquarius. Traditionally these times of transition between one age and the next have been regarded as ill-omened.

That, in a nutshell, is the meaning of ‘precession of the equinoxes’. And that is exactly what is involved in the notion of the ‘dawning of the Age of Aquarius’. The famous line from the musical Hair refers to the fact that every year, for the last 2000 years or so, the sun has risen in Pisces on the vernal equinox. The age of Pisces, however, is now approaching its end and the vernal sun will soon pass out of the sector of the Fish and begin to rise against the new background of Aquarius.

Graham Hancock – FINGERPRINTS OF THE GODS page 235

The 25,776-year cycle of precession is the engine that drives this majestic celestial juggernaut along its never-ending tour of the heavens. But the details of exactly how precession moves the equinoctial points from Pisces into Aquarius—and thence onwards around the zodiac—are also worth knowing.

Remember that the equinoxes occur on the only two occasions in the year when the earth’s tilted axis lies broadside-on to the sun. These are when the sun rises due east all over the world and day and night are of equal length. Because the earth’s axis is slowly but surely precessing in a direction opposite to that of its own orbit, the points at which it lies broadside-on to the sun must occur fractionally earlier in the orbit each year. These annual changes are so small as to be almost imperceptible (a one degree shift along the ecliptic—equivalent to the width of your little finger held up to the horizon—requires approximately seventy-two years to complete). However, as de Santillana points out, such minute changes add up in just under 2200 years to a 30° passage through a complete house of the zodiac, and in just under 26,000 years to a 360° passage through a complete cycle of precession.


Now to get down to brass tacks, the only reason I needed you to understand this concept was for one specific reason. Graham has just proven to you that everyday for nearly 2200 years the sun will rise at the vernal equinox in the same sign of the zodiac, after 2200 years it will have inched backwards to the next sign. The important thing to grasp here is that this precession moves backwards through the signs of the zodiac. So for the past couple of thousand years the sun has risen in the sign of Pisces, the 2200 years before that the sun rose in Aries, the period preceding this one was Taurus (backwards remember). Before the sign of the bull it was the twins of Gemini.

So going back to the time of Jesus until now we have been living in the age of Pisces. For the 2200 years before that we were in the age of Aries, the 2200 before that were spent in the age of Taurus.

Now start thinking about all that feeding the 5000 stuff with 2 fish, or being the fisher of men. The pope still wears a mitre, which is his hat in the shape of a fish.


NOW PAY ATTENTION HERE BECAUSE I’VE NEVER REALLY HEARD ANYONE GO INTO THIS MATTER AND GIVE IT THE SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPORTANCE IT DESREVES. – Before that in the age of Aries we had Judaism were they had concepts introduced like the lamb of god, the lamb of David, the Hebrews used to call themselves together using the rams horn (shofar), the sacrifice of Abraham’s ram, the Jews painted the blood of the lamb on their doorways to avoid the Angel of Death. The lamb was the principal animal of sacrifice among the Jewish people. While the number of names containing the sound of the ram during this period is noted: Ra (Sun God), Ram, Rama, Brahman, Brahma, Abram, Abraham, Amon Ra, and Ramesses. The battering ram was employed by the Assyrians, Greeks and Romans with great success during this time.

From Wikipedia here is the some of the Nineteenth and all of Twentieth Dynasty you should note that all of these were during the Aries/Ram period

Nineteenth Dynasty

The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1292 to 1186 BC and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: Rameses II the Great:

Name Comments Dates
Ramesses I[37] 1292-1290
Seti I[38] 1290-1279
Ramesses II the Great[39] The ruler usually associated with Moses; he reached a stalemate with the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BC, after which a peace treaty was signed in 1258 BC. 1279-1213

The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1185 to 1069 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Setnakhte 1190-1186
Ramesses III Fought the Sea Peoples in 1175 BC. 1186-1155
Ramesses IV 1155-1149
Ramesses V 1149-1145
Ramesses VI 1145-1137
Ramesses VII 1137-1130
Ramesses VIII 1130-1129
Ramesses IX 1129-1111
Ramesses X[44] 1111-1107
Ramesses XI[45] Ended rule sharing power with High Priest of Amun Herihor ruling in the south and Smendes I ruling in the north, a period known as wehem mesut.[46] 1107-1077











For the 2200 years before that, we had Apis the bull being worshipped in Egypt, Isis with Bulls Horns and Disk of Re (Ra), the Hindus were worshipping holy cows (still are), when Moses went to get his commandments (for the new dispensation) he returned to find his people had reverted back to worshipping the golden calf, Spanish bullfighting and the tale of the Minataur are both also supposedly rituals and tales relating to the end of the Taurus Age. In Mesopotamia, the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh depicts the killing of the Bull of Heaven, Gugalana, husband of Ereshkigal, as an act of defiance of the gods. Marduk is the “bull of Utu” and the Hindu God Shiva‘s steed is Nandi, the Bull. Nandi the bull can be traced back to Indus Valley Civilization, where dairy farming was the most important occupation. The bull Nandi is Shiva’s primary vehicle and is the principal gana (follower) of Shiva. In Egypt, the bull was worshiped as Apis, the embodiment of Ptah and later of Osiris. A long series of ritually perfect bulls were identified by the god’s priests, housed in the temple for their lifetime, then embalmed and encased in a giant sarcophagus. A long sequence of monolithic stone sarcophagi were housed in the Serapeum, and were rediscovered by Auguste Mariette at Saqqara in 1851. The bull was also worshipped as Mnewer, the embodiment of Atum-Ra, in Heliopolis. Ka in Egyptian is both a religious concept of life-force/power and the word for bull. The Apis Bull was the most important of all the sacred animals in ancient Egypt. He was called the ‘Renewal of the Life of Ptah’. After death he became the Osiris Apis. Golden calves, bulls and cows were the most ubiquitous objects of worship in both Egypt and throughout Mesopotamia. There have been found numberless alabaster, gold, silver and otheer metals, molded into calves, bulls and cows that were prominent in the worship in the fertile crescent of most cultures surrounding the Israelites for thousands of years.



Are you starting to see the pattern here? Astro-theology is the worship of the stars; it is the oldest religion on this planet by millennia. Why do you think the Catholic Church has been such an ardent critic of astrology over the years? It´s because if you understand the subject, you can see quite plainly exactly where their religion really came from!

Graham Hancock and many others have shown the date 10500BC being frozen in monuments like the pyramids and sphinx, they also speculate that to tie this date in the sphinx which is obviously a lot older than we are currently lead to believe:

The Inventory Stela, as it was called, had been discovered at Giza in the nineteenth century by the French archaeologist Auguste Mariette. It was something of a bombshell because its text clearly indicated that both the Great Sphinx and the Great Pyramid (as well as several other structures on the plateau) were already in existence long before Khufu came to the throne. The inscription also referred to Isis as the ‘Mistress of the Pyramid’, implying that the monument had been dedicated to the goddess of magic and not to Khufu at all. Graham Hancock – page 294.

From the edge of the causeway I had an unimpeded view of the Sphinx immediately to my north. As long as a city block, as high as a six-storey building it was perfectly oriented due east and thus faced the rising sun on the two equinoctial days of the year. Man-headed, lion-bodied, crouched as though ready at last to move its slow thighs after millennia of stony sleep, it had been carved in one piece out of a single ridge of limestone on a site that must have been meticulously preselected. The exceptional characteristic of this site, as well as overlooking the Valley of the Nile, was that its geological make-up incorporated a knoll of hard rock jutting at least 30 feet above the general level of the limestone ridge. From this knoll the head and neck of the Sphinx had been carved, while beneath it the vast rectangle of limestone that would be shaped into the body had been isolated from the surrounding bedrock. The builders had done this by excavating an 18-foot wide, 25-foot deep trench all around it, creating a free-standing monolith.

The first and lasting impression of the Sphinx, and of its enclosure, is that it is very, very old—not a mere handful of thousands of years, like the Fourth Dynasty of Egyptian pharaohs, but vastly, remotely, fabulously old. This was how the Ancient Egyptians in all periods of their history regarded the monument, which they believed guarded the ‘Splendid Place of The Beginning of all Time’ and which they revered as the focus of ‘a great magical power extending over the whole region’.17This, as we have already seen, is the general message of the Inventory Stela. More specifically, it is also the message of the ‘Sphinx Stela’

erected here in around 1400 BC by Thutmosis IV, an Eighteenth Dynasty pharaoh. Still standing between the paws of the Sphinx, this granite tablet records that prior to Thutmosis’s rule the monument had been covered up to its neck in sand. Thutmosis liberated it by clearing all the sand, and erected the stela to commemorate his work.18

There have been no significant changes in the climate of the Giza plateau over the last 5000 years.19 It therefore follows that throughout this entire period the Sphinx enclosure must have been as susceptible to sand encroachment as when Thutmosis cleared it—and, indeed, as it still is today. Recent history proves that the enclosure can fill up rapidly if left unattended. In 1818 Captain Caviglia had it cleared of sand for the purposes of his excavations, and in 1886, when Gaston Maspero came to re-excavate the site, he was obliged to have it cleared of sand once again. Thirty-nine years later, in 1925, the sands had returned in full force and the Sphinx was buried to its neck when the Egyptian Service des Antiquités undertook its clearance and restoration once more.20 Does this not suggest that the climate could have been very different when the Sphinx enclosure was carved out? What would have been the sense of creating this immense statue if its destiny were merely to be engulfed by the shifting sands of the eastern Sahara? However, since the Sahara is a young desert, and since the Giza area in particular was wet and relatively fertile 11,000-15,000 years ago, is it not worth considering another scenario altogether? Is it not possible that the Sphinx enclosure was carved out during those distant green millennia when topsoil was still anchored to the surface of the plateau by the roots of grasses and shrubs and when what is now a desert of wind-blown sand more closely resembled the rolling savannahs of modern Kenya and Tanzania? – page335.

17 A History of Egypt, 1902, volume 4, p. 80ff, ‘Stela of the Sphinx’.

18 Ibid.

19 Karl W. Butzer, Early Hydraulic Civilization in Egypt: A Study in Cultural Ecology,

University of Chicago Press, 1976.

20 The Pyramids of Egypt, pp. 106-7.

I had also come to meet another researcher who had challenged the orthodox chronology of Ancient Egypt with a well-founded claim to have found hard evidence of a high civilization in the Nile Valley in 10,000 BC or earlier. Like Bauval’s astronomical data, the evidence had always been available but had failed to attract the attention of established Egyptologists. The man responsible for bringing it before the public now was the American scholar, John Anthony West, who argued that the specialists had missed it—not because they had failed to find it, but because they had found it and had failed to interpret it properly.9 West’s evidence focused on certain key structures, notably the Great Sphinx and the Valley Temple at Giza and, much farther south, the mysterious Osireion at Abydos. He argued that these desert monuments showed many scientifically unmistakable signs of having been weathered

by water, an erosive agent they could only have been exposed to in sufficient quantities during the damp ‘pluvial’ period that accompanied the end of the last Ice Age around the eleventh millennium BC.10

9 Serpent in the Sky, pp. 184-242.

10 Ibid., 186-7.

Dr Robert Schoch, a professor of Geology at Boston University, had played a prominent role in validating West’s estimates concerning the true age of the Sphinx, and his views had been endorsed by almost 300 of his peers at the 1992 annual convention of the Geological Society of America.13 Since then, most often out of the public eye, an acrimonious dispute had begun to smoulder between the geologists and the Egyptologists.14 And though very few people other than John West were prepared to say as much, what was at stake in this dispute was a complete upheaval in accepted views about the evolution of human civilization.

According to West:

We are told that the evolution of human civilization is a linear process—that it goes from stupid cavemen to smart old us with our hydrogen bombs and striped toothpaste. But the proof that the Sphinx is many, many thousands of years older than the archaeologists think it is, that it preceded by many thousands of years even dynastic Egypt, means that there must have been, at some distant point in history, a high and sophisticated civilization—just as all the legends affirm.15

13 Conde Nast Traveller, February 1993, p. 176.

14 E.g, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Chicago, 1992, Debate:

How Old is the Sphinx?

15 Mystery of the Sphinx.

The Great Sphinx and the Valley Temple of Khafre at Giza, which John West and the Boston University geologist Robert Schoch have dated on geological grounds to earlier than 10,000 BC. Khafre, the Fourth Dynasty pharaoh believed by Egyptologists to have carved the monument out of bedrock around 2500 BC, had been a monarch of the Age of Taurus. For almost 1800 years before his reign, and more than 300 years after it, the sun on the vernal equinox rose unfailingly in the constellation of the Bull. It follows that if a monarch at such a time had set out to create an equinoctial marker at Giza, he would have had every reason to have it carved in the form of a bull, and none whatsoever to have it carved in the form of a lion. Indeed, and it was obvious, there was only one epoch when the celestial symbolism of a leonine equinoctial marker would have been appropriate. That epoch was, of course, the Age of Leo, from 10,970 to 8810 BC.27 Why, therefore, should an equinoctial marker have been made in the shape of a lion? Because it was made during the Age of Leo when the sun on the vernal equinox rose against the stellar background of the constellation of the Lion, thus marking the coordinates of a precessional epoch that would not experience its ‘Great Return’ for another 26,000 years.

Around 10,450 BC the three stars of Orion’s Belt reached the lowest point in their precessional cycle: west of the Milky Way, 11° 08’ above the southern horizon at meridian transit. On the ground west of the Nile, this event was frozen into architecture in the shape of the three pyramids of Giza. Their layout formed the signature of an unmistakable epoch of precessional time.

Around 10,450 BC, the sun on the vernal equinox rose in the constellation of Leo. On the ground at Giza, this event was frozen into architecture in the shape of the Sphinx, a gigantic, leonine, equinoctial marker which, like the second signature on an official document, could be taken as a confirmation of authenticity.

27 Skyglobe 3.6. page 438

So there you go, we may well have been using this system for defining the nature of our God´s for the next couple of thousand years way back in 10500BC! And if you believe Mr West it may even be much older than that, he reckons that the turmoil of the floods brought on by the end of the ice age would have made made it very difficult for a task like this. Construction at this time would have been almost impossible, because of this he speculates that it may have been constructed a full precessional age before this point, at the last time Leo was the marker of the age, which would have been a full 26000 years earlier! This might sound utterly preposterous, but bear in mind that in the Egyptian own records, which are considered to be the authority on matters that suit the conventional dating process, suddenly become myths and fairytales when they give a complete list of kings going back about 35000 years! This date ties in with Mr West´s theory perfectly. I personally don´t have enough knowledge to have a decent opinion either way, but I do find it odd that the Egyptians would make a lot of effort compiling these records for no reason apart from generating ridicule from modern day historians.

Other theories I have heard talk about are the Horus/Set, God/Devil, Jesus/Satan, Remulus/Romulos dualities that some reckon were a by-product of the Gemini period of beliefs, the twins appear in many really ancient myths, Castor and Pollux would be another example. This may well also have been the birth of duality or Gnosticism.

The old testament book Job contains other astronomical, astrological or astrotheological knowledge, as in the discussion of the “Mazzaroth” or Zodiac at 38:22:

“Can you lead forth the Maz’zaroth in their season, or can you guide the Bear with its children?”

Strong’s Concordance (H4216) defines mazzaroth or mazzarah as “the 12 signs of the Zodiac and their 36 associated constellations.” The “Bear with its children” refers to the constellation of Arcturus or Ursa Major and the three stars in its tail. (McClintock, 381)

It´s all Astrotheology folks and this isn´t a recent thing, many smart people have worked this out, the church just keeps most of them quiet. We have just made the myths “real”, According to Astrology, sometime after the year 2010 the Sun will enter into His new Sign, or His new Kingdom, as it was called by the ancients. This next coming Sign/Kingdom, soon to be upon us, will be, according to the Zodiac, the House or Sign of Aquarius. So when we read at Luke 22:10, we now understand why God’s Sun states that He and His followers, at the last Passover, are to go into “the house of the man with the water pitcher.” So we see that in the coming millennium. God’s Sun will bring us into His new Kingdom or House of Aquarius (the man with the water pitcher).

Once we realize that in Astrology, each month is assigned one of the so-called “Houses” of the Zodiac and in heaven are 12 houses (12 monthly signs), then the words we read of God’s Sun saying “In my Father’s House are many mansions,” makes sense (when translated correctly). The proper translation is as follows:

Father’s House = Heavenly Abode.

Mansions = Houses.

So, correctly read in the original text, we read:

“In my Father’s heavenly abode are many houses. Yes, 12 to be exact!”

Signs measure your inherent qualities, the Planets influence those qualities, and the Houses indicate direction for them. In other words, the Houses indicate certain things, and a Planet in a House influences or activates the things indicated.

Anyone familiar with modern-day Christianity must surely know we are said to be living in the “Last Days.” This teaching is, in part, based on the idea expressed in Matthew 28:20 of The King James Bible. Where God’s Sun says, “I will be with you even to the End of the World.” End of the World??!! Yet another simple mistranslation to clarify with a proper understanding of the actual words used. This “end of the world” is translated differently in various Bibles. Some say “End of Time,” “End of the Days,” and still others say “Conclusion of this system of things.” So what does all this talk of the “End Times/Last Days” really mean?

Here is the simple answer. When the scriptures speak of “the end of the world,” the actual word used is not, I repeat, not end of the world. The actual word in Greek is “Aeon,” which, when correctly translated, means “Age,” that’s spelled A -G -E! Any library will have Bible Concordances. Strong’s Bible Concordance is a good reference work to use here. Look up the word “age” in any secular dictionary or Bible Concordance. There you will find the word for “age” is from the Greek “Aeon.”

Remembering that in Astrology each of the 12 houses (or signs) of the Zodiac corresponds to a 2000 odd year period of time, called an “age,” we now know we are 2009 years into the House or Age of Pisces. Now, correctly understood, it can rightly be said that we today, in fact, are living in the “LAST DAYS.”